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History 141 Theme 1 A Difficult Past - How the Americas Change


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History 141 Theme 1 A Difficult Past - How the Americas Change

  1. 1. History 141 Theme 1 A Difficult Past - How the Americas Change By Kristi Beria
  2. 2. The Americas In the 19 th Century <ul><li>Almost all of the lands in the western hemisphere had won its independence from Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people from Europe and Asia moved to the United States to seek out a profitable life. </li></ul><ul><li>Societies based on freedom, equality, and a constitutional government were being established. </li></ul><ul><li>This time was marked by explosions in populations, economic growth and recessions, civil war, and racial and sexual equality. </li></ul><ul><li>The Building of the American States </li></ul><ul><li>After winning independence from Britain the Declaration of Independence was written in 1776, declaring “all men are created equal”. </li></ul><ul><li>Westward expansion brought conflict with the Native Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions with Mexico caused the U.S. to purchase Texas, California, and New Mexico for 15 million dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>The issues of slavery and politics brought the north and south regions of the U.S. to war. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1863 Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, effectively abolishing slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>The victory of the northern states over the southern states finally brought an end to slavery and strengthened the role of the central government. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Americas In the 19 th Century <ul><li>Canada won its independence slowly as Canadians and Britain agreed to an autocratic government. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada was united in its efforts against the United States’ attempt at revenge on the British government for encroaching on U.S. land. </li></ul><ul><li>The British North America Act of 1867 joined Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and eventually Manitoba, British Colombia, and Price Edward Island together to form the Dominion of Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflicts never disappeared, but Canada was able to keep the peace and gain total independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America tried to unify with republican ideals, but didn’t have any idea how to put them into practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America wasn’t able to unify as one country and broke into independent states. </li></ul><ul><li>Creole Elites dominated in the new states with less than 5% of the male population active in politics. </li></ul><ul><li>The people had little choice but to rebel. </li></ul><ul><li>Divisiveness, rebellion, civil war, and instability during the 19 th century caused Latin America to be unable to form any type of manageable government. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>The Little Ice Age was a period of global weather instability that started in the 14 th century and lasted until the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The weather had an impact on health, agriculture, the economy, and arts and literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Many crops failed due to rains, floods, or snow causing famines and diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>The price of grains skyrocketed due to poor harvest. Many families could not afford food. </li></ul><ul><li>The cooler weather also supplied a perfect breeding ground for the Bubonic Plague and influenza which killed millions of people. </li></ul><ul><li>The troops in Napoleon's army suffered great losses because of the cold weather after invading Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime increased as poor and starving people rioted, stole, and did anything that they could to get food. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of America The South American Frontier <ul><li>The South American Frontier was a brutal and violent place for people hoping to make a living in this area. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were poor and had little belongings; the only thing that they had to defend was their reputation and honor. </li></ul><ul><li>Men were capable of murder at the slightest provocation if they felt the need to prove a point or to save face in front of their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlota Lucia de Brito was the mistress of a local politician named Joaquim Jose dos Santos Leal. </li></ul><ul><li>After he was voted out of office, she hired men to kill his rival and became an outlaw trying to keep him from getting arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon their capture Carlota was sentenced to death originally, but her sentence was later commuted to 30 years in prison. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frontiers of America The Louisiana Purchase <ul><li>The area that made up the Louisiana territory is 40% of what is now the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1682, Louisiana is claimed in the name of France and is considered a worthless piece of land by most. </li></ul><ul><li>The area is given to Spain as a thank you gift for their help in the French and Indian War. </li></ul><ul><li>America’s population is growing and expanding into Spanish Louisiana and closer to the Mississippi River, which is an important shipping line for America. </li></ul><ul><li>Several attempts were made by the French to take control of the area again and Napoleon deceives Spain into thinking he will give them a principality in Italy if they give Louisiana back to him. </li></ul><ul><li>A rebellion is launched on the French territory of Saint-Domigue and thousands of French troops are sent over. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s plan to send French troops to New Orleans to take control of the area is foiled by the weather which traps his ships in the harbor by ice. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon needs money to renew his fight with the English and Louisiana is eventually purchased by the United States for 15 million dollars. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Battle of Antietam occurred on September 17, 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 6,300 and 6,500 men lost their lives and 15,000 men were wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>This is twice the number of casualties that occurred during the bombing of the World Trade Center and The Pentagon on September 11, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>More Americans died during this battle than in all of the other wars fought by this country during the 19 th century-the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War, and all of the Indian wars. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom George B. McClellan “ The Young Napoleon” <ul><li>George B. McClellan was placed in command of the Army of the </li></ul><ul><li>Potomac when he was only 34 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>He was given the nickname of “the young Napoleon” because of his </li></ul><ul><li>small stature and his ability to rally his troops. </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan’s troops had great admiration and affection for their commanding officer. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a very cautious man who weighed every decision thoroughly and was slow to take action. </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan’s army was always “almost” ready to march as he waited for every thing to be perfect and fall into place. </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan consistently overestimated the number of enemy forces, which caused delay as he waited for more troops to arrive before entering into many battles. </li></ul><ul><li>His slowness in decision making and action became a problem with Lincoln and many other members of Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Several other commanding officers began to doubt McClellan’s ability to lead. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom George B. McClellan “ The Young Napoleon” <ul><li>After several crushing defeats to the Union army and </li></ul><ul><li>some purposeful delaying tactics by McClellan, the morale </li></ul><ul><li>of the troops was at an all time low. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln once again called upon McClellan to rally the troops and put him in command of the entire army despite criticisms by cabinet members. </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan’s charisma once again buoyed the spirit of the Union troops. </li></ul><ul><li>At the battle of Antietam, McClellan planned his attacks painstakingly. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of McClellan’s delays and indecisiveness, the battle raged on for much longer than it should have, causing many more deaths on both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite his hesitation, McClellan was successful at Antietam. </li></ul><ul><li>George B. McClellan was relieved of duty on November 7 th after ignoring numerous orders directly given by President Lincoln. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom Special Orders No. 191 <ul><li>On September 9 th , General Robert E. Lee issued Special Orders No. 191 which outlined his plan for dividing the Confederate army into four parts and sending them to strategic areas to prepare for battle against the Union army. </li></ul><ul><li>Three days later as the Union troops marched into Frederick, Corporeal Barton W. Mitchell stopped to rest under the shade of a tree and found an envelope containing three cigars and a copy of Special Orders No. 191. </li></ul><ul><li>The orders were brought to the attention of General McClellan who then devised his plan around the new information. </li></ul><ul><li>Although McClellan once again hesitated on taking action, this was an event that was critical to the victory of the Union army. </li></ul>