Providing the Spark for CCSS


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This presentation covers two teaching strategies that will assist in the shift from standardized testing to Common Core Performance Tasks.

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Providing the Spark for CCSS

  1. 1. Providing the Spark Providing the Spark for CCSS for CCSSPerformance Based AssessmentsPerformance Based Assessments VS VS Problem Based Learning Problem Based Learning
  2. 2. Our Purpose Today…Discuss strategies that relate to the implementation of CCSS Performance TasksDescribe Performance-Based Tasks and ModelsDescribe Problem-Based Learning and ModelsSum up how these two teaching techniques lead to CCSS “Student Generated Discoveries”
  3. 3. CCSS Performance TasksAs part of the CCSS Assessment, students in grades3-12 will complete up to 5 performance tasks each year.These tasks will:-measure complex assessment targets-demonstrate ability to think and reason-require higher-order thinking skills-allow for multiple approaches for collecting evidence of a student’s knowledge and abilities-use real-world contexts-integrate knowledge and skills-measure understanding, research skills, analysis, and the ability to provide relevant evidence-require students to plan, write, edit, and revise their results
  4. 4. Setting the Stage for Performance-Based Assessment Tasks, Projects, &Assessments That Change Learning Spark Learning Solutions LLC
  5. 5. ContentsOverview Steps of Design Rubrics/Templates Resources
  6. 6. Performance-Assessment: What’s It All About? If you are like most teachers, it probably is a common practice for you to devise some sort of test to determine whether a previously taught concept has been learned before introducing something new to your students. Probably, this will be either a completion or multiple choice test. However, it is difficult to write completion or multiple choice tests that go beyond the recall level. For example, the results of an English test may indicate that a student knows each story has a beginning, a middle, and an end. However, these results do not guarantee that a student will write a story with a clear beginning, middle, and end. Because of this, educators have advocated the use of performance-based assessments.Brualdi, Amy (1998). Implementing performance assessment in the classroom.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(2). Retrieved April 23, 2010 from
  7. 7. So What is Performance-Based Assessment (PBA)? ▪Performance-based assessments "represent a set of strategies for the . . . application of knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students." ▪ This type of assessment provides teachers with information about how a student understands and applies knowledge. ▪ Also, teachers can integrate performance-based assessments into the instructional process to provide additional learning experiences for students.
  8. 8. Examples of Performance Tasks/Projects*Art work *Inventions *Notebooks *Problems solving*Cartoons *Websites *Oral reports *Puppet shows*Collections *Journals *Original plays,  stories, dances *Reading selection *Designs and drawings*Letters*Pantomimes *Recipes *Documentary reports *Maps
  9. 9. Examples of Performance Tasks/Projects* Performance,musical instrument *Scale models*Experiments *Model construction *Poetry recitations*Story illustrations*Foreign language activities *Musical compositions*Photos *Story boards *Games*Musical scores *Plans for inventions *Performances*Graphic Organizers
  10. 10. Examples of Performance Tasks/Projects Learning Menus
  11. 11. Performance Based Assessment OverviewSteps of Design Rubrics/Templates Resources
  12. 12. Step 1: Define a Purpose In order to administer any good assessment, you must have a clearly defined purpose. So, you must ask yourself several important questions: ▪ What concept, skill, or knowledge am I trying to assess? (The Standards) ▪ What should my students know? What outcomes am I looking for? ▪ At what level should my students be performing? ▪ What type of knowledge is being assessed By answering these questions, you can decide what type of activity best suits you assessment needs.
  13. 13. Step 2: Choose an ActivityAfter you define the purpose of theassessment, you can make decisionsconcerning the activity.There are some things that you musttake into account before you choose theactivity: time constraints, availability ofresources in the classroom, and howmuch data is necessary in order to makean informed decision about the quality ofa students performance.
  14. 14. Step 3: Define the Criteria▪ Identify the overall performance or task to be assessed,and perform it yourself or imagine yourself performing it▪ List the important aspects of the performance or product.▪ Try to limit the number of performance criteria, so theycan all be observed during a pupils performance.▪ If possible, have groups of teachers think through theimportant behaviors included in a task.▪ Express the performance criteria in terms of observablepupil behaviors or product characteristics.▪ Dont use ambiguous words that cloud the meaning of theperformance criteria.▪ Arrange the performance criteria in the order in whichthey are likely to be observed.
  15. 15. Step 4: Create RubricsAs opposed to most traditional forms of testing, performance-basedassessments do not have clear-cut right or wrong answers.Rather, there are degrees to which a person is successful orunsuccessful.Thus, you need to evaluate the performance in a way that will allowyou take those varying degrees into consideration.This can be accomplished by creating rubrics.A rubric is a rating system by which teachers can determine at whatlevel of proficiency a student is able to perform a task or displayknowledge of a concept. With rubrics, you can define the differentlevels of proficiency for each criterion.
  16. 16. Step 5: Assess the PerformanceUsing this information, you can give feedback on a students performanceeither in the form of a narrative report or a grade. There are severaldifferent ways to record the results of performance-based assessments:▪ Checklist Approach When you use this, you only have to indicatewhether or not certain elements are present in the performances.▪ Narrative/Anecdotal Approach When teachers use this, they will writenarrative reports of what was done during each of the performances. Fromthese reports, teachers can determine how well their students met theirstandards.▪ Rating Scale Approach When teachers use this, they indicate to whatdegree the standards were met. Usually, teachers will use a numericalscale. For instance, one teacher may rate each criterion on a scale of oneto five with one meaning "skill barely present" and five meaning "skillextremely well executed."
  17. 17. Resources
  18. 18. Providing the SparkProviding the Spark for CCSS for CCSS Problem Based Learning Problem Based Learning
  19. 19. "The basic principle supporting the "The basic principle supporting the concept of PBL is older than formal concept of PBL is older than formal education itself; namely, learning is education itself; namely, learning isinitiated by a posed problem, query, initiated by a posed problem, query, or puzzle that the learner wants to or puzzle that the learner wants to solve" (Duch, Groh, & Allen, 2001). solve" (Duch, Groh, & Allen, 2001).
  20. 20. How do PrBLs & PBAs apply to CCSS?• The CCSS explicitly calls for, and integrate, higher- order thinking skills (PrBL) as a means to achieving career and college readiness for all students.• The CCSS documents establish critical thinking, reasoning, communication and media/information/technology literacy in ELA and mathematics as a key performance outcomes (PBA) around which curricula and assessments should be focused. Partnership for 21st Century Skills 2012
  21. 21. The Motivation to Learn Begins with a ProblemIn a problem-based learning (PBL) model, students engage complex, challenging problems and collaboratively work toward their resolution. PBL is about students connecting disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems—the motivation to solve a problem becomes the motivation to learn.
  22. 22. What is P(R)BL?Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method that challenges students to "learn to learn," working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. These problems are used to engage students  curiosity and initiate learning the subject matter. PBL prepares students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources. -Barbara Duch 
  23. 23. PBL overlaps with other active learning models such as group work and case studies, but isdistinguished by the focus on having students delineate, research, andsolve a realistic problem.Washington Department of Education
  24. 24. Its NotNew!  PrBL was pioneered in the medical school program at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in late 1960s by Howard Barrows and his colleagues. Traditional medical education disenchanted students, who perceived the vast amount of material presented in the first three years of medical school as having little relevance to the practice of medicine and clinically based medicine.  
  25. 25. Research says……The three major complaints of employers about college graduates are the graduates poor written and verbal skills, their inability to problem-solve, and their difficulties working collaboratively. PrBL can address all three areas. DeGallow & Grant, UCI
  26. 26. Research says…..cont.Dochy and colleagues (2003) have found that, although the students gain slightly less knowledge, they retain more of the knowledge acquired, the knowledge is better organized, and the skills are immediate and lasting. This increase in the learning of skills is supported by Baker, McDaniel, Pesut, and Fishers (2007) research in which they found that studentsengaged in PBL exceeded traditional students in clinical knowledge, performance, and satisfaction with program.
  27. 27. Why Use Problem-Based Learning*PBL better prepares students to apply their learning to real-world situations.*PBL enables students to become producers, rather than consumers, of knowledge.*PBL can help students develop communication, reasoning and critical thinking skills.
  28. 28. Teacher’s Concerns……** How do II get How do get started? started?** II am responsible for am responsible for teaching all of the teaching all of the standards. What standards. What about gerunds?? about gerunds?? And similes??? And similes??? Performance-Based Performance-Based Assessment can help! Assessment can help!
  29. 29. How do I get started with PBL?  Develop problems that:*Capture students’ interest by relating to real-world issues.*Draw on students’ previous learning and experience.*Integrate content objectives with problem-solving skills. (Science, SS)*Require a cooperative, multi-staged method to solve. Washington Department of Education
  30. 30. Develop Problems Continued*Necessitate that students do some independent research to gather all information relevant to the problem.*Design assessment tools that: *Account for process (e.g. research, collaboration) as well as content skills. *Are closely tied to course learning objectives. *Balance individual and group performance. Washington Department of Education
  31. 31. What instructors do:*Develop real-world, complex and open-ended problems such as might be faced in the workplace or daily life.*Act as facilitators, making sure students are staying on track and finding the resources they need.*Raise questions to student groups that deepen the connections they make among concepts.*Strike a balance between providing direct guidance and encouraging self-directed learning. Washington Department of Education
  32. 32. W students do: hat*Address the problem, identifying what they need to learn in order to develop a solution and where to look for appropriate learning resources.*Collaborate to gather resources, share and synthesize their findings, and pose questions to guide further learning tasks for the group. Washington Department of Education
  33. 33. Classroom Implementation Varied Amount of StructureBased on the age of the students some whole group discussion may be needed to solve the task.
  34. 34. Classroom Implementation*An entire course can be PBL based, or PBL can be used for part of a given unit.*Depending on your learning goals, it is possible to design problems with a narrow range of correct solutions or with a wider range of creative possibilities.*Though usually based in group work, PBL can also have individualized components, provided that students are required to come together to discuss their findings. Washington Department of Education
  35. 35. Procedures Within the Group• Use group etiquette--concensus• Discuss the problem: prior knowledge & ideas. The scribe records all of the information.• Decide what needs to be researched and who will do it. Set a time to reconvene to discuss the research.• Discuss & come to a consensus on a plan of action• Work collaboratively to decide the end product the group has selected.• Share the results
  36. 36. How Do They Compare? PBL PBASupports the 21st Century Gives teachers the means Skills needed to support to build in mini-lessons the Career Readiness to ensure the CCSS Anchor Standards are taught • Student centered • Group or individual tasks • Problem drives the • Teacher sets the learning expectations• No one answer is correct • Students are assessed on • Increased motivation application of• Process-centered rather knowledge, skills and work habits than product-centered
  37. 37. A Happy Medium
  38. 38. Our Purpose Today…Discuss strategies that relate to the implementation of CCSS Performance TasksDescribe Performance-Based Tasks and ModelsDescribe Problem-Based Learning and ModelsSum up how these two teaching techniques lead to CCSS “Student Generated Discoveries”
  39. 39. For More Information…CCSS Performance Tasks Training Module (click below to watch module)
  40. 40. Website Gems Primary – Adult scenarios 008/index.html Lunar outpost,step by step, coaching tips 08/led/shareinfo/index.html templates
  41. 41. Website Gems model, distinguish between well structured Examples