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  1. 1. Transportation Kristen Garrity Julie Kittka
  2. 2. Why Is Transportation Important? Transportation plays an important role in many aspects of society 1. Economy 2. Social 3. Political 4. Environmental
  3. 3. Economic Role of Transportation Improvement of transportation  Goods can be cheaper for the customer  Production of goods can be mobilized
  4. 4. Social Role of Transportation Formation of Settlements  Earliest settlements were near major bodies of water Size and Pattern of Settlements  Determines distance between the home and the workplace Growth of Urban Centers  Cities developed around transportation lines
  5. 5. Political Role of Transportation Administration of an Area  Government must be able to communicate information  Administration of laws and security Political Movement  Military movement  Movement of people (Wall Street Journal 8/25/11)
  6. 6. Environmental Role of Transportation Safety  Increased number of deaths and injuries  Increased vehicle speeds and densities Air Pollution  Global Warming/ Ozone Depletion  Burning fossil fuels Noise Pollution Energy Consumption  Consumes more than half of petroleum products
  7. 7. History of Transportation Can be broken down into three main sections 1. Coal 2. Petroleum 3. Electricity and other clean alternatives
  8. 8. Coal Establishment of blast furnace  Cast iron Steam Engine External Combustion Engine
  9. 9. Petroleum As a fuel  Allowed for the massive development of internal combustion engine Internal Combustion  Two- Stroke Engine  Four- Stroke Engine m/engine1.htm
  10. 10. Mass Production of Automobiles Introduction of the assembly line Model T in Detroit  Became so popular and accessible that infrastructure needed to grow with it
  11. 11. Development of Infrastructure Asphalt use  Derived from petroleum Development in bus routes and roads Increase in number of highways  Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 Aided in America’s suburbanization movement  Made commutes easier  Lead to compounding vehicle pollution problems  Excessive petroleum use problems
  12. 12. Problems with CurrentTransportation System (Petroleum) Global warming  Emission of greenhouse gasses  CO2 inevitably created by burning fuels like oil and diesel Climate change  More erratic and extreme weather Security  Dependence on foreign nations  Global security at risk
  13. 13. Alternative TransportationMethods Biofuel Electric Hydrogen Fuel Cells How will they help
  14. 14. Biofuel Sustainable Reduces dependence on foreign oil Less greenhouse gases Transitional Wouldn’t completely eliminate CO2 Net carbon absorber
  15. 15. Biofuel Ethanol  Corn-based  Land, water, fertilizer, energy  2/3 used to produce fuel itself Competition for land use
  16. 16. Processing Corn to Ethanol Fermentation Starches into alcohol “Gasohol” – 90% gasoline, 10% ethanol Possible to use ethanol for fuel cells
  17. 17. Energy Independence andSecurity Act of 2007 Advanced Biofuels Algal Biodiesel Biobutanol
  18. 18. Electric No CO2 emissions Now – expensive, unreliable, not enough energy PHEV – Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Recharge at own house CO2 emissions – electricity used to recharge vehicle produced at coal-powered plants
  19. 19. Nissan LEAF 100 miles per charge  Weather, distance, speed, cargo, topography No tailpipe emissions Lithium Ion Battery Future – solar panels from SunPower
  20. 20. Toyota Prius Hybrid Estimated 50 miles per gallon Electric and gasoline When stopped, gasoline engine shuts off Started by electric power so no CO2 emissions
  21. 21. Hydrogen Fuel Cells Form H2O – reaction releases energy Exhaust would be water vapor Reduce dependence, increase security Now – expensive, unreliable, no storage, no natural reserves, complicated extraction process
  22. 22. How Will They Help Reduce CO2 emissions Reduce reliance on foreign oil Sustainable
  23. 23. References