In the past, climate fluctuated naturally in an elegant cycle of warm and cold periods defining the agriculture, civilization and possibly tools that man used. For quite sometime now, the climate has been changing at an unnerving pace. Globally, the mean temperature has gone up by three-fourths of a degree- centigrade but some of the Earth’s remote spots have warmed much more, so that ---
Global Average Temperature Over the past 100 years there has been an increase in global average temperature of more than one degree Fahrenheit (0.6°C). While the record shows a great deal of variability, the upward trend is unambiguous. Most of the warming occurred during two periods, 1910 to 1945 and 1976 to the present. The rate and duration of the 20 th century warming has been much greater than in any of the previous nine centuries (i.e., over the last 1,000 years). Globally, the 1990s has been the warmest decade, and 1998 and 2001 the two warmest years in the last millenium. Night-time minimum air temperatures over land have increased at the greatest rate; this has lengthened the frost-free season in many mid-and high-latitude regions.
Considering the consequence of a higher GHG level at 450ppm…….
The short-term trends of relative sea level change from tide-gauge data indicate spatial and temporal variation. The general trends for the period 1948 to 1993 is a relative rise of sea level in the Manila, Legaspi and Davao stations and a relative fall in Cebu and Jolo stations. In Manila Bay, In Jolo and Cebu, the tide-gauge data indicate uplift of landmasses. The tide-gauges here are set on rocky foundations. In contrast, in Manila Bay, Legaspi and Davao, the tide-gauges are situated on Holocene coastal deposits. A noticeable change in the rate of sea level change, apparently occurring synchronously across the stations, took place in the late 1960’s. Except for Cebu, acceleration of sea level rise is indicated. In Davao and Manila the previous rate of rise of 2.1 mm/y increased to 3.2 and 20.0 mm/yr, respectively. In Manila, extraction of groundwater has been identified as the major contributor to the elevated rates of relative sea level rise (Siringan and Ringor 1998). In Legaspi, the flat trend shifted to 5.9 mm/yr. In Jolo, the relative fall of 3.8 mm/yr became a relative rise of 0.4 mm/yr. In Cebu, the only station with a different signal, shows an increase in relative fall from 2.9 mm/yr to 3.5 mm/yr. Local tectonic and/or anthropogenic influence is indicated by the non-uniform magnitude of change across the stations.
And these are not minor issues. Diseases that are sensitive to climate include some of our biggest killers. These include d iseases such as malaria and diarrhea. They also include risk conditions such undernutrition, the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease. Together, these kill many millions each year, especially children in developing countries.
Climate change will affect, in profoundly adverse ways, some of the most fundamental determinants of health: food, air, water. This figure shows that climate change impacts on health both directly - for example through heatwaves, floods and storms, but also indirectly, through effects on infectious disease, on water availability, and on agricultural production.
CLIMATE CHANGE Presented by: JOHN JULIUS BERMEJORT3 at Pateros Rescue Unit, LGU Pateros NCR
What is climate change?“Change in climate which is attributeddirectly to human activity that altersthe composition of the globalatmosphere and which is in addition tonatural climate variability observed overcomparable time periods.” - (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC])
Scientists now agree that most of the global warmingtoday have been caused byHumanActivities
Human activities that lead to the increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs)include: Worldwide deforestation Increasing industrial activity Motor vehicle emission Waste management practices Intensive agriculture
Waste as a source of GHG emissions Decaying solid waste in landfills emits methane
Waste as a source of GHG emissionsDecomposing waste in water also emit methane KLIMA
GLOBAL STATUS Scientists’ report : By 2050, the world would reach the tipping point of irreversible climate change• weather patters will be disrupted, causing stronger typhoons Ice caps will melt, raising sea levels by 6 to 7 meters
Evidence indicated that people living in low-income countries are 4 times more likely todie from extreme natural disasters thanthose in high-income countriesWomen and men suffer different negativehealth consequences following a disaster
Manifestations of Climate Change … Melting of Glaciers Arctic sea ice area decreased by 2.7% per decade
Greenlands glaciers are melting into the sea twice as fast asthe previously believed rate of four miles per year.
The Thames Barrier, a major flood defense systemin London designed to be used once every two tothree years is now being used six times a yeardue to increased rainfall.
Impact of sea-level rise in the Philippines Effect on coastal populations, habitats and infrastructures Intrusion of sea water to upstream of rivers resulting in: loss of ground water supply loss of eco-systems loss of livelihoods Above are significant : 7,107 islands 36,289 km of coastline many river systems
Impact of sea-level rise Human society and nationaleconomy Disruption of settlements Basic needs of humans Increased migration Pressures on urban infrastructures Reduced GDP
Impacts: Water resources DROUGH Decreased/increased water availability (soil erosion) Increased drought risk (including land degradation) Poor quality of water (algal blooms, etc.)
Impacts: Water resources Increased water demand Domestic water supply problems Impact on power generation
THREATEN FOOD SECURITYPrimarily Agricultural and Fishing Economy
Impacts: Agriculture (forestry) Damage to crops/crop failure Reduced yields in warmer environment Food security threatened / Malnutrition
Impacts: Agriculture (forestry) Increased outbreaks of pests and diseases Increased risk of forest fires Increased shift of species
WHAT HAPPENS TO THEHEALTH SECTOR IN TIMES OFCLIMATE CHANGE RELATEDDISASTER
Disasters - threats to life & healthGLOBALLY: 2 billion people affected with 600,000 fatalities More than 2/3 of deaths occurred in Asia 127 major disasters, 23% of all disasters worldwide, Occurred in Western Pacific Region in the past 10 years
Health Impact (Global)• 1.8 M people die from diarrheal diseases• 1.5 M deaths in the 0 – 5 y.o. age group every year of 5,000 child deaths/day• 88% attributed to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene• 1.1 billion lack of access to an improved drinking water supply
Major killers are climate sensitive diseases- Each year: - Undernutrition kills 3.7 million - Diarrhea kills 1.8 million - Malaria kills 1.1 million Each of these is highly sensitive to temperature and precipitation
Health workforce are central toidentifying potential health risks from natural hazards and promoting personal and community risk reduction measures It is essential to strengthen disaster preparedness in health sector
Health facilities whose services remainaccessible and functioning, at maximumcapacity and within the same infrastructure,during and immediately following disasters,emergencies or crises is greatly impaired
Hospitals/healthfacilities destroyed ordamagedPeople left withoutemergency carehospitals and healthfacilities fail tofunction.More without publichealth and clinicalservices whenoperations are
All disasters are health issue, and damage to health systems affects every part of society and the nations as a whole.
Climate-related health risks Direct impacts EXTREME COLDNESS heat stress Indirect impacts Communicable diseases Non-communicable diseases (particularly coronary and respiratory )
Climate-related health risks Temperature related illness and death Extreme weather related health effects Air pollution related diseases Water and food borne disease Vectorborne and rodent borne disease Food and water shortages Population displacements
WHO ARE VULNERABLE1. ELDERLY - -more susceptible - More likely to have underlying disease - Decline immune system - Poor nutrition2. THE YOUNG - not yet developed fully their functions -thermoregulatory systems (heatstroke, diarrhea) -increase susceptibility to infectious diseases3. THE POOR - Lack of resources - poor nutrition - compromised immune system -substandard housing -exposure to air pollution
WHO ARE VULNERABLE4. Pregnant Women - prone to infection - limited movement - considerations doubled5. Persons with Disability (PWD) - absence of a sense or senses - presence of deformity - limited ability
Health sector actions on adaptation to climate change Infectious disease Integrated vector management surveillance Safe drinking Diseases Healthy water Development affected by climateHealth actionin emergencies Environmental Health capacity builldingSource: Time Magazine, 1997
CC and Health: Adaptive Strategies Public education and awareness Early-alert systems: impending weather extremes, infectious disease outbreaks Community-based neighborhood support Climate-proofed housing design Disaster preparedness health-system capacity
Protecting health facilities Ensuring risk reduction in the design and construction of health facilities Improving the non- structural and functional vulnerability of existing health facilities Adopting legislative and financial measures to select and retrofit the most critical facilities to
CC and Health: Adaptive Strategies•Enhanced infectious disease controlprograms vaccines,vector control, case detection and treatment Improved surveillance: •Risk indicators e.g. mosquito numbers, aeroallergen concentration •Health outcomes infectious disease outbreaks,
CC and Health: Main Types of AdaptiveStrategies Coordinate efforts on the implementation of commitments and obligations to the UNFCCC. Coordinate with relevant organizations Conduct and coordinate capacity building activities such as training workshops and orientation seminars.
Promote Public Awareness Educate yourself, you family, your friends, your co-workers and everyone you meet. The more people are aware of the issues the more likely they are to make decisions that will be constructive! Be ac tive - Speak up in a positive way in your local community and organization and help others to commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Transport Sector Biodiesel from micro- Methyl ester algae from coconut
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Power Sector Clean energy resources: wind, solar, tidal, geothermal and hydro-electric power
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Industries Buildings must be re-designed for energy- efficiency Waste management practices
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Segregate wastes from the source Properly-marked trash bins
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Solid Waste Management RA 9003: Establishment of one MRF in each barangay
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle • Recyclable products are usually made out of things that already have been used. It usually takes less energy to make recycled products than to make new ones. The less energy we use, the better. • By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Biogradable Wastes Bioreactors 500-kg unit 1-ton unit
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Non-biogradable Tin cans, cartons, papers and plastic bottles = recycled; sold to junkshop for extra income
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Residuals Small plastic wrappers and styropor = filling materials for tile and brick-making
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Energy Efficiency Replacing old bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)
• Change a Light Bulb Replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. Replacing just one 60-watt incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save you Php30.00 over the life of the bulb. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, and use two-thirds less energy.
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Carbon sinks = tree plantings; urban greening