Does the children learn bilingual at first or they have one or separate system? If there is two languages, they process with two languages as one initially. Is it hard for them? Is a burden to expose the child with two languages at birth? Are bilingual slower? Language Development Stages and milestones.
One- person – one language = One parent speaks one language and the other speaks the other. One parent speaks English and the grandparents speak Spanish. Two languages at birth (English and the other Spanish) as long there is a caregiver. The child spends more considerable time with. The person hears the language from the same person. The most common is parents speaking English and Spanish to child. Home language is different from outside the home = One person only speaks within the language. Do Spanish is at home, but the child is going to a daycare from birth or early on. Mixed language input = the child is hearing two languages from the same person. Speak English or Spanish with the child. Approaches are more successful to the child. These methods : S/he can right away to discriminate two different languages and learn two different languages. They are equally successful. Is the child confused with two languages and it would take longer to speak, what happens? Child speaks French, Spanish = baby does not speak much or heard the language. Baby cannot speak now, but they can hear other languages. A lot of monolingual children until the child speaks until the age of 3. 4 to 5 language. Hear enough language to hear the sound.
Brain is like a balloon and cannot put too many things on it.
Unitary language = this is wrong ! ! ! (THIS HYPOTHESIS IS WRONG ! ! ! ) They did not differentiate languages until 3 years of age = language mixing random use of their languages Born to process two language into one. A lot of language mixing. Speak in English = two words in English and two words in Spanish. Another word in English and another word in Spanish. They are strictly of using one language. You will find a lot of mixing.
Hearing two types of languages and hearing. One system that combines the two languages together. If the child people are opposed the Unitary Language System Hypothesis found that: If the child were saying juice. Juice = he would not learn the equivalent in the other language “jugo”. He had a word for “juice” and he was fine. Children are starting to hear two language and building with one languages. Children are born with monolingual. Early 6 months = speech perception abilities of infants do, what do they discriminate sounds?
Pg. 43-48 of all of these studies. Fetuses. Remember what something sounds like and they are comparing to something new. 37 th week they can recognized it and distinguished it to. Have the ability the difference in the sound and the language. YouTube : Infant Speech Discrimination http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXWGnryjEaY Can differeniated the language of perception.
Born hearing three languages: Born with unitary system Children have to language system. Babies with disabilities can hear those sounds. Adults we can hear? Why? Grow custom to our language/lose the ability to discriminate sounds that are not in our language. Babies can hear the distinction right away. Develop exactly the same sounds. = utterances in their native language to another. 2 yrs old can distinguish languages/ to unfamiliar monocular = if you talk to them as one speech mumbling and the other speaks the other language. They need to right away to discriminate different languages. If they do not mumble to somebody, they know. Children have a language system indifferentiate with languages Born hearing two languages, you will hear 2 languages. Born with 3 languages, you will hear three languages. Research shows they have two language systems why do children mixing? Vocabulary and children are very selective with their words.
Why are the children mixing? Might not learn the other language. Vocabulary gaps. Children are selective with their words. 2 ½ year old able to do that of language. Parental use = how parents are using the language. Children are mirrored of the way the children speak. What a monolingual child do? It involves in different language. Child is learning two languages, build in one language.
Different language components. Looks at language with different people. Two word combinations. “baby go”.
Following word order rules in a different language. 1 yrs to 22 months: I go, baby goes: Two words sentences: in Spanish, English, and Tagalog. Which order, where in each language. English = subject + argument + predicate From birth: Tagalog = predicate Spanish = both orders Predicate before the argument in a language. Syntax (word order) = I go . . . Sometimes the words are in English. Tagalog or in Spanish measures how many times they speak English. Tagalog and Spanish, most of the time they speak Tagalog. Most of the time, they spoke English and ad, she spoke a lot of English. Her percentage went up. Chart: Follow order rules : Pragmatics differentiation using different languages talk to words: Tagalog = on the char is Barney English = Barney is sitting on the chair. Spanish = both orders Combining words or following words to each language. They have order the sentences. 77% of the time, English, you have the opposite and in Spanish, there are similar to the child. So, the child would not be confused of ordering the words randomly. She followed the rules in different langauges. Sometimes the words are in English, Tagalog or in Spanish. Measures how many times they speak English. Tagalog, and Spanish. Most of the time, they spoke English and dad, she spoke a lot of English. Her percentage went up.
22 months = the child is not confused to modify the amount that she used on each of the language. To map the language she is talking to. Why are their language there? Vocabulary 80% = most of them are vocabulary gaps. 80%. Parents accepting a lot of English. The child observe the father with everyone else. Two languages develop separately, there is no unitary language system. NO UNITARY LANGAUGE SYSTEM ! ! ! TWO LANGUAGES FROM THE BEGINNING. However, there is influence, transfer from the other. Transfer English, one language to the other in phonology. What do you get? It is in phonology and especially with grammar.
Monolingual children do not do these typical types of errors. Qualitative transfer – produces errors not finding monolingual Latin nations. Ex. Spanish/English child pronouncing the words letter. Letter “r” in Spanish. Unitary languages: Two languages from the beginning. English adjective before the noun/Spanish (reverse order). Transfer one language to another is phonology and grammar. Two types of transfer: Qualitative = Spanish and English bilingual child. Spanish/English bilingual child pronounced the letter “R”. Monolingual child never pronounced the letter “R”. It is a different kind. Error of monolingual child do: “Baby drive car blue”. Other language supports that error. Quantitative language . No auxiliary = I no want broccoli”. Spanish type of negative have the types of those errors. Errors that is bound for children learning English. Spanish supports. Your errors tend to have more recessive error. More certain errors in a monolingual acquisition. Transfer from another language can produce more errors. Type of errors in the monolingual child because of the monolingual language. Transfer to another language produces more error. It will last longer going through the stages. Children having a hard time with “this”. Monolingual children: 5, 6 yrs old has a hard time doing this. Children have already pushed this. There is development in one hand. Spanish has not have “The”. Children have this for a long time than the child learning it alone.
Language development milestones: when it comes to a baby: babbling, first word (1 year), 50 word vocabulary (18 months), Children combining words (18-24 months).
They might have the same rate of grammatical/phonological development. Equal amount of exposure. Half of the day of the language. They have enough of the hearing of the language. A child is hearing English and Spanish from birth = the child may learn the English/Spanish from that child. Area effective = (vocabulary) toddlers and preschoolers have smaller vocabulary than monolingual. It is smaller than the monolingual child. Requires rules from a similar structure. The more time you spent, the more time you are learning. Research shows babies with no evidence that bilingual are supposed to be slower in reading.
How many hours does the child spent in a Spanish environment. Estimate how much environment they can hear. 50% of Spanish and 50% of English, their vocabulary would become smaller than a monolingual child. Vocabulary learning depends on motivation, rules, and structure. Conceptual Vocabulary = look all around the child’s knowledge. Find count how many words does the child knows in each at least one language. Example: Monolingual children has charts know how many words a child should know at a certain age. What you do with a bilingual child? Child falls in 90%, 70%, and etc. Bilingual child = count all the concepts of the child’s mind encoding either one or two languages. Child has new words: Juice Perro Dog Hi Hola (3) = hi and hola All for bilingual children have developed their language, but not for monolingual. Do the conceptual vocabulary? Measure the vocabulary/morphology (Grammatical development)
If exposure is even, balance, expose to two languages from birth and early on. It is going to be a dominant language. Children will have more efficiently. Measure of Grammatical Development. It is usually has more fluent and more vocabulary. Low level of exposure to one language, then that affects the level of development. 80% English and 20% Chinese. Chinese is less developed. Child’s English is going to be very comparable the same as the English of the monolingual. Chinese will be the second language. Exposure in children is less than 25% the result might be passive to bilingualism: Don’t want to speak it. Young children, very often, is because they have enough receptive competence, but not enough to have productive competence. They can understand it, but they do not speak it. It is harder to have children who are proficient trilingual : because it’s proficient language 33%, 33%, 33%. It is a little bit less than words than the other. It is hard to find three children who are like fluent in three different languages.
Bfla0 (With Notes)
Simultaneous bilingual development CHDV 493, Week 2
Goals of this lecture <ul><li>In which ways do children become bilingual early in life? </li></ul><ul><li>Do simultaneous bilinguals learn “bilingually” at first? Do they have one or separate language systems? </li></ul><ul><li>Do infants & children have cognitive limitations that make simultaneous language learning difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>Do bilinguals show the same language development stages as monolingual children? </li></ul><ul><li>Are bilingual children slower to learn language than monolinguals? </li></ul>
Types of Childhood Bilingualism <ul><li>Simultaneous bilingual children: L1 and L2 are acquired together from birth </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential bilingual children (or Second language learners) : L2 is acquired in childhood after L1 is already established (after age 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the L2 is a majority or minority language determines success in L2 acquisition and degree of maintenance of L1 </li></ul>
Becoming bilingual in childhood <ul><li>One person - one language </li></ul><ul><li>Home language is different from outside the home </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed language input </li></ul><ul><li>These methods are equally successful in laying the foundations fro bilingualism </li></ul>
One language system or two? <ul><li>In the past it was believed that simultaneous acquisition would slow down normal language development </li></ul><ul><li>The public misperception was that the human brain is like a balloon; it cannot take too much air in (i.e. languages, knowledge) or else it can explode </li></ul>
One language system or two? <ul><li>Unitary Language System Hypothesis (Volterra & Taeschner 1978): Children do not start with 2 languages but rather with a single language system. They do not differentiate languages until 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be seen in: </li></ul><ul><li>their language mixing </li></ul><ul><li>what seems “random” use of their languages </li></ul>
However, research in speech perception shows that … (pp.43-48) <ul><li>Infants possess the biological capacities to acquire two languages as typically as one: </li></ul><ul><li>37th week-old fetuses can distinguish between unfamiliar and familiar poems they were previously exposed to (DeCasper & Spence, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>At birth, infants prefer to listen to their mother’s than to another female’s voice (DeCasper& Fifer, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>At birth, infants can discriminate all the sound contrasts used in the world’s languages (Jusczyk, 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>2-month-olds can distinguish utterances in their native language from those in another language, even from unfamiliar interlocutors (Mehler et al., 1988) </li></ul>
However, research in speech perception shows that … <ul><li>2-month-old bilinguals can distinguish utterances in their two languages (Sebastián-Gallés, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>7-month-old English/French bilinguals can recognize words from both languages in speech before they produced their first words (Polka & Sundara, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Both monolingual and bilingual children’s babbling reflects the language of their parents at around 10-12 months (Maneva & Genesee, 2002) </li></ul>
One language system or two? <ul><li>Differentiated Language System Hypothesis (Genesee 1989): Children have separate language systems - i.e. differentiate their languages - from the outset of acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Language mixing is caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Parental use </li></ul>
What does the research say? <ul><li>As of 2009, most research supports the Differentiated Language System Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>This means that bilingual children have two language systems from very early on in development </li></ul><ul><li>See pp.66-71 for specific studies on differentiation </li></ul>
An example of syntactic differentiation in a Tagalog-Spanish-English trilingual child at 1;10 <ul><li>ENGLISH word order: Barney is on the chair (Arg.+Pred.) </li></ul><ul><li>TAGALOG word order: nasa silya ang Barney (Pred.+Arg.) </li></ul><ul><li>SPANISH has both orders </li></ul>
An example of pragmatic differentiation in a Tagalog-Spanish-English trilingual child at 1;10
Transfer or cross-linguistic influence <ul><li>Although the two languages develop separately, there might still be transfer from one language to the other </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative transfer results in errors not found in monolingual acquisition e.g. baby drive car blue for baby drive blue car (pg. 75) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative transfer results in a higher frequency of errors found in monolingual acquisition e.g. I no want broccoli for I don’t want broccoli (p.76) </li></ul>
Are there differences in rate of development between bi- & monolinguals? <ul><li>No systematic evidence that bilinguals are slower in critical language milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Oller et al. (1997): Bilingual children start babbling at the same time as monolinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Petitto et al. (2001): Bilinguals produce first word, first combination and first 50 words at the same time as monolinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Padilla and Liebman (1975): bilinguals between 1;7 and 2;2 are at similar stages of grammatical development as monolinguals </li></ul><ul><li> www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qU7-8Ykthk </li></ul>
Are there differences in rate of development between bi- & monolinguals? <ul><li>Idea of “double burden” for bilinguals is NOT supported by research </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that bilingual children can exhibit the same rate of grammatical/ phonological development as monolinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Paradis & Genesee (1996):French-English bilingual children learn negation in French and English at the same time as monolinguals (2;6 in French; 3+ in English) </li></ul><ul><li>They develop correct verb forms in French and English at different times following monolingual French and English acquisition </li></ul>
The Special Case of Vocabulary <ul><li>Toddlers and preschoolers have, in each language, smaller vocabularies than monolinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary learning depends on memorization as opposed to acquiring rules from similar structures </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual vocabulary (list of all concepts encoded in at least one language) should be used to assess bilinguals </li></ul>
Language Dominance and Rate of Development <ul><li>In sum, bilingual children can develop each language very similarly to monolinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant language : language in which child has more proficiency (as measured by vocabulary, MLU, fluency) and usually hears more </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of proficiency in the non-dominant language affect rate of development (child behaves like an L2 rather than simultaneous learner) </li></ul><ul><li>If exposure is less than 25%, the result might be passive bilingualism (comprehension but no production) </li></ul>