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CH - 6 Leading.pptx
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  1. 1. Leadership Theories and Styles 1
  2. 2. 2 Introduction • Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. • Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level. • While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types:
  3. 3. 3 “Great Man” Theories • Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. • The term “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership.
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  5. 5. 5 Trait Theories • Similar in some ways to “Great Man” theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. • Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. • But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.
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  7. 7. 7 Contingency Theories Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.
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  9. 9. 9 Situational Theories • Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. • Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision- making.
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  11. 11. 11 Behavioral Theories • Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. • Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states. • According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
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  13. 13. 13 Participative Theories • Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. • These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. • In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
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  15. 15. 15 Management Theories • Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. • These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. • Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.
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  17. 17. 17 Relationship Theories • Relationship theories (also known as “Transformational theories”) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders often have high ethical and moral standards. • • •
  18. 18. 18 Leadership Styles • A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. • There are many different leadership styles that can be exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields.
  19. 19. 19 Authoritarian • The authoritarian leadership style or autocratic leader keeps strict, close control over followers by keeping close regulation of policies and procedures given to followers. • To keep main emphasis on the distinction of the authoritarian leader and their followers, these types of leaders make sure to only create a distinct professional relationship.
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  21. 21. 21 Paternalistic • The way a Paternalistic leader works is by acting as a father figure by taking care of their subordinates as a parent would. • In this style of leadership the leader supplies complete concern for his followers or workers. • In return he receives the complete trust and loyalty of his people.
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  23. 23. 23 Democratic • The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality.
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  25. 25. 25 Laissez-faire • The laissez-faire leadership style is where all the rights and power to make decisions is fully given to the worker. • This was first described by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938, along with the autocratic leadership and the democratic leadership styles. • The laissez-faire style is sometimes described as a "hands off" leadership style because the leader delegates the tasks to their followers while providing little or no direction to the followers
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  27. 27. 27 Transactional • The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then later described by Bernard Bass in 1981. • Mainly used by management, transactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers through a system of rewards and punishments. • There are two factors which form the basis for this system, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception.
  28. 28. 28 Transformational • A transformational leader is a type of person in which the leader is not limited by his or her followers' perception. The main objective is to work to change or transform his or her followers' needs and redirect their thinking. Leaders that follow the transformation style of leading, challenge and inspire their followers with a sense of purpose and excitement. They also create a vision of what they aspire to be, and communicate this idea to others (their followers). • • •
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  30. 30. 30 Ways to Become More Effective Leader 1. Learn More About Your Leadership Style 2. Encourage Creativity 3. Serve As a Role Model 4. Be Passionate 5. Listen and Communicate Effectively 6. Have a Positive Attitude 7. Encourage People to Make Contributions
  31. 31. 31 8. Motivate Your Followers 9. Offer Rewards and Recognition 10. Keep Trying New Things
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