Summer report For Mother Dairy fruit & vegetable Pvt Ltd


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Supply Chain Management of Perishable Items (Cauliflower) During monsoon season (July -September)......

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Summer report For Mother Dairy fruit & vegetable Pvt Ltd

  1. 1. 1 Summer Training Report on “Supply Chain Management of PerishableMaterials(Cauliflower) during Monsoon Season (July – September)” As partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of the Post Graduate Diploma in Management 2011-13 Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd Submitted By: Krishna Kumar Roll No. MM1113157 BALAJIINSTITUTE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT S. No. 55/2-7, Tathawade, Off Mumbai-Bangalore bypass, Pune - 411 033 Maharashtra, India
  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTSS.No. Particulars Page No. I Certificate 3 II Bonafide – Declaration 4 III Acknoledgement 5 IV Executive Summary 6Ch-1 Details of the Organisation 7Ch-2 Project Rationale 13Ch-3 Description & Supply chain Mapping Of Study 20 Area,Advantages and DisadvantagesCh-4 Possible Alternative Interventions 25 Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdCh-5 Standard Operating Practices (SOP) 32Ch-6 Conclusion and Recommendations 36 V Promising Varieties of cauliflower 38 VI Bibliography 40
  3. 3. 3 CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr Krishna Kumar Roll No. MM1113157 has completed hissummer internship at Fruit and Vegetable Division of Mother dairy Fruit andVegetable Pvt Ltd., Mangolpuri and has submitted his project report entitledSupplychainmanagement of cauliflower during monsoon Season (July – September)towards partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Post GraduateDiploma in Management 2011-13.This Report is the result of his own work and to the best of my knowledge, no part ofit has earlier comprised any other report, monograph, dissertation or book. Thisproject was carried out under my overall supervision. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdDate: ……../07/12 _______________________ Signature of the --------------Place: ______________________
  4. 4. 4 BONAFIDE-DECLARATION I hereby declare that this project report on, “Supply chain management ofcauliflower during monsoon Season (July – September)” at Fruit and VegetableDivision of Mother dairy Fruit and Vegetable Pvt Ltd., Mangolpuri, which is beingsubmitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Post GraduateDiploma in Management 2011-13, is the result of the work carried out by me, underthe mentorship of to Mr. Mihir Mohanta (GM, Supply Chain Management)andguidance of Dr. Vaneet Kathuria (Deputy Manager ) of Mother Dairy F&V Pvt. Ltd.I further submit that this project work has not been submitted to the MDF&V Unitbefore or after for any other purpose. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd _______________________ Signature of the Mentor_____________________Self - Signature _______________________ Signature of the GuideDate: ……../07/12
  5. 5. 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe satiation and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of the projectwould be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible.I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Mihir Mohanta (GM,Supply Chain Management) for his valuable guidance, support and encouragingwords during the entire project duration.I feel privileged in expressing profound sense of gratitude and indebtness to mycompany guide Dr. Vaneet Kathuria (Deputy Manager, Procurement) for hisinvaluable support, guidance and suggestions which helped me to do the project.I would like to thanks Mr. D P Aggarwal (Procurement In-charge, Maharashtra)And Mr. Kumar Kundan (Area In-charge, Indore) who in spite of their busyschedule has co-operated with me continuously and indeed their valuable contributionand guidance have been certainly indispensable for my project work.I owe my wholehearted thanks and appreciation to Mr. Navin Jha (AssistantManager) and the entire staff of the company for their cooperation and assistanceduring the course of my project. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdI would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this projectwould have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family andwell-wishers.
  6. 6. 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis project mainly focuses on identifying various alternative interventions for enhancing theshelf life during transportation, storage and selling at Safal booths. This project also focuseson finding alternatives to face transit challenges as the produce is procured from far of place,Ujjain (M.P) during monsoon season from July to September.This project undertaken under MOTHER DAIRY FRUIT & VEGETABLE Pvt. Ltd.Mongolpuri, New Delhi mainly focuses on Designing the supply chain for the procurement ofCauliflower from Indore region as there is no alternative region for the company exceptIndore. Indore region mainly comprises of the blocks namely Ujjain, Tarana, Mahitpur,Ghosadi etc.Mother Dairy was set up in 1974 under the Operation Flood Programme. A wholly ownedcompany of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). Mother Dairy manufactures,markets & sells milk and milk products under the Mother Dairy brand , Dhara range of edibleoils, Safal range of fresh F&V, Frozen Vegetables, Processed Fruit & Vegetable Products,Fruit Pulps & Concentrates in bulk aseptic packaging and fruit juices at a national level. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdSafal is the market leader in the organized fruit & vegetable retail business in Delhi NCRwhere it sells an average of 300 MT/day through a network of 350+ exclusive retail outletsunder brand name Safal/ Safal Pure Veg, supported by a state-of-the-art large andultramodern Central Distribution Facility located in Delhi with an annual capacity to handleand process 2,00,000 MT of fresh fruits and vegetables. Safal today operates the largestnumber of F&V Stores in Delhi NCR. Outlets are also present in Bangalore under the brandname Safal Daily Fresh.Safal has a prominent presence in Export market spread across 40 countries viz., USA,Europe, Russia, Middle East, Asia and Africa and exports Fresh Fruits & Vegetables (Grapes,Banana, Gherkin, Onion, etc.), Fruit Pulp & Concentrate, Frozen Fruits & Vegetables, etc.Astate-of-the-art fruit processing plant of fruit handling capacity of 15,000 MT annually,setup in 1996 at Mumbai supplies quality products in the international market.
  7. 7. 7 CHAPTER-1 Details of the organisationMother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  8. 8. 8Mother Dairy as an Organisation:  Mother Dairy was set up in 1974 under the Operation Flood Programme. A wholly owned company of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).  Product Divisions: 1. Milk , under the Brand name “Mother Dairy”. 2.Milk products (Milk, Cultured Products, Ice Creams, Paneer and Ghee), under the Brand name “Mother Dairy”. 3. Range of Edible oils, under the Brand name “Dhara”. 4. Range of fresh Fruit & vegetables, Frozen Vegetables, Processed Fruit & Vegetable Products, Fruit Pulps & Concentrates in bulk aseptic packaging and fruit juices, under the Brand name “Safal”. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  9. 9. 9 Vision and Mission: Vision - Provide quality food and beverages to consumers at affordable prices while ensuring fair returns to the producers. Mission - Mother Dairy’s heritage is intrinsically linked to the cooperative movement in India. With determination & pride we will continue to serve our farmers, rural India & our consumers. Our values reflect who we are & what we firmly believe in. Awards and Recognitions: 1. 3rd Best Employer of India – World HRD Congress (April-2010) Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd 2. SAP Ace Award 2010 – Best run award in Consumer Products. 3. Business Leadership (Fruit and vegetables). 4. Best Maintained Plant Award. 5. Safety Innovation Award : 2005. 6. Rajiv Gandhi Quality Award : 2005 7. Indian Innovation Award: 2005. Quality Standards: Mother Dairy is an IS/ ISO 9062, IS 15000 HACCP and IS 14001 EMS certified organization. Mother Dairy, Delhi has been awarded ISO 9001:2000 s(Quality
  10. 10. 10 Management Systems), HACCP, 2002 f 3A (Food Safety Management Systems) and ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental Management Systems) Certifications. Moreover, National Accreditation Board accredits its Quality Assurance Laboratory as per ISO/IEC 17025:1999 for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.Safal as a Fruit and Vegetable Unit:Mother Dairy F&V Pvt. Ltd. (Safal) is a SBU of Mother Dairy. It was set up in 1988 as a pilot project with the aim to provide remunerative prices to the farmers across the country thereby giving a thrust to the co-operative culture. It achieves this mission by establishing a direct linkage between farmers and customers. Safal is the market leader in the organized F&V retail business in Delhi NCR where it sells Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd an average of 300 MT/day through a network of 400+ exclusive retail outlets under brand name Safal/ Safal Pure Veg, supported by a state-of-the-art large and ultramodern CDF located in Mangolpuri, Delhi. Retail Outlets are also present in Bangalore under the brand name Safal Daily Fresh. Safal has also a prominent presence in Export market spread across 40 countries viz., USA, Europe, Russia, Middle East, Asia and Africa and exports Fresh Fruits & Vegetables (Grapes, Banana, Gherkin, Onion, etc.), Fruit Pulp & Concentrate, Frozen Fruits & Vegetables etc.
  11. 11. 11  Products: SAFAL Fresh Juices Frozen Processed F &V & Grocery Food Beverages Aloo Veg. Tikki Rice Juices DrinksFruit Veg. Jam Pickel Ketchup Puree Products: Fresh F&V Frozen Juice & fruit Beverages Processed Foods Grocery Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd F&V Juices Drinks Jam Pickle Ketchup Fresh Fruits F. Peas Apple Guava Apple Mango Tomato Gold Basmati Rice F. Corn Litchi Mango Mixed Mixed Silver Fruit Basmati Rice Fresh F. Mix Guava Orange Orange Green Parmal Vegetables Veg Chilly Rice Corn Pineapple Pineapple Peach Chatkara F. Aloo Plum Tikki  Product Quality at Safal: Quality of “Safal” Produce starts from the field itself. Mother Dairy Quality Assurance professionals constantly provide technical support to Farmers during all stages of
  12. 12. 12 Supply chain (e.g harvesting, handling, transportation and storage). We, at Mother Dairy Monitor and Control the produce quality during material receiving, processing and finished product stage against Company Standards & Specifications. Our state of the art Manufacturing Operations are certified for Quality Management System (ISO 9001: 2008) and Food Safety Management System (ISO 22000: 2005). The Core purpose of “Safal” is to bring Fresh, Frozen and Processed Fruit & Vegetable Quality products that form daily diet of the people. Procurement Model: Primarily all the items procured at the CDF (Collection and Distribution Facility, Mangolpuri) are divided into two groups: Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  13. 13. 13 • are procured from different regions in India • 12 items :Mango, Papaya, Banana, Orange, Peas, Apple, Grapes, Mausami, Guava, Potato, Onion and1. National Tomato. Items • are procured from areas in and around 150-200 km range of the Delhi-NCR region.2.Regional • All other items except 12 National Items. Items  Safal’sSupply Chain: As the vision and mission of the company deals only with providing benefits to the farmers directly, by eliminating the middle man in between. So, the produce is procured in four different ways: I. The first and most preferred procurement option is to buy directly from the farmers and in case, if one farmer is not able to supply the desired quantity with desired quality, then from farmers’ Associations. II. The second preferred option is to employ a middleman between farmer and company, called as a vendor. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd III. The last preferred option is to procure from the Mandi, through a vendor; which is explained in the following diagram: Vendor Farmers Farmer CDF Safal Booths Consumer Association Commission Azadpur Vendor Agent Mandi  Safal is only concerned with the A-grade produce procurement from vendors, thus minimizing company’s risk.
  14. 14. 14 Project-Rationale CHAPTER-2Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  15. 15. 15Introduction:In today’s highly competitive global market place, the pressure on organizations tofind newways to create and deliver value grows even stronger. Gradually, in emerging economies aswell as mature markets, the power of the buyer has overtaken that of the customer. Priceshave always been a critical competitive variable in many markets and the signs are that, itbecomes an issue to think upon as commoditization of markets continues.In this context, logistics and supply chain management have become the crucial areas ofmanagement. Though India spends over 12 per cent of its GDP on logistic and supply chainmanagement, customer value provided is unsatisfactory. This area becomes even moreimportant in the sector of agribusiness, because most of the agricultural products areperishable and have a very short shelf life.Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, information, and finances asthey move in a process from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer.Supply chain management involves coordinating and integrating these three flows both Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltdwithin and among companies.The concept of Agriculture supply chain refers to the activities of procurement, orderfulfilment, product design and development, distribution, delivery and customer serviceexecuted by two or more separate organizations in the agribusiness industry, to fulfilcustomer orders.An efficient supply chain can contribute to an increase in the marketable surplus by loweringdown the inefficiencies in production, processing, storage and transportation. It ensures betterprices to the farmers inducing them to invest more in the vital inputs so that productivityleaps frog. It widens market opportunities for products and thus helps in maintaining an everincreasing demand for the same. An organized retailing acts as a stimulator to promote
  16. 16. 16 growth of agro based industries, helping the farmers in production planning in advance, based on demand forecast.Economic efficiency in a system can be examined as:1. Technical efficiency: In marketing the produce, the technical efficiency is said to haveincreased when operational cost is reduced for performing a function for each unit of output.This can be achieved by reducing physical losses and improvement in the technology to carryout particular function viz. storage, transportation, handling and processing. A change in thetechnique can result in the reduction of per unit cost.2. Allocative efficiency:Allocative efficiency of farm products either over time or across thespace among the traders, processors and consumers protects the economic interests of theproducers and consumer.Mother Dairy Fruit & Vegetable Pvt Ltd is the market leader of organised F&V RetailBusiness in Delhi NCR and has also a prominent presence in Export market spread across 40countries.And as doing my project in MDF&VPL (Safal), I have found out that Mother Dairy has Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltdexcelled in Allocative efficiency, because the mantra of Allocative efficiency lies in thevision and mission of the company, which aims to provide remunerative prices to the farmersacross the country for their produce, by eliminating the Intermediaries involved.But, Safal has to improve its technical efficiency. The main business of MDF&V unit is Agri-Business and considering the perishability and low shelf life of Agri-Products (i.e. F&V),there is a lot opportunity to enhance its Technical efficiency; which, in turn, also help instrengthening its Allocative efficiency.*PROJECT – TITLE:Cauliflower supply chain management For Cauliflower during Monsoon season (July-September).
  17. 17. 17OBJECTIVES:  To do the supply chain mapping for cauliflower for the two areas “Jaipur and Indore” from where the Cauliflower is procured mainly during Monsoon season.  To study the cauliflower supply chain and to find possibilities to reduce the post- harvest losses at each stage of supply chain.  To find out the possible alternatives for transportation to minimise the Transit losses.  To find out the possible alternatives for Packaging to maximize the shelf Life and to minimise the losses during storage.CAULIFLOWER:Cauliflower is one of the most important winter vegetables of India. India produces 4.694 Mmt of Cauliflower per year from 0.256 M ha area with an average productivity of about 18.3mt/ha. In West Bengal, the area under cauliflower is 57,000 ha with total production of 1.670M mt and average productivity of 29.3 mt/ha. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdThe major cauliflower producing states are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam,Haryana, MP and Maharashtra. It is consumed as a vegetable in curries, soups and pickles.QUALITYOF CAULIFLOWER PROCURED BY SAFAL:The Quality standard fixed by MDF&V Unit for the procurement of cauliflower curds is veryStrict.Curds should be:  White in colour.  Fully Compact.  Not pungent.  With no or very less sulphur content.  Sweet in taste.  Weight of a Curd should not exceed by 700 gms.
  18. 18. 18PRODUCTION ZONES OF CAULIFLOWER:The demand for cauliflower in Delhi is almost same all-round the year,But the procurementcannot be done from any one place, so Safal procures the Cauliflower from 12 productionzones for a specific time interval.The forecasted demand for cauliflower in accordance with main production zones from wherethe cauliflower is procured; are as follows: Area State Target Qty. for 2012. Procurement Duration (mt. tonnes) Panipat Haryana 1057 October - FebruaryBahadur Garh Haryana 1085 October - February Sonepat Haryana 903 October - February GBelt 245 Alwar Rajasthan 85 October - February Jaipur Rajasthan 376 August - October Solan Himachal Pradesh 614 April - August Hapur Uttar Pradesh 239 August - October Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd Gajraula Uttar Pradesh 205 December - AprilMuzaffarnagar Uttar Pradesh 0 October - February Indore Madhya Pradesh 0 August - September Mandi Delhi 459 Round the year PROCUREMENT MODEL:  Cauliflower comes under Regional items and hence are procured from areas in and around 150-200 km range of the Delhi-NCR region, with few exceptions when demand is not satisfied in and around, especially in monsoon season.  For Cauliflower, Safal presently has Multi-Vendor Model. It can procure directly from the Farmers, from the farmer’s associations, Vendors or From Azadpur mandi.  Safal, primarily buys only A-grade Cauliflower from the Farmers/ Vendors and thus, minimizes the Risk Factor at its side.
  19. 19. 19  However, during the period between the dispatch of Cauliflower to the booths and their sale there are considerable losses due to low shelf- life and logistic problem.STUDY AREA:Out of the above 12 production zones, I have to focus mainly on areas from where the supplycomes in monsoon season, i.e. Jaipur (Pushkar) and Indore Areas. Jaipur Area: It is located in Rajasthan and provides the supply mainly during Monsoon season from August to October. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  20. 20. 20 Indore Area: It is located in Madhya Pradesh and it also provides the supply mainly during Monsoon season from August to September. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdAdvantages of Procurement from these two regions:The only advantage of procurement from these regions is that there is no other place fromwhere cauliflower can be procured, it is the only source and the firm has to fulfil the demandof the market.Dis-Advantages of Procurement from these two regions: The main disadvantages are  Distance, which leads to transit challenges.
  21. 21. 21 Cauliflower has low shelf life and the transit time is high, which leads to Packaging Challenges. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd CHAPTER-3 Description of the Study Area Supply Chain Mapping of the Area Advantages, Disadvantages of Procurement
  22. 22. 22DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA:Indore Region was assigned to me as my study Area, but the office is at Ujjain because of theproximity to the villages from where the produce is procured.Ujjain District:Ujjain District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The historic city ofUjjain is the district headquarters. Ujjain is situated on the Malwa Plateau in Central India.The soil is black and stony. Soybean, wheat, jowar and bajraalong with Onion, potato andgreen vegetables (e.g. Cauliflower) are the main crops grown. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdThe district has an area of 6,091 km², and a population of 1,986,597 (2011 Census). Ujjainhas a sex ratioof 954 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 73.55 %.Thedistrict is bounded by the districts of Shajapur on the northeast and east, Dewas to thesoutheast, Indore to the south, Dhar to the southwest, and Ratlam to the west and northwest.The district is part of Ujjain Division.
  23. 23. 23 The economy of Ujjain is mainly dependent on the agricultural activities of the nearby villages. Two main crops are grown each year: wheat as the major Rabi crop, soybean as the major Kharif crop. Ujjain agriculture is sensitive to changes in rainfall and failure of Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdS. No Agro-ecological Characteristics Situation1 Shallow Soils – rain fed Shallow black calcareous (Kamliakheri series) depth Up to 45 cm Very shallow – Panchderia series. low water retention capacity, short duration preferred. [Ujjain (57.3), Tarana (41.8), Mahidpur (29.4), Kachrod (15.9), Ghatia (13.5), Barnagar (10.8)]
  24. 24. 242 Medium to deep soil - Medium black to deep soil having depth > 45 cm – Sarol, Baloda, rain fed Malikheri series. [Ujjain (29.2), Tarana (33.4), Mahidpur (45.7), Kachrod (57.5), Ghatia (61.5), Barnagar (60.6)]3 Medium to deep soil - Medium black to deep soil having depth > 45 cm – Sarol, Baloda, irrigated Malikheri series. [Ujjain (9.6), Tarana (12.3), Mahidpur (11.1), Kachrod (15.2), Ghatia (15.1), Barnagar (20.2)]4 Gravelly soil Gravelly soil mainly forest soil. [Ujjain (3.9), Tarana (12.5), Mahidpur (13.8), Kachrod (11.4), Ghatia (9.9), Barnagar (8.4)] Monsoon cycles can lay a devastating toll on agriculture and the local economy. Ujjain experiences a warm sub-tropical climate, typical of the interior Indian subcontinent. Ujjain district consists of 6 Blocks/ Taluka and 1096 villages. Name of Block No. of village Badnagar 187 Khachrod 218 Mahidpur 222 Tarana 211 Ujjain 130 Ghatia 128 Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd SUPPLY CHAIN MAPPING OF THE AREA: S.No. Village Distance* Direction* Area under TentativeSowing (Km) Cultivation period (Acres) 1 Durji Karariya 25-30 40-50 E 2 Shipra 20-25 100-125 E/M/L 3 Mali Khedi 25-30 50-75 E 4 Muksy 60-65 70-75 L 5 Baroda 40-45 25-30 M/L 6 Peer Kadadia 35-40 25-30 M 7 Daka-Chakalia 30-35 25-30 E/M
  25. 25. 25 8 Palasia 45-50 25-30 E/M 9 Silotiya 35-40 25-30 E/M 10 Musa-Khedi 30-35 25-30 E/M 11 Beejal Bor 40-45 25-30 E/M/L 12 Nagora > 30 km 25-30 E/M/L 13 Lohar Papaliya 35-40 25-30 E/M * Distance and direction is taken, using Indore City as Base.Advantages of Procurement from Indore (Ujjain) region:The only advantage of procurement from this region is that there is no other production zonefrom where cauliflower of A-Grade Quality can be procured during Monsoon season in themonth of August and till 15th September, So, it is the only source and the firm is compelled toprocure cauliflower from here; as the Firm has to fulfil the demand of the market.S.No. Tentative Tentative General Produce Flow Rate Despatch Sowing Harvesting Quality Obs. Trend Packaging Period Period (Rs/Curd ) 1 Early July Small, less Agra, Bhopal, Kanpur 15-20 compact, yellowish Curd Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd with pungent smell Traditional 2 Mid August Sweet, New 20-25 &Tradition Compact, Delhi,Ahmedabad, al along white curd of Agra, Bhopal, Kanpur with Crates appropriate at the size with no Bottom pungency 3 Late September Large, Agra, Bhopal, Kanpur 15-20 bloomed, yellowish curd with pungent odour.Dis-Advantages of Procurement from this region: The main disadvantages are
  26. 26. 26  Distance, which leads to transit challenges. The distance between Delhi and Ujjain is 810 kilometres, which leads to high transit time.  Cauliflower has low shelf life and the transit time is high, which leads to Packaging Challenges.  Monsoon Season enhances the perishability rate and lowers the Shelf life, as it increases the atmospheric humidity level, which is a common reason for the rotting of Cauliflower.Interventions taken/ can be taken by Safal to address these challenges:Transit Challenges Packaging Challenges* Pre-Cooling Technology *Paper Wrap*Refrigerated Transportation *Farm Wrap*Compromised Refer. Transportation *EAS *Modified Atmosphere Packaging *MIP Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  27. 27. 27 CHAPTER-4Possible Alternative Interventions Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  28. 28. 28As mentioned in chapter-3, there are possible interventions to address these challenges. Firstly, wewill discuss interventions to handle transit challenges and then to handle Packaging Challenges.Interventions To Handle Transit Challenges: 1. PRE-COOLING TECHNOLOGY: Pre-cooling is the rapid removal of heat from freshly harvested produce. This process is typically done before the produce is shipped to market or put into cold storage. Why Precooling? Metabolic activity in fresh fruits and vegetables continues for a short period after harvest. The energy required to sustain this activity comes from respiration, which involves oxidation of sugars to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. A commoditys storage life is influenced by its respiratory activity. By storing it at low tempr, respiration is reduced and senescence is delayed, thus extending storage life. Examples of products that are highly perishable and must begin cooling as soon as possible after harvest are: cauliflower, broccoli, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, cabbage, carrots and radishes. The normal shelf life of Cauliflower is 1 or 2days, but when precooled, the shelf life for cauliflower increases at least 5 times to 10 Days for best flavour and nutrition. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd Methods? Pre-cooling rapidly lowers the temperature of freshly harvested produce and is done immediately following harvest to minimize spoilage. There are five principal methods of pre-cooling fresh produce: • Room cooling • Forced-air cooling • Hydro-cooling • Ice cooling & • Vacuum cooling
  29. 29. 29Which method is best fit for Cauliflower?Forced Air- Cooling method is best fit for Cauliflower. In forced air cooling, chilled air isforced to flow around each piece of produce. This close contact of chilled air with theproduce results in rapid, even cooling throughout the mass of produce. For piled bulkproduce, air ducts are used to distribute the chilled air through the produce. For palletizedproduce, pallets loaded with bulk or containerized produce are aligned with air ducts thatdirect chilled air through them. The air can be channelled to flow either horizontally orvertically.In a horizontal flow system, the air is forced to flow horizontally from one side of the palletload to the other through holes in the sides of the pallet bin or containers (see Figure B). Instacking containers, the side holes must line up for the air to pass from one side of the stackto the other. In this system, the top and bottom of the pallet or containers must be sealed toprevent air from bypassing the produce.In a vertical flow system, the air is forced to flow vertically from the bottom to the top of thepallet through holes in the bottom of the pallet, and containers if used, then out the top (seeFigure C). In this system, the sides must be sealed to prevent the air from bypassing theproduce. Also, if containers are used, the holes in the tops and bottoms of the containers mustline up, so the air can travel vertically from one container to the next. This method is fasterthan room cooling because a flow of chilled air is in direct contact with the produce. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  30. 30. 30If implementation of Forced Air Cooling Method is not possible, then Room cooling can alsobe used. 2. REFRIGERATED TRANSPORTATION/ COMPROMISED REFER. TRANSPORTATION: Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd Refrigerated transportation refers to the mode of transportation in which Temperature and Humidity level, both can be controlled; while compromised refer. Transportation refers to the mode of transportation in which Temperature level can be controlled but Humidity level cannot be controlled , and as discussed above, if cauliflower is stored at 40C, it’s shelf life at least increases by five times. So, the use of these modes of transportation can be advised, if found Economical.
  31. 31. 31Interventions To Handle Packaging Challenges: 1. STANDARD PACKAGING: It refers to normal packaging materials used for packing the produce. It includes paper wrap (e.g. Normal newspaper, Butter-Paper etc.) and farm wrap (Tart, Leaves etc.). 2. MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING (MAP): Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) is a technique used for prolonging the shelf- life period of fresh or minimally processed foods. The modification process often tries to lower the amount of oxygen (O2), moving it from 20.9% to 0%, In order to slow down the growth of aerobic organisms and the speed of oxidation reactions. The removed oxygen can be replaced with nitrogen (N2), commonly acknowledged as an inert gas, or carbon dioxide (CO2), which can lower the pH or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Re-balancing of gases inside the packaging can be achieved using active techniques such as gas flushing and compensated vacuum or passively by designing “breathable” films known as Equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP). In gas-flushing, the package is flushed with a desired gas mixture, as in compensated Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd vacuum, the air is removed totally and the desired gas mixture then inserted EMAP films developed to control the humidity level as well as the gas composition in the sealed package are beneficial for the prolonged storage of fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs that are sensitive to moisture. These films are commonly referred to as modified atmosphere/modified humidity packaging (MA/MH)films. 3. MODIFIED INTERACTIVE PACKAGING (MIP): The basic concept of MIP is the ability of fresh produce to adjust its respiration rate via its Biofeedback mechanism. The produce does the work, so as to ramp its metabolism down from high rate of packing to much lower, steady rate in storage and distribution. When the product is placed in MIP, the fractures allow the product to create an
  32. 32. 32 atmosphere, it’s most happy with. The product’s biofeedback mechanism allows the product to “go to sleep”.COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARD PACKAGING, MAP AND MIP:MIP VS MAP & Std. PackagingMIP has reduced rate of Shelf Lifedeterioration compared to MAP and Std.Packaging. This is due to the BiofeedbackMechanism allowing the produce to createits desired atmosphere placing it into arelaxed state of Dormancy.Protocols are easily broken with MAP andStd. Packaging methods, resulting in rapiddeterioration of product shelf life. Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdWhen protocols are broken and put backin place with MIP technology, the productwakes up , Resets its own atmosphere andgoes back to sleep. Each time a protocol isbroken, The MIP resetting cycle repeatsensuring maximum shelf life Performance.Eg. Oxy Fresh Films- Extended freshness packaging uses the MIP technology and is bestsuited for packaging of Cauliflower for maximum shelf life performance.
  33. 33. 33 4. ETHYLENE ABSORBANT SACHET (EAS): Ethylene is a natural ripening agent found in several fruits and vegetables. It is often used by produce growers to artificially expedite the ripening process of particularly susceptible commodities such as bananas and tomatoes. While some produce thrives in ethylene gas, others deteriorate quickly in high-ethylene environments. It’s important to store sensitive commodities away from heavy ethylene emitters. Cauliflower is an Ethylene emitter as well very sensitive to ethylene gas, which results in fast deterioration and lowering shelf life. Hence, Removal of ethylene is very essential. Ethylene Absorbers extend the shelf life of fruits, vegetables and flowers in a packaged or bulk environment! Made with natural occurring Zeolites, Ethylene Absorbing Sachets remove unwanted Ethylene gas through the oxidation process, thereby ensuring the quality of freshness of the produce while In Transit or In Storage.Ethylene Absorbing Sachets can be used with a wide variety of Agricultural products, including Cauliflower.Ethylene Absorbing Sachet Advantages: Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd  Eliminates decay, mold, discoloration, wilting, softening, scald, loss of crunch and many other negative effects caused by ethylene gas.  Use during domestic and international shipments traveling via ocean, truck, rail and air.  Non-toxic, chemically inert, can be disposed of as normal waste.  By removing ethylene gas, the shelf life of the produce is increased substantially.
  34. 34. 34 CHAPTER-5Standard Operating Practices (SOP) Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  35. 35. 35STANDARD OPERATING PRACTICES(SOP):1) The first thing which should be taken into account is regarding rains. There should be no rain on the previous day of harvesting.2) Harvesting should be done only in the sunny day.3) Cauliflower should be harvested in between 8:00 am to 11:00 am.4) The produce should arrive and unloaded at shed/ Pre-cooling Area/ Washing place at least at 12:00 pm5) Basic sorting and Minimal processing should be carried out just after the arrival. Minimal processing consists of steps: a) Selection of curd size up to 700 grams. b) Stalk length = 3-4” c) Cutting of excess cauliflower leaves leaving Behind 2 soft small leaves. d) Wrapping the curds into white paper, if necessary.6) Crate lining with white paper.7) Crate can be filled with standard weight e.g. 12- 14 Kg/Crate or with normal approximate weights.8) Next, the cauliflower is precooled/ dried to reduce humidity for at least 2-4 hours, depending upon the weather conditions.9) Finally, these crates are loaded into trucks and despatched for CDF at different time Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd intervals, based on transit timing needed by the driver and No-entry timings at New- Delhi.
  36. 36. 36VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS: COST OF CAULIFLOWER IN UJJAIN As on 28th July 2012S.No. Activity/ Activities Cost (Rs/kg) 1 Estimated rate of Cauliflower(@Purchase from farmer) 32.50 {Rs. 200/Palli) (1 palli = 10 curds of 500-700 Gms) 2 Labour rate for Loading and Unloading , cutting, shredding, 1.20 grading and sorting. 3 Miscellaneous Expenses (Knife = Rs 400, Paper=Rs.1000, 1.00 Thermometer =Rs. 500, Pedestal Fans, Octroi, Overheads etc.) 4 Cost of Thermocol Padding (Rs. 750) 0.25 5 Transit cost (From Ujjain to CDF, New Delhi) (Rs.17000 for 4.25 4000 Kg) 6 Transit Cost reward to the Truck Drivers. (Rs. 3100) 0.80 Cost of Cauliflower (Rs/ Kg) as on 28th July 2012 40.00 Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. LtdINAAM SYSTEM OF TRUCK DRIVERS IN UJJAIN:This Inaam system of Truck Drivers simply mean that if you pay higher reward to the truckdrivers, they’ll make your produce reach the destination in less time then normal. Reward -Amount Rs. 5,100 Rs. 3,100 Rs. 2,100 Rs. 1,100 Time -Taken 16-20 hrs 20-22 hrs 22-25 hrs 25-28 hrs
  37. 37. 37TRADE DEFICIT:Taking so much precaution and safety issues into consideration, let us assume that theSpoilage for cauliflower for that truck on 29th July 2012 is 20%.Therefore, Trade Deficit = 20 % of Cost of cauliflower procured = (20 /100) * Rs. 40.00 = Rs. 8.00Hence; Cost of procurement of A-Grade Cauliflower at CDF = Rs. 48.00/Kg.But, The model price of A-Grade Cauliflower at CDF on 29th July 2012 was Rs. 45.00/Kg,which would have resulted in a loss. Loss/ Kg = Rs. 3.00 Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  38. 38. 38 CHAPTER-6Conclusion & Recommendations Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  39. 39. 39Conclusion and Recommendations: 1. Harvesting should be done only if the previous day, it hadn’t rained. 2. Cauliflower should be harvested only in a sunny day. 3. Ethylene generation, coupled with high temperature and humidity is considered to be responsible for Post-harvest losses. So, proper steps should be taken to ensure its absence. 4. Ethylene generation, high temperature, humidity can be taken care of by EAS, Precooling and drying up by pedestal fans. 5. To maintain the low temperature, Cauliflower should be transported either by a Refrigerated trucks or Comprised refer. Trucks or thermocol padded trucks. 6. Proper Temperature of the produce should be recorded at different Time intervals. 7. The use of white paper (Patangi paper) reduces the chances of black and brown spots. 8. Upon observation, a trend is found between the price fluctuation in Azadpur Mandi and the rainfall in this procurement area. When it rains in this area, prices go high in Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd Azadpur Mandi and while Prices falls in Local Mandis and Vice-versa. This may Demand-Supply Gap.
  40. 40. 40 AppendicesMother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  41. 41. 41 Promising Varieties of Cauliflower Varieties Developed By Avg yield CharactersCauliflower September Maturity Very early, Sowing in middle to end of May, PAUEarly Kunwari - harvesting from mid mid Oct. Suitable for Ludhiana Northern PlaninsCauliflower October Maturity Curd compact slightly conical,non ricey &Pant Shubhra Pantnagar 200 q/ha creamish white. Maturity 120 days Curd compact self blanching, white & mediumPusa Deepali IARI Delhi - size. No riceyness. Sowing time end of May to Early June. Harvesting in late Oct.Cauliflower November Maturity Curd compact,creamy white, medium size. IARI New Planting time mid sept-late sept. Maturity in 130Pusa Synthetic 225 q/ha Delhi day. Suitable for growing & seed production in north Indian plains Curds compact and white, Av.wt 700-800gm,no IARI New riceyness, best temp for curding is 12-16 oc,Pusa Shubhra 205 q/ha Delhi Highly resistant to black rot. Can be grown in all zones For Indo-gagetic plains. Curds compact white andImproved IARI, New - large. Maturity late Nov. Not suitable for hotJapanese Delhi Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd season. Curds highly compact, creamy-white Av.wt907 gm. Most suitable for Humid Bengal-assam basin IARI, NewPusa Hybrid-2 25 t/ha & Sub-Humid Satluj Ganga alluvial Plains. Delhi Harvesting in mid Nov. to mid-Dec. in North Indian plansCauliflower Snowball High yielding for Indo-gangetic plains. CurdPusa snowball- IARI - compact, medium size, snow white. Optimum1 Katrain temp.10-16 oC.Sowing in mid Sept- Oct.end. Curd white & remain white on exposure.Pusa snowball- IARI - Transplanting-Oct.end to mid of North2 Katrain India. Harvesting in January end (10-15 oC) Curd snow white, self-blanched, hi-dome.Pusa snowball IARI - Maturity 90-95 days after transplant. Resistant toK-1 Katrain black rot. Last to mature in snowball group
  42. 42. 42 BibliographyMother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd
  43. 43. 43Web Links Visited: 1. Madhya Pradesh Agricultural Marketing Board (Mandi Board) 2. Mother Dairy Website 3. NCAPH, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt of India 4. Krishiseva Website 5. NHRDF website 6. Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chain-An Indian Perspective, By Dhanush Kuttuva 7. Krishi vigyan Kendra, Ujjain Website 8. Google Mother Dairy Fruit &Vegetable Pvt. Ltd 9. Wikipedia 10. Krishi Shewa Sangathan www.krishisewa.comArticles Followed : 1. Forced Air precooling of Fruits and Vegetables By Mahesh Aswaney (Chairman & MD , California Humifresh India Pvt. Ltd.) 2. Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Precooling. By John Kienholz and Ike Edeogu (Alberta agriculture, Food & Rural development)