WHAT IS IMPINGEMENT?
• It refers to have an effect or impact on something.
• It also refers to a noticeable effect that influences
• It shows that a change is produced by an action or
• It is the state of being operative or effective.
It refers to those factors which influence
strongly the organizational design.
Organizational design depends on the nature
of its business.
The following are the key factors that show
their significant impact on the designing of an
– Size of the business
– Kinds of products or services
Size of the Business
Small, single person businesses need no organizational
Companies with few employees function well without a
For a business to be successful, its structure must
change as the business continues to grow.
– Growth through creativity
– Growth through direction
– Growth through delegation, coordination &
Stage 1: Growth Through
Entrepreneurs create products and services.
Lack formal structures, policies, and objectives.
Company founder involved in every aspect and
makes all decisions.
Management skills are much less important.
Idea that appeals to consumers.
Stage 2: Growth Through
Company grows in size.
Company founder is no longer solely responsible for all
Company relies on professional managers.
Planning, organizing, and staffing.
Managers create written policies, procedures, and plans.
Establish rules and systems for hiring, firing, and rewarding
Set up systems for communicating information among
Set up financial controls.
Stage 3: Growth Through
◊ Lower-level employees feel left out of the decision◊
Top executives find themselves too far removed form
the customer to make good decisions.
Businesses delegate more responsibility to lower-level
employees in an attempt to decentralize decision
Motivates people at lower levels.
Allows senior executives to devote more of their time to
long-term management issues.
Type of Product or Service
Number of levels increases as the level of
technical complexity increases.
Companies that produce technically complicated
products also are likely to have a larger
percentage of managers and supervisors than
companies that produce simpler products.
Degree of complexity
Degree of dynamism
FACTORS IN DESIGN DECISIONS
WHAT IS STRESS?
• Stress can be basically explained as pressure upon a
person’s psychological system which arises out of
complexity or intensity of one’s work life.
• Though stress is basically a person’s psychological setup, it also in turn affects his/her physical & behavioural
• The sources of stress can be individual, organizational
• A feeling of tension that occurs when a person assesses
that a given situation is about to exceed his or her
ability to cope and consequently will endanger his/her
Work stress is recognized
world-wide as a major
challenge to workers’ health
& the healthiness of their
Workers who are stressed
are also more likely to be
unhealthy, poorly motivated,
less productive & less safe
at work. Their organizations
are likely to be successful in
a competitive market.
Stress can be brought about by pressures at home &
Employers cannot usually protect workers from stress
arising outside of work, but they can protect them from
stress that arises through work.
Stress at work can be a real problem to the organisation
as well as for its workers.
Good management & good work organisation are the
best forms of stress prevention.
If employees are already stressed their managers should
be ware of it & know how to help.
WHAT IS WORK STRESS?
• Work-related stress is
the response people
presented with work
demands & pressures
that are not matched to
their knowledge &
abilities and which
challenge their ability
There is often confusion between pressure or challenge and
stress and sometimes it is used to excuse bad management
Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to the
demands of the contemporary work environment.
Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even
keep workers alert, motivated, able to work & learn,
depending on the available resources & personal
However when that pressure becomes excessive or
otherwise unmanageable it leads to stress.
Stress can damage your workers'’ health & your business
FEATURES OF STRESS
• Stress may result into any kind of deviation – physical,
psychological or behavioural in the person.
• Stress may be result of individual’s interaction with
• It is not necessary that stress is always dysfunctional.
• Stress can be temporary or long-term, mid or severe,
depending mostly on how long its causes continue, how
powerful they are and how strong the individual’s
• If stress is temporary & mild, most people can handle it
or at least, recover from its effects rather quickly.
TYPES OF STRESS
It is the healthy, positive & developmental stress
It is the unhealthy & negative stress response.
• Acute stress:
A short-term stress reaction to an immediate threat
• Chronic stress:
A long-term stress reaction resulting from ongoing
CAUSES OF STRESS
CAUSES OF STRESS
• Task demands
• Role demands
relationships at work
• Organisational structure
• Organisational leadership
• Group Pressures
CAUSES OF STRESS
• Group Cohesiveness
• Social Support
SIGNS OF STRESS
1. You feel irritable.
2. You have sleeping difficulties.
3. You do not get any joy out of life.
4. Your appetite is disturbed.
5. You have relationship problems and
have a difficult time getting along
Edward Creagan, MD
FORMS OF STRESS
• Stress is understood by its difficult forms which
be temporary, long-term, mild or severe.
• The form of stress, if temporary and mild,
cannot be distressing.
Which leads to
Individual Stress Management
• Find jobs that provide a personally acceptable balance
between demands and control and between effort
required and rewards.
• Redesign a dysfunctional job.
• Follow the tactics presented in the Managerial Advice
• Develop healthy ways of coping.
Individual Stress Management
• Exercise regularly
• Practice healthy habits
• Be realistic
• Use systematic relaxation
• Develop and use planning
Simplify your life
Take one thing at a time
• Recognize and accept
Develop social support
Focus on enjoying what you
Go easy with criticism
Take time off
Organizational Stress Management
Increase individuals’ autonomy and control
Ensure that individuals are compensated properly
Increase associate involvement in important decision making
Improve physical working conditions
Provide for job security and career development
Provide healthy work schedules
Improve communication to help avoid uncertainty and ambiguity
Maintain job demands/requirements at healthy levels
Ensure that associates have adequate skills to keep up-to-date
with technical changes in the workplace
Two Models of Workplace Stress
A model that suggests experienced stress
is a function of both job demands & job
control. Stress is highest when demands
are high but individuals have little control
over the situation
A model that suggests experienced
stress is a function of both required
effort and rewards obtained. Stress is
highest when required effort is high but
rewards are low.