Role impingement and stress in organisation


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Role impingement and stress in organisation

  1. 1. Role Impingement Stress In Organisation
  2. 2. WHAT IS IMPINGEMENT? • It refers to have an effect or impact on something. • It also refers to a noticeable effect that influences strongly. • It shows that a change is produced by an action or other cause. • It is the state of being operative or effective.
  3. 3. ROLE IMPINGEMENT  It refers to those factors which influence strongly the organizational design.  Organizational design depends on the nature of its business.  The following are the key factors that show their significant impact on the designing of an organization: – Size of the business – Kinds of products or services
  4. 4. Size of the Business  Small, single person businesses need no organizational structure.  Companies with few employees function well without a formal structure.  For a business to be successful, its structure must change as the business continues to grow. Stages: – Growth through creativity – Growth through direction – Growth through delegation, coordination & collaboration.
  5. 5. Stage 1: Growth Through Creativity  Entrepreneurs create products and services.  Businesses small.  Lack formal structures, policies, and objectives.  Company founder involved in every aspect and makes all decisions.  Management skills are much less important.  Idea that appeals to consumers.
  6. 6. Stage 2: Growth Through Direction  Company grows in size.  Company founder is no longer solely responsible for all decision making.  Company relies on professional managers.  Planning, organizing, and staffing.  Managers create written policies, procedures, and plans.  Establish rules and systems for hiring, firing, and rewarding employees.  Set up systems for communicating information among employees.  Set up financial controls.
  7. 7. Stage 3: Growth Through Delegation ◊ Lower-level employees feel left out of the decision◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ making process. Top executives find themselves too far removed form the customer to make good decisions. Businesses delegate more responsibility to lower-level employees in an attempt to decentralize decision making. Motivates people at lower levels. Allows senior executives to devote more of their time to long-term management issues.
  8. 8. Type of Product or Service  Number of levels increases as the level of technical complexity increases.  Companies that produce technically complicated products also are likely to have a larger percentage of managers and supervisors than companies that produce simpler products.
  9. 9. FACTORS Environment Business Strategy Technology Internal Contingency Factors INDICATORS Degree of complexity Degree of dynamism Richness Low cost Differentiation Focused Technological complexity Goals Size Employees FACTORS IN DESIGN DECISIONS
  10. 10. Stress In Organisation
  11. 11. WHAT IS STRESS? • Stress can be basically explained as pressure upon a person’s psychological system which arises out of complexity or intensity of one’s work life. • Though stress is basically a person’s psychological setup, it also in turn affects his/her physical & behavioural systems. • The sources of stress can be individual, organizational and social. • A feeling of tension that occurs when a person assesses that a given situation is about to exceed his or her ability to cope and consequently will endanger his/her well-being.
  12. 12. Contd…  Work stress is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to workers’ health & the healthiness of their organisations.  Workers who are stressed are also more likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive & less safe at work. Their organizations are likely to be successful in a competitive market.
  13. 13. Contd…  Stress can be brought about by pressures at home &     work. Employers cannot usually protect workers from stress arising outside of work, but they can protect them from stress that arises through work. Stress at work can be a real problem to the organisation as well as for its workers. Good management & good work organisation are the best forms of stress prevention. If employees are already stressed their managers should be ware of it & know how to help.
  14. 14. WHAT IS WORK STRESS? • Work-related stress is the response people may have when presented with work demands & pressures that are not matched to their knowledge & abilities and which challenge their ability to cope.
  15. 15. Contd… There is often confusion between pressure or challenge and stress and sometimes it is used to excuse bad management practice. Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to the demands of the contemporary work environment. Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even keep workers alert, motivated, able to work & learn, depending on the available resources & personal characteristics. However when that pressure becomes excessive or otherwise unmanageable it leads to stress. Stress can damage your workers'’ health & your business performance.
  16. 16. FEATURES OF STRESS • Stress may result into any kind of deviation – physical, psychological or behavioural in the person. • Stress may be result of individual’s interaction with environment stimuli. • It is not necessary that stress is always dysfunctional. • Stress can be temporary or long-term, mid or severe, depending mostly on how long its causes continue, how powerful they are and how strong the individual’s powers are. • If stress is temporary & mild, most people can handle it or at least, recover from its effects rather quickly.
  18. 18. TYPES OF STRESS • Eustress: It is the healthy, positive & developmental stress response. • Distress: It is the unhealthy & negative stress response. • Acute stress: A short-term stress reaction to an immediate threat • Chronic stress: A long-term stress reaction resulting from ongoing situations
  19. 19. CAUSES OF STRESS Organisational Stressors Individual Stressors Individual Stress Group Stressors Extraorganisational Stress
  20. 20. CAUSES OF STRESS Organisational stressors: • Task demands • Role demands • Inter-personal relationships at work • Organisational structure & Climate • Organisational leadership • Group Pressures Individual stressors: • • • • Career Development Personality Type Life Changes Role Perceptions
  21. 21. CAUSES OF STRESS Group Stressors: • Group Cohesiveness • Social Support • Conflict Extraorganisational Stressors: • • • • Social Changes Technological Changes Community Changes Economic Conditions
  22. 22. SIGNS OF STRESS 1. You feel irritable. 2. You have sleeping difficulties. 3. You do not get any joy out of life. 4. Your appetite is disturbed. 5. You have relationship problems and have a difficult time getting along with people. Edward Creagan, MD
  23. 23. FORMS OF STRESS • Stress is understood by its difficult forms which be temporary, long-term, mild or severe. • The form of stress, if temporary and mild, cannot be distressing. Forms Milder form Stiffer form Chronic form Burn-out Trauma Which leads to Mental & Physical Disorders
  25. 25. ALARM REACTION • • • • • Muscles Tense Heart Beats Faster The Breathing And Perspiration Increases The Eyes Dilate The Stomach May Clench
  26. 26. RESISTANCE • Fatigue • Concentration Lapses • Irritability And Lethargy
  27. 27. EXHAUSTION • Decreased Stress Tolerance • Progressive Mental And Physical Exhaustion • Illness And Collapse
  28. 28. SEVERE EXHAUSTION STAGE • Chronic sadness or depression • Chronic mental and physical fatigue • Chronic stress related illnesses (headache, stomach ache, bowel problems, etc.) • Isolation, withdrawal, self-destructive thoughts
  31. 31. Individual Consequences of Stress PSYCHOLOGICAL • • • • • • • Anxiety Depression Low self-esteem Sleeplessness Frustration Family problems Burnout PHYSIOLOGICAL Stress BEHAVIORAL • • • • • Excessive smoking Substance abuse Accident proneness Appetite disorders Violence • • • • • • • • High blood pressure Muscle tension Headaches Ulcers, skin diseases Impaired immune systems Musculoskeletal disorders Heart disease Cancer
  32. 32. Organizational Consequences of Stress • Absenteeism • Diminished productivity • Compensation claims • Health insurance • Direct medical expenses
  34. 34. Individual Stress Management • Find jobs that provide a personally acceptable balance between demands and control and between effort required and rewards. • Redesign a dysfunctional job. • Follow the tactics presented in the Managerial Advice feature. • Develop healthy ways of coping. Relaxation Techniques Exercise Support Network Proper Diet
  35. 35. Individual Stress Management • Exercise regularly • Practice healthy habits • Be realistic • Use systematic relaxation • Meditate • Develop and use planning • • • skills Simplify your life Take one thing at a time Avoid unnecessary competition • Recognize and accept • • • • personal limits Develop social support networks Focus on enjoying what you do Go easy with criticism Take time off
  36. 36. Organizational Stress Management • • • • Increase individuals’ autonomy and control Ensure that individuals are compensated properly • • • • • Increase associate involvement in important decision making Improve physical working conditions Provide for job security and career development Provide healthy work schedules Improve communication to help avoid uncertainty and ambiguity Maintain job demands/requirements at healthy levels Ensure that associates have adequate skills to keep up-to-date with technical changes in the workplace
  37. 37. Two Models of Workplace Stress Demand-Control Model Effort-Reward Imbalance Model
  38. 38. DEMAND-CONTROL MODEL A model that suggests experienced stress is a function of both job demands & job control. Stress is highest when demands are high but individuals have little control over the situation
  39. 39. Job Control DEMAND-CONTROL MODEL High Low Strain Active (EUSTRESS) Low Passive High Strain (DYSTRESS) Low High Job Demands
  40. 40. EFFORT-REWARD IMBALANCE MODEL A model that suggests experienced stress is a function of both required effort and rewards obtained. Stress is highest when required effort is high but rewards are low.
  41. 41. EFFORT-REWARD IMBALANCE MODEL Over commitment High Effort Low Reward Demands Obligations Pay Esteem
  43. 43. References • • • •