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  1. 1. LEARNING
  2. 2. Meaning and definition of Learning • The process of acquiring the ability to respond adequately to a situation which may or may not have been previously encountered. • It is relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of prior experiences. • It is an important psychological process determining human behaviour. • It is a continuous process and it occurs all the time. • Thus, learning could be defined as the sum total of behavioural changes resulting from experience at training.
  3. 3. Definition E.R. Hilgard: “Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of prior experience.” but it could be said that change in behaviour indicates that learning has taken place and that learning is a change in behaviour. W. McGehee: Learning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts, responds as a result of experience in a manner different from the way he formerly behaved.” Sanford: “Learning as a relatively enduring change in behaviour brought about as a consequence of experience.”
  4. 4. Dictionary of Psychology: Learning means the process of acquiring the ability to respond adequately to a situation which may or may not have been previously encountered the favourable modification of response tendencies consequent upon previous experience, particularly the building of a new series of complex coordinated motor response; the fixation of items in memory so that they can be recalled or organized; the process of acquiring insight into a situation.” Martya Sloman: “Learning is the process y which a person constructs kn, skills and capabilities.”
  5. 5. Nature and Characteristics of Learning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Learning is purposeful It is the result of experience It is multi-faceted It is an active process It involves a change Learning is reflected in behaviour.
  6. 6. Principles of Learning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Readiness Exercise: things most repeated are best remembered. Effect: …depends on emotional reaction of the learner. primacy: the state of being first often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression. Intensity Recency Employee motivation Recognition of individual differences Practice Reinforcement Feedback Goal: it can accelerate learning Meaningfulness of material. Transferring what is learnt to wrok.
  7. 7. Learning Process Learning process is a mental and habit formation process. 1. Stimuli 2. Attention 3. Recognition 4. Translation 5. Reinforcement 6. Behaviour: learning changes behaviour. 7. Reward 8. Habits: a permanent change in behaviour becomes a habit. 9. Motives: this depends on employee satisfaction. 10. Efforts: habits help achieve good efforts and performance. It is a continuous process.