Meaning and definition of Learning
• The process of acquiring the ability to respond
adequately to a situation which may or may not have
been previously encountered.
• It is relatively permanent change in behaviour as a
result of prior experiences.
• It is an important psychological process determining
• It is a continuous process and it occurs all the time.
• Thus, learning could be defined as the sum total of
behavioural changes resulting from experience at
E.R. Hilgard: “Learning is a relatively permanent change in
behaviour that occurs as a result of prior experience.”
but it could be said that change in behaviour
indicates that learning has taken place and that
learning is a change in behaviour.
W. McGehee: Learning has taken place if an individual
behaves, reacts, responds as a result of experience in a
manner different from the way he formerly behaved.”
Sanford: “Learning as a relatively enduring change in
behaviour brought about as a consequence of
Dictionary of Psychology: Learning means the process of
acquiring the ability to respond adequately to a
situation which may or may not have been previously
encountered the favourable modification of response
tendencies consequent upon previous experience,
particularly the building of a new series of complex
coordinated motor response; the fixation of items in
memory so that they can be recalled or organized; the
process of acquiring insight into a situation.”
Martya Sloman: “Learning is the process y which a person
constructs kn, skills and capabilities.”
Nature and Characteristics of Learning
Learning is purposeful
It is the result of experience
It is multi-faceted
It is an active process
It involves a change
Learning is reflected in behaviour.
Principles of Learning
Exercise: things most repeated are best remembered.
Effect: …depends on emotional reaction of the learner.
primacy: the state of being first often creates a strong, almost unshakable
Recognition of individual differences
Goal: it can accelerate learning
Meaningfulness of material.
Transferring what is learnt to wrok.
Learning process is a mental and habit formation process.
6. Behaviour: learning changes behaviour.
8. Habits: a permanent change in behaviour becomes a habit.
9. Motives: this depends on employee satisfaction.
10. Efforts: habits help achieve good efforts and performance. It is a