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Biology

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Biology

  1. 1. Natural resources<br />Done by<br />R . Sri Krishna <br />KKS . Tirumal <br />B . Baranidharan<br />Ch . Meher prakash<br />Gaurav Joshi <br />Dinesh Roy <br />I X <br />CBSE<br />
  2. 2. Natural Resources Vital And Invaluable!!<br />
  3. 3. What Is a Resource?<br />A resource is any physical or virtual entity of limited availability that needs to be consumed to obtain a benefit from it. In most cases, commercial or even factors require resource allocation non-commercial  through resource management.<br />They are of 2 types:-<br />A)Natural resources<br />B)Human resources<br />We are going to study natural resources in depth in this presentation.<br />
  4. 4. A Brief Introduction<br />Natural resources  occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment. This is currently restricted to the environment of Earth yet the theoretical possibility remains of extracting them from outside the planet, such as the asteroid belt. Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants. <br />
  5. 5. Types of resources<br />Natural resources may be further classified in different ways:- <br />A)on the basis of origin – <br />(i)Biotic - Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere, such as forests and their products, animals, birds and their products, fish and other marine organisms. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also included in this category because they are formed from decayed organic matter.<br />(ii)Abiotic - Abiotic resources include non-living things. Examples include land, water, air  and ores such as gold, iron, copper, silver etc. <br />
  6. 6. B)according to their stage of development :-<br />(i)Potential Resources - Potential resources are those that exist in a region and may be used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India, having sedimentary rocks but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use, it remains a potential resource.<br />(ii)Actual Resources- Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined and are being used in present times. The development of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved. That part of the actual resource that can be developed profitably with available technology is called a reserve.<br />
  7. 7. With respect to renewability :-<br />(i) Renewable resources :- They are ones that can be replenished or reproduced easily. Some of them, like sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available and their quantity is not affected by human consumption. Many renewable resources can be depleted by human use, but may also be replenished, thus maintaining a flow. Some of these, like agricultural crops, take a short time for renewal; others, like water, take a comparatively longer time, while still others, like forests, take even longer.<br />Non-renewable resources :- They are formed over very long geological periods. Minerals and fossil fuels are included in this category. Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they get depleted. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them. but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled.<br />
  8. 8. On the basis of availability :-<br />Inexhaustible natural resources- Those resources which are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted easily by human activity are inexhaustible natural resources. For example sunlight, air etc.<br />Exhaustible natural resources- The amount of these resources are limited. They can be exhausted by human activity in the long run. For example coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.<br />
  9. 9. Life <br />Our planet earth is the only planet that supports life, as we know exists. Life on earth has only been possible due to some conditions like distance from sun , mass of earth , axial tilt and most importantly the natural resources present in it. E.g.:- water , air etc<br />We are going to discuss these resources detail.<br />
  10. 10. Air : The Breath Of Life <br />The air (atmosphere of Earth) is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.<br />While air content and atmospheric pressure varies at different layers, air suitable for the survival of terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals is currently known only to be found in Earth's troposphere and artificial atmospheres.<br />
  11. 11. Composition of the air in the earth’s atmosphere<br />
  12. 12. Structure of the atmosphere<br />Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decreases with altitude. From highest to lowest, these layers are:- <br />1.Exosphere-The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. It is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. The particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another. Since the particles rarely collide, the atmosphere no longer behaves like a fluid. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate into and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind.<br />2.Thermosphere-Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause up to the thermopause, then is constant with height. The temperature of this layer can rise to 1,500 °C (2,730 °F), though the gas molecules are so far apart that temperature in the usual sense is not well defined. The International Space Station orbits in this layer, between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi). The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350–800 km (220–500 mi; 1,100,000–2,600,000 ft).<br />
  13. 13. 3.Mesosphere- The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km (50–53 mi; 260,000–280,000 ft). It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. The mesopause, the temperature minimum that marks the top of the mesosphere, is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around −85 °C (−121 °F; 188.1 K).Due to the cold temperature of the mesosphere, water vapor is frozen, forming ice clouds (or Noctilucent clouds). A type of lightning referred to as either sprites or ELVES, form many miles above thunderclouds in the troposphere.<br />4.Stratosphere- The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi; 170,000 ft). Temperature increases with height, which restricts turbulence and mixing. The stratopause, which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere, typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 160,000 to 180,000 ft). The pressure here is 1/1000 sea level.<br />
  14. 14. 5.Troposphere-The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator, with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word , trope, meaning turn or overturn). The troposphere contains roughly 80 of the mass of the atmosphere. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.<br />
  15. 15. Air pollution<br />Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.<br />An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.<br />There are many problems due to pollutants like global warming, lung diseases etc<br />
  16. 16. Some pollutants are :- <br />Sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, nitrogen oxides etc<br />Volatile organic compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. <br />Particulate matter  - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart diseases, altered lung function and lung cancer.<br />
  17. 17. Indoor air quality (IAQ)<br />A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time. Radon (Rn) gas, a carcinogen, is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde(H2CO) gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as they dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners, incense, and other scented items. Controlled wood fires in stoves and fire places can add significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out Indoor pollution fatalities may be caused by using pesticides and other chemical sprays indoors without proper ventilation.<br />Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors. Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning can result even from poorly adjusted pilot lights. Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas, hydrogen sulfide, out of interiors. Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene, or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning.<br />Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometer-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms in walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants, soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature.<br />
  18. 18. Some other sources of air pollution are:-<br />1.    Heavy metals.<br />2.    Photochemical smog.<br />3.    Smokes.<br />4.    Ionizing radiation.<br />5.    Automobile exhaust.<br />6.    Biocides elements.<br />7.    Radioactive elements.<br />8 Industrial waste<br />
  19. 19. Water : A Wonderful Liquid<br />Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O.<br />It is the most valuable natural compound found on earth and which makes life possible and fulfills almost various demands of different living things.<br />Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface,  and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies.<br />Clean drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every part of the world.<br />
  20. 20. Distribution of water on earth<br />Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.<br />Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture.<br />
  21. 21. A graphic showing the distribution of water on earth!<br />
  22. 22. Water pollution<br />Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater).<br />Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.<br />Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.<br />
  23. 23. continued<br />Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day.  Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water.<br />Some other reasons are :- <br />1.thermal water discharge into water bodies<br />2.dumping of medical wastes into water bodies<br />3.industrial discharge etc<br />
  24. 24. Soil <br />Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics. It is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that include weathering and erosion. Soil differs from its parent rock due to interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere It is a mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states.<br />
  25. 25. Soil forming factors<br />Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic processes on soil parent material. Soil genesis involves processes that develop layers or horizons in the soil profile. These processes involve additions, losses, transformations and translocations of material that compose the soil.<br />The formation factors include- <br />A) Parent material:-The material from which soils form is called parent material. It includes: weathered primary bedrock, secondary material transported from other locations etc. the parent rock material determines the nature of the soil<br />
  26. 26. Continued <br />B)Climate-Soil formation greatly depends on the climate, and soils from different climate zones show distinctive characteristics. Temperature and moisture affect weathering and leaching. Wind moves sand and other particles, especially in arid regions where there is little plant cover. The type and amount of precipitation influence soil formation by affecting the movement of ions and particles through the soil, aiding in the development of different soil profiles.<br />C) Biological factors<br />Plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and humans affect soil formation. Animals and micro-organisms mix soils to form burrows and pores allowing moisture and gases to seep into deeper layers. In the same way, plant roots open channels in the soils, especially plants with deep taproots which can penetrate many meters through the different soil layers making the soil loose and to react with gases. Micro-organisms, including fungi and bacteria, affect chemical exchanges between roots and soil and act as a reserve of nutrients.<br />
  27. 27. Continued…<br />D) Time-Time is a factor in the interactions of all the above factors as they develop soil. Over time, soils evolve features dependent on the other forming factors, and soil formation is a time-responsive process dependent on how the other factors interplay with each other. Soil is always changing. For example, recently-deposited material from a flood exhibits no soil development because there has not been enough time for soil-forming activities. The soil surface is buried, and the formation process begins again for this soil. The long periods over which change occurs and its multiple influences mean that simple soils are rare, resulting in the formation of soil horizons.<br />
  28. 28. Layers of Soil<br />
  29. 29. Soil Layers <br />A represents soil; B represents laterite, aregolith; C represents saprolite, a less-weathered regolith; the bottommost layer represents bedrock.<br />
  30. 30. Types of Soils <br />1.Sandy soil. <br />2.Clayey soil.<br />3.Lomy soil.<br />4.Residual soil.<br />5.Black soil.<br />6.Red soil.<br />7.Laterite soil.<br />8.Transported soil.<br />9.Alluvial soil.<br />10.Desert soil.<br />11.Mountainous soil.<br /> <br />
  31. 31. Biogeochemical cycles<br />Do you know how all these resources are circulated throughout planet earth?<br />They move in cycles called “Biogeochemical cycles”<br />In ecology and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or nutrient cycle is a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth. In effect, the element is recycled, although in some cycles there may be places (called reservoirs) where the element is accumulated or held for a long period of time (such as an ocean or lake for water). Water, for example, is always recycled through the water cycle.<br />
  32. 32. Types of Biogeochemical cycles <br />The most well-known and important biogeochemical cycles, for example, include the<br /> carbon cycle<br /> the nitrogen cycle<br /> the oxygen cycle<br /> water cycle. <br />There are many biogeochemical cycles like sulfur cycle , phosphorous cycle that are currently being studied for the first time as climate change and human impacts are drastically changing the speed, intensity, and balance of these relatively unknown cycles. These newly studied biogeochemical cycles include the mercury cycle and the human-caused cycle of atrazine, which may affect certain species. <br />
  33. 33. Water cycle<br />
  34. 34. Water cycle<br />The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. Water can change states among liquid, vapor, and ice at various places in the water cycle. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time, individual water molecules can come and go. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow.<br /> By transferring water from one reservoir to another, the water cycle purifies water, replenishes the land with freshwater, and transports minerals to different parts of the globe. It is also involved in reshaping the geological features of the Earth, through such processes as erosion and sedimentation. In addition, as the water cycle involves heat exchange, it exerts an influence on climate as well.<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Carbon cycle<br />
  37. 37. Carbon cycle<br />The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. It is one of the most important cycles of the earth and allows for carbon to be recycled and reused throughout the biosphere and all of its organisms.<br />The carbon cycle was initially discovered by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, and popularized by Humphrey Davy.<br />
  38. 38. Carbon as various deposits<br />Forests store 86% of the planet's above-ground carbon and 73% of the planet's soil carbon.<br />Carbon is an essential part of life on Earth. About half the dry weight of most living organisms is carbon. It plays an important role in the structure, biochemistry, and nutrition of all living cells. Living biomass holds about 575 gigatons of carbon, most of which is wood. Soils hold upwards of 2700 gigatons, mostly in the form of organic carbon, with perhaps a third of that inorganic forms of carbon such as calcium carbonate.<br />The oceans contain around 36,000 gigatonnes of carbon, mostly in the form of bicarbonate ion (over 90%, with most of the remainder being carbonate). Extreme storms such as hurricanes and typhoons bury a lot of carbon, because they wash away so much sediment.<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Nitrogen cycle<br />
  41. 41. Nitrogen cycle<br />The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. This transformation can be carried out via both biological and non-biological processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification. The majority of Earth's atmosphere (approximately 78%) is nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. However, atmospheric nitrogen is unavailable for biological use, leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems. The nitrogen cycle is of particular interest to ecologists because nitrogen availability can affect the rate of key ecosystem processes, including primary production and decomposition. Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers, and release of nitrogen in wastewater have dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle.<br />
  42. 42. Nitrogen fixation<br />Atmospheric nitrogen must be processed, or "fixed" (see page on nitrogen fixation), to be used by plants. Some fixation occurs in lightningstrikes, but most fixation is done by free-living or symbiotic bacteria. These bacteria have the nitrogenase enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia, which is then further converted by the bacteria to make their own organic compounds. Some nitrogen fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobium, live in the root nodules of legumes (such as peas or beans). Here they form a mutualisticrelationship with the plant, producing ammonia in exchange for carbohydrates. Nutrient-poor soils can be planted with legumes to enrich them with nitrogen. A few other plants can form such symbioses. Today, about 30% of the total fixed nitrogen is manufactured in ammoniachemical plants.<br />
  43. 43. Nitrogen cycle<br />
  44. 44. Oxygen cycle<br />
  45. 45. Oxygen cycle<br />The Oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere (air), the total content of biological matter within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), and the lithosphere (Earth's crust). Failures in the oxygen cycle within the hydrosphere (the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet) can result in the development of hypoxic zones. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmosphere and life.<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Green House Effect<br />
  48. 48. Green House Effect<br />The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface, energy is transferred to the surface and the lower atmosphere. As a result, the temperature there is higher than it would be if direct heating by solar radiation were the only warming mechanism.<br />This mechanism is fundamentally different from that of an actual greenhouse, which works by isolating warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection.<br />The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858, and first reported quantitatively by Savant Arrhenius in 1896<br />
  49. 49. Greenhouse gases<br />By their percentage contribution to the greenhouse effect on Earth the four major gases are:<br />water vapor, 36–70%<br />carbon dioxide, 9–26%<br />methane, 4–9%<br />ozone, 3–7%<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Thank you,<br />

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