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Gender issues in_ricefarming_crri


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Gender issues in rice based farming systems

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Gender issues in_ricefarming_crri

  1. 1. Gender issues in rice based farming systems Krishna Srinath Director* Directorate of Research on Women in Agriculture, Bhubaneswar (Retired in 2013)*
  2. 2. Dedicated to The Memory Of Dr Gopinath Sahu Dr. Gopinath Sahu Memorial Lecture
  3. 3. Rice – A Women’s Crop  Rice was traditionally considered as a female crop taken care of by women individually or in groups  Rice was considered as a ‘girl child’ because of its delicacy and fragility, hence must be handled by women in its early stages  Rice farming scenario is usually represented by women performing transplanting which signifies their participation
  4. 4.  Female slaves smuggled the seed grains of rice in their hair  They gained knowledge through close observation of plant growth cycle, growth habit, yield and cooking quality. They had good knowledge of land races  Separation of grains from the husk and bran is a highly skilled technique in which women had expertise  A Senegal women was buried with the mortar and pestle in honour of her labour Rice – A Women’s Crop
  5. 5. Women and food security The key to food security is in the hands of women
  6. 6.  Physically, Annapurna is described as holding a golden ladle adorned with various kinds of jewels in her right hand and a vessel full of delicious porridge in her left  She who is full, complete and perfect with food and grains  She who gives nourishment  At the household level, which is the fundamental unit of civilization; women holds the key to the food security Women and food security
  7. 7.  In ancient Roman religion Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops and motherly relationships  Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat (far), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of
  8. 8.  Rural women are the main producers of the world’s staple crops – rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and millets – which provide up to 90 percent of the rural poor’s food intake  In Southeast Asia, women provide up to 90 per cent of labour for rice cultivation  In sub-Saharan Africa, women produce up to 80 per cent of basic foodstuffs both for household consumption and for sale Women and food : Some facts and figures
  9. 9.  Women perform from 25 to 45 per cent of agricultural field tasks in Colombia and Peru  Women constitute 53 per cent of the agricultural labour in Egypt  Fewer than 10 per cent of women farmers in India, Nepal and Thailand own land  An analysis of credit schemes in five African countries found that women received less than 10 per cent of the credit awarded to male smallholders  Only 15 per cent of the world’s agricultural extension agents are women Source : Women and food : Some facts and figures
  10. 10. Rice and nutritional security  Grown in 155 million hectare and supplies 1/5 of the global calorie  Enables producers to procure other food stuff by selling the commodity  The byproducts including hey, husk and bran support the livestock production in the villages  Intercropping and integrated cropping systems help to produce different crops which adds variety to the diet and contributes to other nutritional requirements in the rural areas
  11. 11. The Indian Scenario  Rice is key to food security in India  Rice covers about 42 million hectares of the gross cropped area  Grown in most diverse agro ecological and geographical situations that encompasses wide socio economic and cultural diversity  Rice, both raw and cooked forms have religious and cultural significance
  12. 12. Rice based cropping systems in India  Cropping of single variety  Mixed varietal cropping  Intercropping with other crops  Relay cropping  Sequential cropping  Integrated farming system
  13. 13. Changes in rice farming systems Many changes have been witnessed in rice farming in the past years: • Structural changes • Technological changes • Changes in socio economic dimensions
  14. 14. Structural changes The changes lead to variety of consequences to the rural communities which to some extent affect their food security Eg. When rice farming in ‘pokkali’ fields of Kerala were converted for shrimp production women lost employment opportunities, locally produced rice and its byproducts which in turn affected the livestock production in the village and also release of free human resource
  15. 15.  World wide women play a very important role in crop, livestock and fish production  The nature and extent of participation varies with the agro production systems  Their role varies from mangers to landless labourers  In overall farm production their contribution is estimated at 55-60 per cent of the total labour, much higher in certain regions  Men’s participation remained constant around 52 per cent whereas that of women increased from 19 per cent to 26 per cent in 2001 Role of Women
  16. 16.  The share of women among total agricultural labourers increased from 36.74 per cent in 1981 to 46.62 per cent in 2001  Among cultivators women’s share increased from 25 per cent to 32 per cent  According to FAO in Himalayas a pair of bullocks works 1064 hours, a man 1212 hours and a woman 3485 hours in a one hectare farm  About 20 crore people are estimated to be employed in the unorganized sector including women Role of Women
  17. 17. Key gender statistics on work participation in India Key Gender statistics on Work Participation in India S. no Parameters % 1 Overall work participation in India 39.25 2 Work Participation Rate amongst women 25.6 3 Work participation Rate amongst men 51.9 4 Cultivators to total workers 31.7 5 Agricultural Labourers to total workers 26.7 6 Women cultivators amongst total cultivators 32.36 7 Women amongst total Agricultural Labourers 46.62 8 (Men) Cultivators amongst total men workers 31.34 9 (Women) cultivators amongst women workers 32.51 10 (Men) Agricultural Labourers amongst total men workers 20.82 11 (Women) Agricultural Labourers amongst women workers 39.43 Source: Census 2001
  18. 18. States/UTs with distinction in Gender work participation Sl. No. Parameters State/ UT % 1 Highest Overall Work Participation Rate Mizoram 52.7 2 Highest men Work Participation Rate D &D 65.5 3 Highest women Work Participation Rate Mizoram 47.6 4 Highest % of cultivators amongst workers Himachal Pradesh 65.5 5 Highest % of AL amongst workers Bihar 48.0 6 Highest % of men cultivators amongst men workers Nagaland 55.68 7 Highest % of women cultivators amongst women workers Himachal Pradesh 86.2 8 Highest % of Ag. Laborers amongst workers Bihar 48.2 9 Highest % of women AL amongst women workers Bihar 63.2 10 Highest % of Ag. Laborers amongst men workers Bihar 42.7 11 Highest % of (C +AL) amongst workers Bihar 77.4 12 Highest % of (C +AL) amongst men Workers Bihar 74.3 13 Highest % of (C +AL) amongst women Workers Himachal Pradesh 89.0 C = Cultivators AL = Agricultural Labourers Source: Census 2001
  19. 19. Labor inputs in rainfed rice production (days/ ha)  Country Villages Total Male Female Indonesia Jakenan, Central Java Sumber Central Java 161 178 54 59 46 41 Thailand Ban Sai Khram, South Ban Don Paw Daeng 104 102 45 46 55 54 Philippine Carosucan, Sta. Barbara Tampac, Nueva Ecija 133 188 73 68 27 32 Cambodia Kandal and Takeo 167 54 46 Vietnam He Thu District 105 45 55 Laos Khok Nghai, Xaythani Ak-sang, Phonethong 110 117 24 38 76 62 India Four locations in Faizabad district 187 132 211 210 16 33 45 24 84 67 55 76 Nepal Naldung, Nagarkot Mohana, Rantnagar Baghmara, Rantnagar 269 101 95 42 50 45 58 50 55 Thelma R. Paris, Sept 23, 2009. Gender considerations in Partnership design and management Strengthening Partnerships and Networks ICRISAT, Patancheru, A.P. India
  20. 20. S. no Activity Participation in % Male Female 1. Land preparation 100 Nil 2. Seed preparation for sowing 8 82 3. Raising nursery and transplanting 25 75 4. Direct sowing 92 8 5. Irrigation 83 17 6. Applying FYM 75 25 7. Fertilizer application 83 17 8. Weeding 17 83 9. Plant protection 83 17 10. Harvesting 42 58 11. Threshing 58 42 12. Bagging/ storing of grain 17 83 13. Marketing of produce 92 8 14. Storing dry fodder 66 34 Over all 60 40 Gender analysis of crop farming systems
  21. 21.  Farm related activities include Role and responsibility - Land preparation - Seed selection - Seed treatment - Nursery raising - Plant protection - Transplanting - Irrigation -Application of manure/ fertilizer -Harvesting -Labour management -Management of produce -Financial management About 65 per cent women participate in farm related activities whereas men’s participation is about 72 per cent, typology being individual and joint participation
  22. 22. Gender issues in rice production o Access to and control over resources o Knowledge differences o Access to information, technology, extension and market o Technology bypass women o Drudgery in agricultural operations o Inadequate and inequitable access to credit and financial services o Low skills and poor access to skill training o Lack of market information and marketing channels o Inadequate holding premises o Lack of business advice and guidance o Migration
  23. 23. Gender differences in landholding  For developing countries for which data are available, between 10 percent and 20 percent of all land holders are women  The developing countries having both the lowest and highest shares of female land holders are in Africa  Among smallholders, farms operated by female- headed households are smaller in almost all countries for which data are available Source : FAO, 2011
  24. 24. Share of male and female agricultural holders in main developing regions
  25. 25. Issues of Women Agricultural Labourers Burden of feeding and nurturing the children Less time for child care Health hazards Less rest during prenatal and post natal period Exploitation by land owners Physical drudgery Insecurity at work place Travel to distant places for work Limited right over family resources Malnutrition or under nutrition Low wage rate than male Deprivation from health services Deprivation from education
  26. 26. Access to and control over resources  The access to and control over resources varies from region to region and for different assets.  Men have greater access to land, farm implements and marketing  In post harvest management women have more responsibility and better access
  27. 27. Access to information, technology, extension and market  Women’s access to information, technology and market is less than that of men  Women’s participation in knowledge gathering is marginal  Technology development in agriculture is mostly focused on mechanization and gender issues overlooked  Poverty, low level of literacy and remoteness of villages hinder access to information, technology and market
  28. 28. Technology types in rice farming  Production enhancing : Directly contribute to the output (seed, soil, fertilizer, pesticide etc)  Production supporting : Tools and equipments which provide a supporting role (power tiller, tractor, thresher, sprayer, harvester etc)  Post production : Processing and value addition (graders, parboiling units, dryers, grinders etc)
  29. 29. Drudgery in agricultural operations  Almost all farmwomen suffer from physical drudgery in various agricultural operations  Transplanting rice in mud in bending position for a long time in rains and scorching sun  Weeding by hand in sun, rain and cold for long hours, drying of produce, standing in scorching sun
  30. 30.  Harvesting in bending position with traditional sickle  Winnowing in dust and sun for a long time  Parboiling of rice by traditional arduous methods  Dehusking/shelling, pounding and grinding by hand as well as hand operated chakki Drudgery in agricultural operations
  31. 31. Drudgery level of agricultural activities as perceived by the agrarian women in paddy/jhum cultivation Activities  Overall drudgery status  Reasons  Transplanting / Planting  Heavy a.  Bending posture b. Long hour of standing in deep puddled soil c. Discomfort on moving forward and backward in wet field. Care and skill required for uniformity in transplanting/planting  Threshing Heavy  a.  Bending posture b. High energy required for threshing  Weeding  Moderately heavy a. Long hours of sitting in wet fields b. Requiring difficult posture in handling traditional implements c. Selection of weed plants from cultivated rice variety d. Use of blunt and old implements
  32. 32. Activities  Overall drudgery status  Reasons   Cutting  Moderately heavy a.  Bending or sitting on toes b.  High energy required for cutting c. Injuries while cutting by traditional sickle d. Setting the lodged plants Carrying the harvested produce  Moderately  heavy a. Difficulties in preparing bundles and carrying b. Carrying head load of bundles causing stress and strain on eyes and neck Drudgery level of agricultural activities as perceived by the agrarian women in paddy/jhum cultivation
  33. 33. Parameters considered for ergonomic evaluation  Anthropometric data  Muscular strength data  Aerobic capacity, physiological cost of operation (heart rate and oxygen consumption rate)  Working posture and load carrying capabilities  The technologies can help in reducing drudgery, increasing utilization efficiency of inputs, ensure timeliness in field operations and reduce turn around time for the next crop, increase productivity, conserve energy, improve quality of work and quality of produce and ultimately enhance the quality of work life of agricultural labourers
  34. 34. In order to transplant 1 hectare of paddy the farmwomen has to dib her finger 30,000 times. This workload is however shared by about 10-12 women. • Hand ridger • Fertilizer broadcaster • 4-row paddy drum seeder • 2-row paddy drum seeder • 2-row rice transplanter • 4-row rice transplanter • Twin wheel hoe • Cono weeder Drudgery reducing tools and equipments for rice farming
  35. 35. • Foot operated paddy thresher • Pedal operated cleaner-grader • Wheel type of fertilizer broadcaster • Pedal thresher • Paddy parboiling unit • Spreading tool • Grain cleaner hanging type • Paddy winnower • Tools and equipment for value addition Drudgery reducing tools and equipments for rice farming
  36. 36. Technology for rice farming and gender impact Technologies Positive benefits for women farmers Modern glutinous rice variety • Increases land productivity • Provides independent income from sale of glutinous rice cakes Weed tolerant varieties (Udayagiri, Ghanteswari, Nilagiri) Better threshold weed density and weed tolerance which helps in drudgery reduction SRI method Ease of crop management and weeding, increased production, saving in inputs and entrepreneurship development in preparation of mat nursery and transplanting Combine harvester Can be owned by women/ custom hired/ lending out to other farmers
  37. 37. Technologies Positive benefits for women farmers Post harvest machinery for processing rice; rice huller; rice micro mill; rice flour mill • Reduces drudgery of hand pounding • Increases volume of rice processed • Saves time and provides flexibility in time use • Provides additional income • Empowers women individually and as a group Rice husk stove • Reduces use of purchased energy • Uses available biomass Integrated pest management • Increases savings on pesticides • Reduces/ eliminates harmful effects of pesticides on human health and food in the natural habitat Technology for rice farming and gender impact
  38. 38. Migration  Migration affects the social structure as well as agriculture and changes in agriculture sector leads to migration  Results in temporary/ long term female headed households and burden of agriculture falls on women  Leads to food insecurity and malnutrition
  39. 39. Gender Concerns in agriculture  Technology  Access to resources  Control over resources  Post harvest process  Institutional support  Policy support  Right to access safe and nutritious food  Eradication of hunger  Equal participation by men and women  Control and management of natural resources  Opportunities for off farm employment
  40. 40. In agriculture gender manifests in :  Physical and mental efficiency  Equity and distributional issues  Food security  Household welfare  Human right  Access to productive assets and resources In the present socio-cultural settings all the above are skewed to men. Hence, gender mainstreaming in the present times has more emphasis on women. Manifestation of Gender
  41. 41. Engendering agricultural Research Distribution of gender studies into different theme areas 12.23 28.82 6.07 52.88 Extension, institution and technology transfer Socio-economic and participation Policy Empowerment and mainstreaming
  42. 42. Gender studies in India  Attention to gender issues was first drawn in India by Dr M.S. Swaminathan when he was Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission by introducing a chapter in the Sixth Five Year Plan  At IRRI his strengthen and promoted the concept of women in rice based farming system  Studies related to women in agriculture and rural development in India dates back to 1961 and by 1988 more than 500 such studies were abstracted
  43. 43. Data base and tools on women in agriculture  There are many micro level studies on role of women. However at macro level the main sources of data are from secondary sources  Studies on role of women were initiated in India by Home scientists as early as 1960’s  Gender analysis in rice farming systems were initiated at IRRI and advanced the theory and practice of gender analysis. (Thelma Paris, 1991)  Gender analysis (SEAGA) Programme, Gender and Development Service (Vicke Wilde, 2001)
  44. 44. Sources of gender data  All India Census  NSSO  FAO and studies and World Bank Reports  ILO  Country level and micro level studies (Eg.Gender Data Base & Studies of DRWA and studies under AICRP on Home Science)
  45. 45. Requirements of gender sensitive research  Gender perspective is incorporating gender concerns in research, extension and development and requires  Good contextual understanding of the environment in which it operates  Well defined gender objective  Gender equity incorporated in participation, prioritization design, decision making, implementation and evaluation  Appropriate research design exploratory, ex-post facto, experimental and action research  Expertise and organizational commitment
  46. 46. Research should aim to address  Role and status  Occupational health hazards  Drudgery  Access to and control over resources and inputs  Technology refinement  Policy advocacy  Institutional measures  Research methodology
  47. 47. SEAGA Approach
  48. 48. MARKETS Gender asymmetries in participation and power in land, labor, finance, and product markets • Distribution of risks and gains along the value chains RISK & VULNERABILITY • Household composition/ labor availability (dependency ratios; migration; disability) • Physical and agro-ecological risks & gender-differentiated impacts • Gender-responsive social protection measures INFORMATION & ORGANIZATION • Gender asymmetries in market information; extension services; and skills/training • Gender asymmetries in participation and leadership in rural organizations • Empowerment and political voice, especially of women ASSETS Gender asymmetries in access to and control over social, physical, financial, natural, and human capitals Sustainable livelihoods Sustainable Livelihoods through a Gender Lens
  49. 49. Recent studies by DRWA Studies conducted at nine states of India covering different agro-climatic zones indicated that  Women’s participation was more in homestead based agriculture  Joint participation in crop production – 75 per cent  Highest participation in Himachal and lowest in Uttarakhand with more of joint participation
  50. 50. Gender participation (%) in different crops in Madhya Pradesh
  51. 51. Gender participation of women and men calculated on the basis of total percentage women hours in different crops showed that women’s participation in rice based cropping system was 44.5 per cent followed by finger millet (43.1%), vegetables (36.9%) and wheat (32.4%). Gender participation (%) in different crops in Madhya Pradesh
  52. 52. Some observations from Orissa An ongoing study by DRWA with CRRI and other crop institutes indicated –  Women’s share in rice farming is about 40 per cent and constitute 1/3 of agriculture labour  Except ploughing women participate in almost all activities from selection of seed to fodder management  Excepting threshing and winnowing all the activities in rice farming are found to be carried out in traditional ways  Men and women opine that traditional technologies are easily available, affordable and specialized skilled not required
  53. 53. Closing the gender gaps • Can improve agricultural productivity, additional benefits through raising, incomes of female farmers, increasing the availability of food and reducing food prices, and raising women’s employment and real wages • Increases production and income • Generates broader social and economic benefits by strengthening women’s direct to access to and control over resources and income
  54. 54.  Evidences from Africa, Asia and Latin America consistently shows that families benefit when women have greater status and power within the household  Increased control over income gives women a stronger bargaining position over economic decisions  Female farmers are just as efficient as male farmers but they produce less because they control less land, use fewer inputs and have less access to important services such as extension advice Closing the gender gaps
  55. 55. Approaches to closing gender gap Policies and Programmes  National Policy for Farmers  National Food Security Mission  RKVY  NHM  Mahila Kisan Shasaktikaran Pariyojana  National Policy for Women in Agriculture (Draft)
  56. 56. Models for closing gender gaps • Women empowerment model • Gender sensitive para extension worker model (Implemented at Simore, Kantamalim, Padasahi and Tangibanta) • Public-private partnership for gender mainstreaming • Cropping models for gender mainstreaming
  57. 57. Philosophy of agriculture development rests on the partnership between man and land and the man is in the centre stage of development, so is, the partnership between farm and home. Farm and home are inseparable, so are men and women like two wheels of a cart.