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Puppetizing Complex
    Applications
   with sipXecs as an example

      Kris Buytaert
Kris Buytaert
●   I used to be a Dev, Then Became an Op
●   Senior Linux and Open Source Consultant
    @inuits.be
●   „Infrastructure Architect“
●   Building Clouds since before the Cloud
●   Surviving the 10th floor test
●   Co-Author of some books
●   Guest Editor at some sites
Today


●   About SIPX
●   About Puppet
●   Deploying SipX
●   ...
Introduction 2 Puppet
Not quite a Muppet...

●   Puppet is...
●   OSS
●   A DSL language
●   Written in Ruby
●   Client/server oriented
●   Contains abstraction layers
●   Repeatable processes
Master of Puppets
●   Puppet master
    •   CA authority
    •   Modules
    •   Node descriptions
    •   Compare, compile, apply
●   Master is not a requirement !
Puppet Clients

●   Puppet client nodes
    •   Daemon
    •   Cron jobs
    •   External orchestration:
        •   for i in $hosts; do ssh $i “puppetd --test”; done
        •   mCollective, Func, …
Facts
●   Facts
      # facter

      memoryfree => 387.21 MB
      memorysize => 492.75 MB
      swapfree => 481.00 MB
      swapsize => 481.00 MB

      domain => dev.inuits.be
      fqdn => node3.dev.inuits.be
      hostname => node3
      interfaces => eth0
      ipaddress => 172.16.142.141
      macaddress => 00:0c:29:42:0b:8a
      netmask => 255.255.255.0
Modules
●   Dedicated per service
●   Reusable
●   Called from the manifests
●   Live in /etc/puppet/modules/
Module Structure
●   Files
●   Templates
    •   Dynamic content
    •   Variables
        <IfModule mpm_worker_module>
               StartServers        <%= StartServers %>
               MaxClients          <%= MaxClients   %>
               MinSpareThreads     <%= MinSpare     %>
               MaxSpareThreads          <%= MaxSpare     %>
               ThreadsPerChild     <%= ThreadsChild %>
               MaxRequestsPerChild   <%= RequestsChild   %>
        </IfModule>
●   Manifests
Modules
●   Files
●   Templates
●   Manifests
    •   DSL
    •   Classes
    •   Elements
Node definitions
●   Nodes.pp
    class defaults {
         $search = "inuits.be"
         $nameservers = ['208.67.220.220', '208.67.222.222']

         include dns::resolv
         include ssh::keys
         include ssh::server
    }

    node "ns1.dev.inuits.be" {
         include defaults
         include dns::powerdns::server
         include dns::powerdns::resolver
    }

    node “web1.dev.inuits.be” {
         include defaults
         include apache2
         include mysql
    }
Ralsh
●   Simplifies writing manifests
●   Will generate parts of the manifest for you
●   Based on your running config
●   Limited functionality
    master1.dev.inuits.be:~# ralsh user root
    user { 'root':
      uid => '0',
      gid => '0',
      comment => 'root',
      ensure => 'present',
      password => 'f34wi94$PmlI0CxQLb9HD',
      shell => '/bin/bash',
      home => '/root'
    }

    master1.dev.inuits.be:~# ralsh service apache2
    service { 'apache2':
      ensure => 'running',
      enable => 'true'
    }
Puppetizing your Infra
●   Define common parts
●   Define unique parts
●   Write your manifests
●   Use modules
    •   Puppet Forge
    •   GitHub
    •   Your own modules
SipXecs
What is sipXecs ?
●   sipX ECS (Enterprise Communications Server)
●   Open Source voice over IP telephony server
●   Implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
●   IP based communications system (IP PBX)
●   Not unlike Asterisk
●   Development started in 1999
●   GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL)
●   Commercial offering from eZuce Inc.
●   Designed around FreeSWITCH
●   Modular and highly scalable system
We don't know VOIP
●   External VOIP consultancy
    •   Hardware selection
    •   Codecs etc
    •   Scale out
●   Irc.freenode.org #sipx




●   s/don/didn/t
●   Don't buy the book
Installing sipxecs
●   Prebuilt ISO
●   Kickstart
●   Install scripts placed in .bashrc
●   Ncurses based
●   Lots of python scripts
●   Heavy GUI usage
Why not Just ?
●   Backup and Restore ?
    •   CDR Integration etc
●   Image ?


●   Productization
    •   Think 20-100 setups
    •   For different customers
    •   Different networks, different domains
So, that Python Script ?
●   Configures your network
●   Configures your dhcpd
●   Configures your dns
●   Configures your ntpd
●   Configures your tftp
●   Generates SSL stuff for you




                There's puppet modules for that !
SipXconfig
●   Is enabled by writing
“enabled” to /var/sipxdata/process-state/ConfigServer
●   The configuration and management server (sipXconfig)
    provides Web administration and user portals, Web services
    APIs, as well as all the abstraction logic to make using
    sipXecs as simple as it is. It provides centralized
    management of all the aspects of sipXecs, including
    installation, configuration, backup & restore, upgrade,
    troubleshooting and cluster management.
●   “Pushes” configs to other nodes
●   Should be rewritten in Puppet or a like.
Configuring sipXecs
●   A couple of files


●   Some of them even obsoleted
●   Putting the SSL stuff in the right location
Everything is a funky SSL
problem
●   Sipx generates keys at install time
    •   Ca + keypairs per node
●   2nd node needs those keys
●   Copy to puppetmaster and transfer back to other nodes ?


●   Or generate on puppetmaster and redistribute ?


        => Generated on Puppetmaster
Adding a second node
●   <> clustering
●   <> high availability ( please don't start crying)


●   Create an entry in the management interface
●   Then repeat manual installation using ncurses


●   Or just do a wget to register it with the primary
class voip::sipx {
     sipx::netconfig {
                "sipx":
                ipaddress => $ip_address,
                netmask => $netmask;
           }
       if $nodename == 'sipx-a' {
           sipx::configserver{ "sipx": }
           sipx::staticcertdbca{ "$hostname": }
           sipx::staticcertdbnodes{ "SIPX-A.${platformdomainextension}":
                           clientname => "SIPX-A"; }
           sipx::staticcertdbnodes{ "SIPX-B.${platformdomainextension}":
                           clientname => "SIPX-B"; }
           include sipx::runmaster
      }
     else {
           include sipx::runslave
           sipx::register{ "$nodename":
                 clientname =>"${nodename}.${platformdomainextension}",
                 password =>"yourpw",}
      }
     sipx::supervisor { "$hostname":
                sipx_supervisor => "sipx-a.$platformdomainextension";
           }
     sipx::staticssl{ "$hostname": }
}
More complexity
                                       Or regular puppet ordering


●   Sipx requires PgSQL
●   You want PgSQL on an isolated LV
●   PgSQL configuration has to be done after it initialized a DB
●   SipX insist on starting PgSQL for you
class voip::storage {
  file {
       "/var/lib/pgsql":
                  ensure => directory;
 lvm::volume { "pgsql":
             vg => "systemvg",
             pv => "/dev/cciss/c0d0p2",
             fstype => "ext3",
                  size => "20G",
                  ensure => present,
 }
 mount { "/var/lib/pgsql":
       atboot => true,
       device => "/dev/systemvg/pgsql",
       ensure => mounted,
       fstype => "ext3",
       options => "defaults",
       require => [Logical_volume['pgsql'],File['/var/lib/pgsql']],
 }
}
class voip::pgsql {
        include postgres
        postgres::initdb { "sipx": }
        postgres::config{ "sipx":
                       listen => "*",
       postgres::hba { "sipx":
             allowedrules => [
                         "host SIPXCDR all   ${clientip}/32 trust",
                       ],
             }
}
include voip::storage

include voip::pgsql

include voip::sipx

   Class["voip::storage"] -> Class["voip::pgsql"] -> Class["voip::sipx"]
Manual config of the
services via the gui is still
        required :(
I want to
●   Automatically create my admin pw
●   Automatically add that second node
●   Automatically disable/ enable functions in the sipX server
    •   e.g conferencing, openfire
●   Add users/phones


●   There's an API !
●   Which only implements limited functionality , and no
    configuration
Screen scraping ?
(03:28:30 PM) lazyboy: y, you just need a form processing library, one that can read a form
values and allow you to post back your changes

(03:30:04 PM) lazyboy: the problem w/this method as you know is that it is constantly
breaking

(03:30:41 PM) sdog: yep .. whan you change the gui .. it will break ....

(03:30:45 PM) lazyboy: maybe we need a serverside abstraction layer, that does the
screenscraping and exports out a clean REST API

(03:31:13 PM) lazyboy: overtime, APIs go straight thru

(03:36:18 PM) lazyboy: so it's possible some of what you want to do is available w/not a lot
of screen scraping.
Abusing Test Frameworks to
  configure services on a
          webgui
Cucumber
●   Looks extremely easy
    •   “Hey our manager could write these test”
●   Isn't
    •   Heavily under documented
    •   Best docs are in the RSpec book
    •   Online examples are mostly broken
●   Requires to write a lot of code
Apache Jmeter
●   Test tool
●   Load generation tool
●   Lets you record session by
    using a proxy
●   Only recent versions support
    SSL
Selenium
●   Firefox plugin
●   Replays your actions
    •   No need to write code
●   Can export to perl, php,
    ruby ..
    •   Which requires the a
        Selenium Remote Control
        Server
    •   Which launches Firefox
●   SSL Fun ahead
Alternatives
●   Sahi
    •   Similar to selenium
    •   Requires proxy
●   www::mechanize
●   Mechanize rubygem
●   Webtest
●   Your idea ?
I want an API
Conclusions
●   No good solution yet :(
●   Talk to your upstream supplier
    •   Vendor / project
●   Be patient
●   Show the good example
●   All bugs produced during this experience are on
        https://github.com/KrisBuytaert
Contact
Kris Buytaert
Kris.Buytaert@inuits.be

Further Reading
@krisbuytaert
http://www.krisbuytaert.be/blog/
http://www.inuits.be/
http://www.virtualizati
on.com/
http://www.oreillygmt.com/
                       Inuits          Esquimaux
                       't Hemeltje     Kheops Business
                       Gemeentepark 2  Center
                       2930 Brasschaat Avenque Georges
                       891.514.231     Lemaître 54
                                       6041 Gosselies
                       +32 473 441 636 889.780.406

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Automating Complex Setups with Puppet

  • 1. Puppetizing Complex Applications with sipXecs as an example Kris Buytaert
  • 2. Kris Buytaert ● I used to be a Dev, Then Became an Op ● Senior Linux and Open Source Consultant @inuits.be ● „Infrastructure Architect“ ● Building Clouds since before the Cloud ● Surviving the 10th floor test ● Co-Author of some books ● Guest Editor at some sites
  • 3. Today ● About SIPX ● About Puppet ● Deploying SipX ● ...
  • 5. Not quite a Muppet... ● Puppet is... ● OSS ● A DSL language ● Written in Ruby ● Client/server oriented ● Contains abstraction layers ● Repeatable processes
  • 6. Master of Puppets ● Puppet master • CA authority • Modules • Node descriptions • Compare, compile, apply ● Master is not a requirement !
  • 7. Puppet Clients ● Puppet client nodes • Daemon • Cron jobs • External orchestration: • for i in $hosts; do ssh $i “puppetd --test”; done • mCollective, Func, …
  • 8. Facts ● Facts # facter memoryfree => 387.21 MB memorysize => 492.75 MB swapfree => 481.00 MB swapsize => 481.00 MB domain => dev.inuits.be fqdn => node3.dev.inuits.be hostname => node3 interfaces => eth0 ipaddress => 172.16.142.141 macaddress => 00:0c:29:42:0b:8a netmask => 255.255.255.0
  • 9. Modules ● Dedicated per service ● Reusable ● Called from the manifests ● Live in /etc/puppet/modules/
  • 10. Module Structure ● Files ● Templates • Dynamic content • Variables <IfModule mpm_worker_module> StartServers <%= StartServers %> MaxClients <%= MaxClients %> MinSpareThreads <%= MinSpare %> MaxSpareThreads <%= MaxSpare %> ThreadsPerChild <%= ThreadsChild %> MaxRequestsPerChild <%= RequestsChild %> </IfModule> ● Manifests
  • 11. Modules ● Files ● Templates ● Manifests • DSL • Classes • Elements
  • 12. Node definitions ● Nodes.pp class defaults { $search = "inuits.be" $nameservers = ['208.67.220.220', '208.67.222.222'] include dns::resolv include ssh::keys include ssh::server } node "ns1.dev.inuits.be" { include defaults include dns::powerdns::server include dns::powerdns::resolver } node “web1.dev.inuits.be” { include defaults include apache2 include mysql }
  • 13. Ralsh ● Simplifies writing manifests ● Will generate parts of the manifest for you ● Based on your running config ● Limited functionality master1.dev.inuits.be:~# ralsh user root user { 'root': uid => '0', gid => '0', comment => 'root', ensure => 'present', password => 'f34wi94$PmlI0CxQLb9HD', shell => '/bin/bash', home => '/root' } master1.dev.inuits.be:~# ralsh service apache2 service { 'apache2': ensure => 'running', enable => 'true' }
  • 14. Puppetizing your Infra ● Define common parts ● Define unique parts ● Write your manifests ● Use modules • Puppet Forge • GitHub • Your own modules
  • 16. What is sipXecs ? ● sipX ECS (Enterprise Communications Server) ● Open Source voice over IP telephony server ● Implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) ● IP based communications system (IP PBX) ● Not unlike Asterisk ● Development started in 1999 ● GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) ● Commercial offering from eZuce Inc. ● Designed around FreeSWITCH ● Modular and highly scalable system
  • 17. We don't know VOIP ● External VOIP consultancy • Hardware selection • Codecs etc • Scale out ● Irc.freenode.org #sipx ● s/don/didn/t ● Don't buy the book
  • 18. Installing sipxecs ● Prebuilt ISO ● Kickstart ● Install scripts placed in .bashrc ● Ncurses based ● Lots of python scripts ● Heavy GUI usage
  • 19. Why not Just ? ● Backup and Restore ? • CDR Integration etc ● Image ? ● Productization • Think 20-100 setups • For different customers • Different networks, different domains
  • 20. So, that Python Script ? ● Configures your network ● Configures your dhcpd ● Configures your dns ● Configures your ntpd ● Configures your tftp ● Generates SSL stuff for you There's puppet modules for that !
  • 21. SipXconfig ● Is enabled by writing “enabled” to /var/sipxdata/process-state/ConfigServer ● The configuration and management server (sipXconfig) provides Web administration and user portals, Web services APIs, as well as all the abstraction logic to make using sipXecs as simple as it is. It provides centralized management of all the aspects of sipXecs, including installation, configuration, backup & restore, upgrade, troubleshooting and cluster management. ● “Pushes” configs to other nodes ● Should be rewritten in Puppet or a like.
  • 22. Configuring sipXecs ● A couple of files ● Some of them even obsoleted ● Putting the SSL stuff in the right location
  • 23. Everything is a funky SSL problem ● Sipx generates keys at install time • Ca + keypairs per node ● 2nd node needs those keys ● Copy to puppetmaster and transfer back to other nodes ? ● Or generate on puppetmaster and redistribute ? => Generated on Puppetmaster
  • 24. Adding a second node ● <> clustering ● <> high availability ( please don't start crying) ● Create an entry in the management interface ● Then repeat manual installation using ncurses ● Or just do a wget to register it with the primary
  • 25. class voip::sipx { sipx::netconfig { "sipx": ipaddress => $ip_address, netmask => $netmask; } if $nodename == 'sipx-a' { sipx::configserver{ "sipx": } sipx::staticcertdbca{ "$hostname": } sipx::staticcertdbnodes{ "SIPX-A.${platformdomainextension}": clientname => "SIPX-A"; } sipx::staticcertdbnodes{ "SIPX-B.${platformdomainextension}": clientname => "SIPX-B"; } include sipx::runmaster } else { include sipx::runslave sipx::register{ "$nodename": clientname =>"${nodename}.${platformdomainextension}", password =>"yourpw",} } sipx::supervisor { "$hostname": sipx_supervisor => "sipx-a.$platformdomainextension"; } sipx::staticssl{ "$hostname": } }
  • 26. More complexity Or regular puppet ordering ● Sipx requires PgSQL ● You want PgSQL on an isolated LV ● PgSQL configuration has to be done after it initialized a DB ● SipX insist on starting PgSQL for you
  • 27. class voip::storage { file { "/var/lib/pgsql": ensure => directory; lvm::volume { "pgsql": vg => "systemvg", pv => "/dev/cciss/c0d0p2", fstype => "ext3", size => "20G", ensure => present, } mount { "/var/lib/pgsql": atboot => true, device => "/dev/systemvg/pgsql", ensure => mounted, fstype => "ext3", options => "defaults", require => [Logical_volume['pgsql'],File['/var/lib/pgsql']], } } class voip::pgsql { include postgres postgres::initdb { "sipx": } postgres::config{ "sipx": listen => "*", postgres::hba { "sipx": allowedrules => [ "host SIPXCDR all ${clientip}/32 trust", ], } }
  • 28. include voip::storage include voip::pgsql include voip::sipx Class["voip::storage"] -> Class["voip::pgsql"] -> Class["voip::sipx"]
  • 29. Manual config of the services via the gui is still required :(
  • 30. I want to ● Automatically create my admin pw ● Automatically add that second node ● Automatically disable/ enable functions in the sipX server • e.g conferencing, openfire ● Add users/phones ● There's an API ! ● Which only implements limited functionality , and no configuration
  • 31. Screen scraping ? (03:28:30 PM) lazyboy: y, you just need a form processing library, one that can read a form values and allow you to post back your changes (03:30:04 PM) lazyboy: the problem w/this method as you know is that it is constantly breaking (03:30:41 PM) sdog: yep .. whan you change the gui .. it will break .... (03:30:45 PM) lazyboy: maybe we need a serverside abstraction layer, that does the screenscraping and exports out a clean REST API (03:31:13 PM) lazyboy: overtime, APIs go straight thru (03:36:18 PM) lazyboy: so it's possible some of what you want to do is available w/not a lot of screen scraping.
  • 32. Abusing Test Frameworks to configure services on a webgui
  • 33. Cucumber ● Looks extremely easy • “Hey our manager could write these test” ● Isn't • Heavily under documented • Best docs are in the RSpec book • Online examples are mostly broken ● Requires to write a lot of code
  • 34. Apache Jmeter ● Test tool ● Load generation tool ● Lets you record session by using a proxy ● Only recent versions support SSL
  • 35. Selenium ● Firefox plugin ● Replays your actions • No need to write code ● Can export to perl, php, ruby .. • Which requires the a Selenium Remote Control Server • Which launches Firefox ● SSL Fun ahead
  • 36. Alternatives ● Sahi • Similar to selenium • Requires proxy ● www::mechanize ● Mechanize rubygem ● Webtest ● Your idea ?
  • 37. I want an API
  • 38. Conclusions ● No good solution yet :( ● Talk to your upstream supplier • Vendor / project ● Be patient ● Show the good example ● All bugs produced during this experience are on https://github.com/KrisBuytaert
  • 39. Contact Kris Buytaert Kris.Buytaert@inuits.be Further Reading @krisbuytaert http://www.krisbuytaert.be/blog/ http://www.inuits.be/ http://www.virtualizati on.com/ http://www.oreillygmt.com/ Inuits Esquimaux 't Hemeltje Kheops Business Gemeentepark 2 Center 2930 Brasschaat Avenque Georges 891.514.231 Lemaître 54 6041 Gosselies +32 473 441 636 889.780.406