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  2. 2. 1|PageABSTRACT4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is asuccessor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of thegenerations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of theservice, non-backwards compatible transmission technology and new frequencybands. The 4G technology has promised to offer widespread, complete andinvulnerable all-IP (Internet Protocol) based services example of such servicesare high quality multimedia streaming, enhanced gaming services, super fastbroadband Internet access, IP telephony and etc.The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems areprojected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems andto provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels.The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wirelessaccess communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems.One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, anytimeanywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customizedpersonal service.As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wirelessaccess systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile communicationarena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobileservice, but also will support the fixed wireless networks.This paper describes basics of mobile communications and how they haveadvanced from 1G, 2G until 4G. 4G is just an improvement in the mobilecommunications.
  3. 3. 2|PageCONTENTS1. Introduction2. Basics3. History 1G 2G 3G4. What is 4G?5. Vision of 4G6. Applications of 4G7. Advantages of 4G8. Disadvantages of 4G9. Which countries have 4G?10. Future in India
  4. 4. 3|PageINTRODUCTIONCommunications is one of the integral parts of science that has always been a focus point ofexchanging information among parties at locations physically apart. After its discovery,telephones have replaced telegrams and letters. Similarly the term ‘mobile’ has completelyrevolutionized the communication by opening up innovative applications that are limited toone’s imagination. Today, mobile communications have become a backbone of society.Mobiles, which were facility yesterday has become a necessity today. All the mobile systemtechnologies have improved the way of living. On the most basic level, mobile technologyrefers to any device capable of utilizing mobile networks to perform basic communicationfunctions like voice calls and short message service.BASICSLet us see how wireless mobile communication takes place:For wireless communication to occur between two points, a simple radio system requiressome fundamental equipments, a transmitter to send a message and a receiver to pick it up.At transmitter, microphone converts the sound of spoken message into electrical signal,because this signal is weak, it cannot travel far, so transmitter processes and amplifies theaudio signal combines it with radio signal & delivers it to antenna. Antenna radiates thesignal containing voice message into the air.At the other end, whole process reverses. Receiver antenna detects the radio signal & sends itto the receiver which processes and turns into audio signal, which then sends to speakertransforming the signal into its original sound, audible sound waves just as they are spoken.So, here we are done with the basics.As we all have heard about the advancement in mobile communications i.e. 1G,2G,3G nadso on but most of us don’t know what this ‘G’ actually mean:G stands for generation of wireless technology. With each generation we get significantlyfaster data speeds and it becomes incompatible with previous generations. We can never see a3G phone with a 4G network.HISTORYAt the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designedto users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. In the sixties, a systemlaunched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or, “Improved Mobile Telephone Service", broughtquite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog
  5. 5. 4|Pagesystems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. The systemswere called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells",each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver.FIRST GENERATION (1G)1G or First Generation was an analog system, and was developed in the seventies, 1G analogsystem for mobile communications where waveforms were sent not the bit streams of 0’s and1’s. It saw two key improvements during the 1970s: the invention of the microprocessor andthe digitization of the control link between the mobile phone and the cell siteAdvance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobilesystem. Based on FDMA, it allows users to make voice calls in 1 country.FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access): It is a method where spectrum is cut up intodifferent frequencies and then this chunk given to the users. At one time only one user isassigned a frequency. Because of this frequency is closed until the call is ended or it is passedonto another frequency.Disadvantages:  The main disadvantage of 1g technology is that it makes use of analog rather than digital signals. This is a less effective means of transmitting information.  It is significantly slower, and signals can not reach as far in terms of secluded areas and such - 2g and 3g signal is far more widespread.  In addition, analogue signals are more likely to suffer interference problems. This can make using a mobile phone with analog signal more difficult.  Poor battery life, frequent call drops, poor voice quality and no security are also its problems.2g and 3g technology has built on the phenomenon of 1g technology, and although these latergenerations of technology are more effective, 1g technology provided the greatest scientificbreakthrough.SECOND GENERATION (2G):2G digital cellular systems were first developed at the end of the 1980s. These systemsdigitized not only the control link but also the voice signal. The new system
  6. 6. 5|Pageprovided better quality and higher capacity at lower cost to consumers. GSM(Global system for mobile communication) was the first commercially operateddigital cellular system which is based on TDMA.TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access): It makes use of whole availablespectrum, unlike FDMA.Instead of splitting the slots by frequency,it splits themby time, all over the frequency. Each subscriber is given a time slot as opposedto frequency. Therefore many users can sit on one frequency and have differenttime slots, because the time slots are switched so rapidly TDMA is used for 2Gnetworks.Advantages:  The lower powered radio signals require less battery power, so phones last much longer between charges, and batteries can be smaller.  The digital voice encoding allowed digital error checking which could increase sound quality by reducing dynamic and lowering the noise floor.  The lower power emissions helped address health concerns. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS and email.  A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that digital cellular calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners. While the security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised, 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phones, which have no protection whatsoever against eavesdropping.Disadvantages:  In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal will not be sufficient to reach a cell tower.  Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through.  With analog systems it was possible to have two or more "cloned" handsets that had the same phone number. This was widely abused for fraudulent purposes. It was, however, of great advantage in many legitimate situations. One could have a backup handset in case of damage or loss, a permanently installed handset in a car or remote
  7. 7. 6|Page workshop, and so on. With digital systems, this is no longer possible, unless the two handsets are never turned on simultaneously.Digital transmission came into existence so that they can fit more channels within a givenbandwidth, and thus get more customers. It came because analog signals cannot becompressed as digital signals. Digital phones convert our voice into binary then compressit.This compression allows between 3 to 10 digital cell phone calls to occupy space of asingle analog call.THIRD GENERATION (3G):3G mobile systems were developed at the end of 1990’s. The 3G technology adds multimediafacilities to 2G phones by allowing video, audio, and graphics applications. Over 3G phones,you can watch streaming video or have video telephony. The idea behind 3G is to have asingle network standard instead of the different types adopted in the US, Europe, and Asia.3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 kbps when the device holder is walking, 128kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. It is based on FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access): It uses spread spectrum method. Unlike FDMA,CDMA allows the user to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same time and hopbetween then. Each call is identified by its unique code, hence the term Code Division.Advantages:  High Speed and High Bandwidth Usage High bandwidth when compared to 2G – the measure of the transmission capacity – is one of the selling points of 3G. This allows you to quickly and easily access all of your favourite online multimedia and Internet tools, just like you were sitting at the front of your home computer. You can pay bills on the spot, update social networking status and check your e-mails, all on the go.  Always-Online Devices Another advantage of the 3G technology is that it can utilize the packet-based Internet protocol connectivity of your device. This means that your mobile device will always be set to be online and will be ready for on the click Internet access. However, you will not pay for the connection until you start sending or receiving packet data, such as sending an email or looking at a web page on the peek.Disadvantages:
  8. 8. 7|Page  Associated and High Costs To support the 3rd generation technology, updates need to be made to the current cellular infrastructure so the 3g can be enabled on the mobile phone. According to 3G Internet, this means installing new 3G equipment at every current cellular base station and acquiring some new frequencies for enabling 3G transmissions. 3G is very costly but worth it’s price due to its stability to work very fast.  Power Requirements In addition to being more and more expensive, 3G handsets also requires so much power than most of the 2G models. According to Silicon Press (a Gadget Guide), this extra power requirement can lead to translation to larger batteries, shortage of usage periods between recharging and more heavy handsets overall.FOUURTH GENERATION (4G):4g is a term used to describe next complete evolution in wireless communication. Anynetwork that satisfies the 4th generation of wireless standards is known as 4G. Wirelessstandards are the sets of technology and speed requirements that makes the differencebetween two generations.ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union-Radio) specified the requirements for 4Gstandards i.e. 100 Mbps for high mobility communications (trains & cars) and 1Gbps for lowmobility communications (for stationary users).4G can be described in one word MAGIC i.e. Mobile multimedia communication, Anytime,anywhere, Global mobility support, Integrated wireless solution, Customized personalservice.It uses OFDM technology. OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing),this worksby splitting radio signal into multiple smaller sub signals that are then transmittedsimultaneously at different frequencies to the receiver.OFDM helps in reducing multipathdistortion. It has better spectral efficiency.
  9. 9. 8|PageVISION OF 4GThis new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems,perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamlessconnection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume ofinformation, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures.The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internetprotocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able tochoose every application and environment. Based on the developing trends of mobilecommunication, 4G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quickerhandoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systemsand networks.The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existingmobile technologies through advanced technologies. Application adaptability and beinghighly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users.These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal preference ofdifferent users and support the users traffic, air interfaces, radio environment, and quality ofservice.Connection with the network applications can be transferred into various forms and levelscorrectly and efficiently. The dominant methods of access to this pool of information will bethe mobile telephone, PDA, and laptop to seamlessly access the voice communication, high-speed information services ,and entertainment broadcast services..The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks, public to private;operator-driven broadband networks to personal areas; and ad hoc networks. The 4G systemswill interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital (broadband) broadcastingsystems. In addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. This all-encompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourthgeneration intends to integrate, from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN4G Mobile Communication system.Applications:The major applications that 4G technology will provide include.  Tele Geoprocessing: It is a combination of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), working together in high capacity wireless mobile
  10. 10. 9|Page system. By using this facility, public safety will be enhanced by reading the environment of even a remote place and understanding the problems of concerned areas.  Virtual Navigation: By use of 4G, the data base can be accessed by a subscriber in a moving vehicle equipped with the appropriate wireless device to know about the roads and locations in advance.  Tele medicine: With the use of this technology, paramedic assistance could be provided to a victim of traffic accident in a remote location. It would also be helpful to access medical records (e.g. X-ray sheets) and establish a video conference so that, a remotely-based surgeon could provide on screed assistance.  Crisis-management applications: In case of natural disasters, where the entire communications infrastructure would be in disarray, restoring communication quickly will be essential. Using 4G, both limited and complete communications capabilities, including internet and video services, would be set up in a matter of hours.  Virtual presence Use hologram-generating virtual reality programs that provide an artificial presence just about anywhere. For example, decide if you want to personally respond when someone rings your front door while you are away from home.  Broadband access in remote locations 4G networks will provide a wireless alternative for broadband access to residential and business customers. In addition, 4G will provide the first opportunity for broadband access in remote locations without an infrastructure to support cable or DSL access. Apart from these, 4G technology would have high network capacity, high speed data transfer at any two points in the world with seamless connectivity and global roaming. No new infrastructure would be needed to install, as 4G will be interoperable with existing wireless standards, dynamically sharing and utilizing the already existing network resource. It will have also the feature of smelling the background of the other person on the phone. If someone is cooking something and somebody wants to smell it, he/ she would be able to do that.
  11. 11. 10 | P a g eAdvantages:  The most obvious advantage of the 4G mobile network is its amazing speed. Increased bandwidth leads to much faster data transfer speed, which is especially advantageous for mobile devices. Users of the 4G network get the advantage of superior, uninterrupted connectivity, especially for advanced tasks such as video chats and conferences. Considering the younger generation of mobile device users, they can stream music, videos and movies at a much faster rate than ever before and can also easily share information online.  4G networks offer much more coverage than other systems such as WiFi, which forces users to depend upon hotspots in each area you visit. Since 4G offers a coverage of 30 miles and more, as also overlapping network ranges, users would be assured of complete connectivity at all times.  One of the biggest problems with WiFi networks is that of online security. This is especially true for mobile devices. 4G networks offer complete privacy, security and safety. This is especially beneficial for corporate establishments and business persons, who hold sensitive information on their respective mobile devices.  4G networks are quite affordable these days, what with pricing schemes being considerably slashed to fit users’ budgets. Of course, this type of connectivity is more expensive than traditional WiFi networks, but it also has a lot more advantages to offer to users.Disadvantages  Though the concept of 4G mobile networks is steadily gaining popularity, connectivity is still limited to certain specified carriers and regions. Of course, the number of cities that have 4G coverage is increasing by the day. However, it would take its own time for this network to be available in all the major cities of the world.
  12. 12. 11 | P a g e  Though the hardware compatible with 4G networks is available at much cheaper rates today than earlier, the fact remains that this new equipment would necessarily have to be installed in order to supply these services. This would prove to be a cumbersome process for most mobile carriers planning to launch these services.  Since 4G mobile technology is still fairly new, it will most likely have its initial glitches and bugs, which could be quite annoying for the user. Needless to say, these teething troubles would be sorted out in due course of time, as well as with increase in network coverage.  4G mobile networks use multiple antennae and transmitters and hence, users would experience much poorer battery life on their mobile devices, while on this network. This would mean that they would have to use larger mobile devices with more battery power, in order to be able to stay online for longer periods of time.  Users would be forced to make do with 3G or WiFi connectivity in the areas that do not yet have 4G mobile network coverage. While this is a problem in itself, the worse issue is that they would still have to pay the same amount as specified by the 4G network plan. This loophole has already resulted in many disgruntled customers. This situation can only be resolved once mobile carriers expand their 4G network coverage to include more regions.WHICH COUNTRIES HAVE 4G?WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), LTE(Long Term Evolution),and HSPA+ are all versions of 4G, WiMAX is used by Sprint, LTE is used by Verizon andATT(America Telephone & Telegraph), HSPA+ is used by AT&T and TMobile.United States (by Sprint), Norway and Sweden have all got 4g up and running.As of July 2012, many countries have got 4G like Canada, USA, Estonia etc..UK to have it up and running by end of this year.
  13. 13. 12 | P a g eNew Zealand, still dont have 4G services, but are set to get them in the next year.FUTURE IN INDIAIndia is emerging as one of the largest market in the world for wireless.Soon we will be blessed with 4G network.Wireless is possibly the only way forward to connect most of the six lakhs villages tointernet.Bharti Airtel will be launching India’s First 4G smartphone in few months.Reliance is also planning to launch 4G smartphone in India.