Role of agriculture in india

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Role of agriculture in india

  1. 1. PRESENTING BY: REUBEN KALAI. KOUSHIK MALAKAR. MRMD 2nd Sem.
  2. 2. CONTENTS  AGRICULTURE IN INDIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE  AGRICULTURE AVERAGE PRODUCTION SINCE 1970-2010  IRRIGATION SINCE 1950 IN INDIA  CHANGES IN LAND USE PATTERN  EMPLOYEBILITY IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR SINCE 1960  CONCLUSION
  3. 3. AGRICULTURE SINCE INDEPENDENCE  Over 50 years since its independence, India has made immense progress towards food security.  Prior to the mid-1960s India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements. However, two years of severe drought in 1965 and 1966 convinced India to reform its agricultural policy, and that India could not rely on foreign aid and foreign imports for food security.
  4. 4. Continue.  The Indian state of Punjab led India's Green Revolution  The initial increase in production was centered on the irrigated areas of the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh  India's agricultural economy is undergoing structural changes. Between 1970 and 2011, the GDP share of agriculture has fallen from 43 to 16%
  5. 5. AGRICULTURE AVERAGE PRODUCTION Agriculture productivity in India, growth in average yields from 1970 to 2010 Crop Average YIELD, 1970-1971 Average YIELD, 1990-1991 Average YIELD, 2010–2011 kilogram per hectare kilogram per hectare kilogram per hectare 1123 1740 2240 1307 2281 2938 524 578 689 579 771 1325 48322 65395 68596 1182 1652 1669 106 225 510 Source:AgriculturalStatisticsataGlance
  6. 6. IRRIGATION SINCE 1950  Irrigation in India refers to the supply of water from Indian rivers, tanks, wells, canals and other artificial projects for the purpose of cultivation and agricultural activities. In country such as India, 64% of cultivated land is dependent on monsoons.
  7. 7. Changes in Irrigated Area in India from 1950-51 to 2000-01 Category 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 Net irrigated area 20853 24661 31103 38720 48023 54836 Gross irrigated area 22563 27980 38195 49775 63204 75821 Irrigation intensity (In Percent) 108 113 123 128 132 138 (In Thousand Hectors) Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance (2008)
  8. 8. CHANGES IN LAND USE PATTERN  The basic factor in agriculture is land.  Till 1950, the land in India was broadly classified into five categories.  . Hence, a reclassification was adopted from March 1950. Under it, land in India now classified under nine different categories.  (i) forests;  (ii) Barren and uncultivable lands;  (iii) Land put to non-agricultural uses;  (iv) Cultivable wastes
  9. 9. Continue.  (v) Permanent pastures and other grazing lands;  (vi) Miscellaneous tree crops and groves not included in the net area sown;  (vii) Current fallows;  (viii) Other fallows; and  (ix) Net sown area.
  10. 10. LAND USE PATTERN Categor y 1951-52 1961-62 1971-72 1981-82 1991-92 2001-02 Geographi cal area 328726 328726 328726 328726 328726 328726 Reporting area for land use 287827 (87.56) 299151 (91) 304141 (92.52) 304272 (92.56) 304900 (92.75) 305014 (92.79) Barren and uncultivabl e land 37484 (13.02) 35921 (12.01) 27996 (9.20) 20010 (6.58) 19270 (6.32) 17709 (5.81) Cropping Intensity 111 115 118 123 130 131 Forest land under good tree cover 48889 (16.98) 54189 (18.11) 63771 (20.97) 67422 (22.15) 67866 (22.25) 69511 (22.79) Misc. tree crops and groves 7881 (2.73) 4500 (1.50) 4284 (1.41) 3715 (1.22) 3761 (1.23) 3370 (1.10) Permanent pasture and grazing 8592 (2.98) 14082 (4.70) 12960 (4.26) 12007 (3.95) 11299 (3.71) 10586 (3.47) Source:AgriculturalStatisticsataGlance
  11. 11. EMPLOYEBILITY IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR SINCE 1960  The share of agriculture in employment declined from about 82 percent in 1950/51 to about 72 percent by 2001  Agricultural workforce about 45.6 percent are registered as agricultural labor and the rest, i.e., 54.4 percent as cultivators while 28.1 percent was registered as agriculture labor and the rest as cultivators in 1950/51. This indicates that agricultural workforce shifted from cultivators to agricultural labors
  12. 12. EMPLOYEBILITY IN AGRICULTURE Year Total populati on Average Annual Exponen tial Growth Rate (%) Rural Populati on Cultivato rs Agri. Labourer s Total Share of Agricultu re to GDP (%) 1951 361.1 1.25 298.6 (82.7) 69.9 (71.9) 27.3 (28.1) 140.0 (100.0) 54.66 1961 439.2 1.96 360.3 (82.0) 99.6 (76.0) 31.5 (24.0) 188.7 (100.0) 49.14 1971 548.2 2.22 439.0 (80.1) 78.2 (62.2) 47.5 (37.8) 180.4 (100.0) 43 1981 683.3 2.20 523.9 (76.7) 92.5 (62.5) 55.5 (37.5) 244.6 (100.0) 37.5 1991 846.4 2.14 628.9 (74.3) 110.7 (59.7) 74.6 (40.3) 185.3 (100.0) 30.32 2001 1028.7 1.95 742.6 (72.2) 127.3 (54.4) 106.8 (45.6) 234.1 100.0) 24 (In millions) Source:AgriculturalStatisticsataGlance (2008)
  13. 13. CONCLUSION  Indian population has tripled, but food-grain production is less.  With both the farmers and the government officials focusing on farm productivity and knowledge transfer, India's total food grain production soared. A hectare of Indian wheat farms that produced an average of 0.8 tones in 1948 produced 4.7 tones of wheat in 1975 from the same land.  1980s to the states of eastern India —Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal.  Rapid economic growth in services, industrial output, and non-agricultural sectors in India between 2000 to 2010.

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