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Presentation on Health and Medicine (sociology)


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Presentation on Health and Medicine (sociology)

  2. 2. Health and Medicine
  4. 4. What is Health?What is Health? • Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. What is Medicine?What is Medicine? •Any substance or substances used in treating disease or illness.
  5. 5. Sociological PerspectiveSociological Perspective on Health and Illnesson Health and Illness • There are four sociological perspective and they are given below – Functionalist Approach – Conflict Approach – Interactionist Approach – Labeling Approach
  6. 6. Functionalist ApproachFunctionalist Approach A sick individual is not a productive member of society. Therefore this deviance needs to be policed, which is the role of the medical profession. Conflict ApproachConflict Approach The dramatic differences in infant mortality rates around the world reflect, at last in part, unequal distribution of health care resources based on the wealth or poverty of various communities and nations
  7. 7. Interactionist ApproachInteractionist Approach Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act. Labeling theory is based on the idea that behaviors are deviant only when society labels them as deviant. Labeling ApproachLabeling Approach One of the interactionist perspective's central ideas is that people act as they do because of how they define situations.
  9. 9. Social Epidemiology and HealthSocial Epidemiology and Health Social epidemiology is a study of distribution of disease, impairment and general health across the population. It is the area of healthcare that deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases, illnesses and other factors relating to health.
  10. 10. Social ClassSocial Class Lower Class vs. Higher Class Income education awareness Medical care
  11. 11. Race and EthnicityRace and Ethnicity United States vs. Africa Income Environmental condition Medical facilities GenderGender Male vs. Female Health condition Addiction Environment Proper food
  12. 12. AgeAge Old Man vs. Young Man Health condition Normal food Medicine Work
  13. 13. SECTION : C
  14. 14. Health Care in the United StatesHealth Care in the United States • The health care system of the United States has moved far beyond the days when general practitioners living in neighborhood or community typically made • house calls and charged modest fees for their services. The “popular health movement” of the 1830s and 1840s emphasized preventive care and what is termed “self-help’’. Strong criticism was voiced of “doctoring” as a paid • occupation .New medical philosophies or sects established their own medical • schools and challenged the authority and methods of more traditional doctors. • By the 1840s, most states had repeated medical licensing laws. The authority of the physician no longer depended on lay attitudes or on the person occupying the sick role; increasingly ,it was built into the structure of the medical profession gained control over both the market for its services and the various organizational hierarchies that govern medical practice, financing and policymaking. Traditionally physicians have held a position of dominance in their dealings with both patients and nurses. The functionalist and interactions of physicians as it relates to patient care.
  15. 15. • Patients have traditionally relied on medical personnel to inform them of health care issues, but increasingly they are turning to the media for health care information. Recognizing this change, pharmaceutical firms are advertising their prescription drugs directly to potential customers through television and magazines. The internet is another growing source for patient information. Medical professionals are understandably suspicious of these new sources of information. In traditional forms of health care, people rely on physicians and hospitals for the treatment of illness. Yet at least one out of every three adults • In the United States attempts to maintain good health or respond to illness through the use of alternative health care techniques.
  16. 16. For example, in recent Decades interest has been growing in holistic(also spelled holistic ) medical principles, first developed in China. On the international level , the World Health Organization ( WHO) has begun to monitor the uses of alternative medicine around the world. According to WHO, 80 percent of people who lives in the poorest countries in the world use some form of alternative medicine, from berbel treatments to the services of a faith healer. In most countries, these treatments are largely unregulated, even though some of them can be fatal.
  17. 17. SECTION : DSECTION : D
  18. 18. Mental illness in the UnitedMental illness in the United StatesStates The word mental illness and insanity evoke dramatic and inaccurate image of emotional problems. The term mental illness should be reserved for a disorder of the brain that disrupts a person’s thinking, feelings, and ability to interact with others.
  19. 19. Theoretical Models of Mental DisordTheoretical Models of Mental Disord  A medical model and a more sociological approach derived from labeling theory  The U.S. Surgeon General declared the accumulated weight of scientific evidence leaves no doubt about the physical origins of mental illness.  The definition of mental illness differs from one culture to the next.
  20. 20. Theoretical Models of MentalTheoretical Models of Mental DisordersDisorders  Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz published a book “The Myth of Mental Illness” in 1960  The medical model is persuasive because it pinpoints the causes of mental illness and others treatment for disorders.
  21. 21. Patterns of CarePatterns of Care  People suffered from mental disorders were deemed the responsibility of their families.  Mental illness has been a matter of governmental concern much longer than physical illness because severe emotional disorders threaten the stable social relationship.  CMHC program decreased inpatient care  By the 1980s CMHC replaced hospitalization as the typical form of treatment.
  22. 22. SECTION : ESECTION : E
  23. 23. Environmental IssuesEnvironmental Issues    • Around the world people are recognizing the need to address challenges to the environment. We will discuss the enormous challenge of global warming in this section along with three board areas.
  24. 24. Air PollutionAir Pollution • Worldwide more than 1 billion people are exposed to potentially health- damaging levels of air pollution. Unfortunately in cities around the world, residents have come to accept smog and polluted air as normal.
  25. 25. Water PollutionWater Pollution • Throughout the United States, dumping of waste materials by industries and local governments has polluted streams, rivers and lakes. Many bodies of water have become unsafe for drinking, fishing and swimming.
  26. 26. Global WarmingGlobal Warming • The term global warming refers to the significant rise in the earth’s surface temperatures that occurs when industrial gases like carbon dioxide turn the planet’s atmosphere into a viral greenhouse.
  27. 27. The Impact of GlobalizationThe Impact of Globalization • Globalization can be both good and bad for the environment .On the negative side it can create a race to the bottom as polluting companies relocate to countries with less environmental standards.
  28. 28. Sociological Perspective onSociological Perspective on the Environmentthe Environment • We have seen that the environment people live in has a noticeable effect on their health. Those who live in overcrowded places suffer more from disease than who do not. Though environmental problems may be easy to identify, devising, socially and politically acceptable solutions to them is much more difficult.
  29. 29. Human EcologyHuman Ecology • It is an area of study that is concerned with the interrelationships between people and their government. There is no shortage of illustrations of people and their environment. The increasing prevalence of asthma cancer have all been tied to human alterations to the environment.
  30. 30. Conflict View ofConflict View of EnvironmentEnvironment • Conflict theorists are well aware of the environmental implications of land use policies in the Third World, but they contend that focusing on the developing countries is ethnocentric.
  31. 31. Ecological ModernizationEcological Modernization • Critics of the human ecological and conflict model argue that they are too rooted in the past. People who take these approaches, they charge, have become bogged down in addressing existing practices of ecological modernization.
  32. 32. Environmental JusticeEnvironmental Justice • It is a legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards. The environmental justice movement has become globalized for several reasons.