What is Health?What is Health?
• Health is a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity.
What is Medicine?What is Medicine?
•Any substance or substances used in treating
disease or illness.
Sociological PerspectiveSociological Perspective
on Health and Illnesson Health and Illness
• There are four sociological
perspective and they are given below
– Functionalist Approach
– Conflict Approach
– Interactionist Approach
– Labeling Approach
Functionalist ApproachFunctionalist Approach
A sick individual is not a productive member of
society. Therefore this deviance needs to be policed,
which is the role of the medical profession.
Conflict ApproachConflict Approach
The dramatic differences in infant mortality rates
around the world reflect, at last in part, unequal
distribution of health care resources based on the wealth
or poverty of various communities and nations
Interactionist ApproachInteractionist Approach
Labeling theory holds that deviance is not
inherent to an act. Labeling theory is based
on the idea that behaviors are deviant only
when society labels them as deviant.
Labeling ApproachLabeling Approach
One of the interactionist perspective's
central ideas is that people act as they do
because of how they define situations.
Social Epidemiology and HealthSocial Epidemiology and Health
Social epidemiology is a study of
distribution of disease, impairment and
general health across the population. It is
the area of healthcare that deals with the
incidence, distribution, and possible
control of diseases, illnesses and other
factors relating to health.
Social ClassSocial Class
Lower Class vs. Higher Class
Race and EthnicityRace and Ethnicity
United States vs. Africa
Male vs. Female
Old Man vs. Young Man
Health Care in the United StatesHealth Care in the United States
• The health care system of the United States has moved far beyond the days
when general practitioners living in neighborhood or community typically
• house calls and charged modest fees for their services. The “popular health
movement” of the 1830s and 1840s emphasized preventive care and what is
termed “self-help’’. Strong criticism was voiced of “doctoring” as a paid
• occupation .New medical philosophies or sects established their own medical
• schools and challenged the authority and methods of more traditional doctors.
• By the 1840s, most states had repeated medical licensing laws.
The authority of the physician no longer depended on lay attitudes or on the
person occupying the sick role; increasingly ,it was built into the structure of
the medical profession gained control over both the market for its services and
the various organizational hierarchies that govern medical practice, financing
policymaking. Traditionally physicians have held a position of dominance in
dealings with both patients and nurses. The functionalist and interactions
of physicians as it relates to patient care.
• Patients have traditionally relied on medical personnel to
inform them of health care issues, but increasingly they are
turning to the media for health care information.
Recognizing this change, pharmaceutical firms are
advertising their prescription drugs directly to potential
customers through television and magazines. The internet
is another growing source for patient information. Medical
professionals are understandably suspicious of these new
sources of information. In traditional forms of health care,
people rely on physicians and hospitals for the treatment of
illness. Yet at least one out of every three adults
• In the United States attempts to maintain good health or
respond to illness through the use of alternative health care
For example, in recent
Decades interest has been growing in
holistic(also spelled holistic ) medical
principles, first developed in China. On the
international level , the World Health
Organization ( WHO) has begun to monitor the
uses of alternative medicine around the world.
According to WHO, 80 percent of people who
lives in the poorest countries in the world use
some form of alternative medicine, from berbel
treatments to the services of a faith healer. In
most countries, these treatments are largely
unregulated, even though some of them can be
Mental illness in the UnitedMental illness in the United
The word mental illness and insanity evoke
dramatic and inaccurate image of emotional
problems. The term mental illness should be
reserved for a disorder of the brain that disrupts
a person’s thinking, feelings, and ability to
interact with others.
Theoretical Models of Mental DisordTheoretical Models of Mental Disord
A medical model and a more sociological approach
derived from labeling theory
The U.S. Surgeon General declared the accumulated
weight of scientific evidence leaves no doubt about
the physical origins of mental illness.
The definition of mental illness differs from one
culture to the next.
Theoretical Models of MentalTheoretical Models of Mental
Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz published a book
“The Myth of Mental Illness” in 1960
The medical model is persuasive because it
pinpoints the causes of mental illness and
others treatment for disorders.
Patterns of CarePatterns of Care
People suffered from mental disorders were
deemed the responsibility of their families.
Mental illness has been a matter of
governmental concern much longer than
physical illness because severe emotional
disorders threaten the stable social
CMHC program decreased inpatient care
By the 1980s CMHC replaced hospitalization
as the typical form of treatment.
Environmental IssuesEnvironmental Issues
• Around the world people are recognizing the
need to address challenges to the environment.
We will discuss the enormous challenge of
global warming in this section along with three
Air PollutionAir Pollution
• Worldwide more than 1 billion people
are exposed to potentially health-
damaging levels of air pollution.
Unfortunately in cities around the world,
residents have come to accept smog and
polluted air as normal.
Water PollutionWater Pollution
• Throughout the United States, dumping of
waste materials by industries and local
governments has polluted streams, rivers
and lakes. Many bodies of water have
become unsafe for drinking, fishing and
Global WarmingGlobal Warming
• The term global warming refers to the
significant rise in the earth’s surface
temperatures that occurs when industrial
gases like carbon dioxide turn the planet’s
atmosphere into a viral greenhouse.
The Impact of GlobalizationThe Impact of Globalization
• Globalization can be both good and bad for
the environment .On the negative side it can
create a race to the bottom as polluting
companies relocate to countries with less
Sociological Perspective onSociological Perspective on
the Environmentthe Environment
• We have seen that the environment people
live in has a noticeable effect on their health.
Those who live in overcrowded places suffer
more from disease than who do not. Though
environmental problems may be easy to
identify, devising, socially and politically
acceptable solutions to them is much more
Human EcologyHuman Ecology
• It is an area of study that is concerned with
the interrelationships between people and
their government. There is no shortage of
illustrations of people and their environment.
The increasing prevalence of asthma cancer
have all been tied to human alterations to the
Conflict View ofConflict View of
• Conflict theorists are well aware of the
environmental implications of land use
policies in the Third World, but they
contend that focusing on the developing
countries is ethnocentric.
Ecological ModernizationEcological Modernization
• Critics of the human ecological and conflict
model argue that they are too rooted in the
past. People who take these approaches, they
charge, have become bogged down in
addressing existing practices of ecological
Environmental JusticeEnvironmental Justice
• It is a legal strategy based on claims that
racial minorities are subjected
disproportionately to environmental
hazards. The environmental justice
movement has become globalized for