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Open Data & Linked Open Data

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Presentation at Kansai Mash App! VOL.02.

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Open Data & Linked Open Data

  1. 1. Open Data and LOD(Linked Open Data) Kouji KOZAKI LOD Challenge committee / The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (I.S.I.R), Osaka University 2015/8/2 1 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 2015.08.02 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  2. 2. Year \ Area Dataset Idea Application Visualize Base technology FY2014(245works) FY2013(321works) FY2012(205works) FY2011( 73works) 87 101 87 21 51 67 50 34 69 122 44 18 20 18 24 18 13 LOD(Linked Open Data) Challenge A series of contest which aim to spread LOD. It is held every year from 2011.  Numbers of submissions http://lod.sfc.keio.ac.jp/ 22015/8/2 LOD Challenge 2015 will be announced SOON! Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  3. 3. Open Data  Open Data  Published data which anyone can use freely  Definition of Open Data(Open Definition)  “Open data and content can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose” (cf. http://opendefinition.org/)  Examples which are NOT Open Data  It is restricted to modify and/or share.  Its users are limited. e.g. Only academic institutes  Its purposes to use are limited. e.g. No commercial, Only for submitting a contest 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 3
  4. 4. G8 Summit 2013 in Lough Erne G8 Open Data Charter http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000006820.pdf 2013/06/18 Principle 1: Open Data by Default Principle 2: Quality and Quantity Principle 3: Usable by All Principle 4: Releasing Data for Improved Governance Principle 5: Releasing Data for Innovation G8 countries agree about “Promotion of Open Data” 42015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  5. 5. Two viewpoints for open data  license  No limitations for purpose, users, sharing, modifying e.g. CC-BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)  It is important for the users to use without worry.  Machine readable formats  Formats which are easy for processing by program e.g. CSV, JSON, RDF (Linked Data), etc.  It is important to develop application in low costs.  LOD (Linked Open Data) is a good way for publishing open data.  It ranks as 5 star in “5 ★ Open Data” by Tim Berners- Lee (http://5stardata.info/). 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 5
  6. 6. Linked Data  It aim to create new value by linking data on the Web.  Proposed by Web Tim Berners-Lee (2006-). ※ Linked Open Data(LOD):Linked Data published as Open Data. http://linkeddata.org/ • Technologies for linking data on web are provided. →Data on Web can be used as a global database. 62015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  7. 7. TED Talk by Tim Berrners Lee (2009) ~Raw Data Now!~ http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_on_the_next_web.html Publish Open Data on Web =Raw Data Now! 72015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  8. 8. How LOD are extend on the Web ~LOD Cloud~ 2007/5/1 2007/10/8 2008/9/182009/7/14 2010/9/22 http://lod-cloud.net/ 2011/9/19 Each circle represents a DB (LOD) DBPedia 82015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  9. 9. How LOD are extend on the Web ~LOD Cloud~ Linking Open Data cloud diagram 2014, by Max Schmachtenberg, Christian Bizer, Anja Jentzsch and Richard Cyganiak. http://lod-cloud.net/ 2014/08/30 92015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  10. 10. 2015/8/2 10 Domains # of dataset % Government 183 18.05 Publications 96 9.47 Life sciences 83 8.19 User-generated content 48 4.73 Cross-domain 41 4.04 Media 22 2.17 Geographic 21 2.07 Social web 520 51.28 Total 1014 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  11. 11. DBpedia Community project to generate LOD from Wikipedia. Data is extracted from infoboxes based on definition of an ontology. http://dbpedia.org/ 112015/8/2 An example of Infobox (Osaka (Osaka city)) Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  12. 12. An example of Data in DBpedia 2015/8/2 12 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Osaka Links to related data through property (named hyper-link) using URIs. Each data has a URI as a global ID. Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  13. 13. Search API for DBpedia (SPARQL endpoint) 2015/8/2 13 http://dbpedia.org/sparql Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  14. 14. A query example select distinct ?label where { <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Osaka_Cast le> rdfs:label ?label } LIMIT 100 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 14
  15. 15. DBpedia Japanese 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 15 http://jp.dbpedia.org/ SPARQL Endpoint
  16. 16. Example of a data in DBpedia Japanese 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 16 http://ja.dbpedia.org/page/大阪府
  17. 17. SPARQL Endpoint for DBpedia Japanese 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 17 Sample queries in Japanese https://t.co/6eQIPel5Vh http://ja.dbpedia.org/sparql
  18. 18. A query example  「各都道府県で生まれた政治家の数」を調べる  The numbers of Japanese politicians who born each prefectures. PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> PREFIX dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> PREFIX dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> PREFIX dbpedia-ja: <http://ja.dbpedia.org/resource/> PREFIX category-ja: <http://ja.dbpedia.org/resource/Category:> select distinct ?pref (count(?s) AS ?c) where { ?pref rdf:type dbpedia-owl:Place. ?pref dcterms:subject category-ja:日本の都道府県. ?s rdf:type dbpedia-owl:Politician; dbpedia-owl:birthPlace ?pref. }GROUP BY ?pref ORDER BY ?c 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 18
  19. 19. A query example  「各都道府県で生まれた芸人の数」を調べる  The numbers of Japanese comedians who born each prefectures. PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> PREFIX dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> PREFIX dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> PREFIX dbpedia-ja: <http://ja.dbpedia.org/resource/> PREFIX category-ja: <http://ja.dbpedia.org/resource/Category:> select distinct ?pref (count(?s) AS ?c) where { ?pref rdf:type dbpedia-owl:Place. ?pref dcterms:subject category-ja:日本の都道府県. ?s rdf:type dbpedia-owl:Comedian; dbpedia-owl:birthPlace ?pref. }GROUP BY ?pref ORDER BY ?c 2015/8/2 Kansai Mash App! VOL.02 19 ここを, Politician→Comedian に変えるだけ!
  20. 20. SPARQL検索が可能な日本語 LOD 2015/8/2 20 http://wp.lodosaka.jp/tool/searchdata/ LODハッカソン関西のWebサイトで (関西で開催しているLODのイベント) • SPARQL検索が可能な日本語LOD • SPARQLの使い方の解説 を掲載していますので,詳しく知りたい方 はこちらをご覧下さい. その他にも, • LODの作成・公開の方法 • LODの活用事例 などの情報も掲載しています. Kansai Mash App! VOL.02
  21. 21. Summary  Linked Open Data  Open data published as Linked Data  LOD techniques  URIs as global ID.  Links to other data through property (named hyper-link).  SPARQL endpoint as search API.  Examples of LOD  DBpedia  LOD based on Wikipedia  You can use it as multi-lingual database.  Some open data by Osaka-city are published also as LOD. 2015/8/2 21Kansai Mash App! VOL.02

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