WASHEQ PPT Afternoon session 2011


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Inaugural WASHEQ conference ppt, afternoon session

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WASHEQ PPT Afternoon session 2011

  3. 3. OUTLINE Health and Safety (General)  Profile of Volta River Authority  Risk Assessment VRA  Reasons for Risk Assessment  Hierarchy of risk control measures  Constraints on the control of risks in the work place  Conclusion  Question Time 
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Work place occupational health and safety is an area which deals with ensuring the protection of workmen regarding their health, safety and welfare. For this purpose, occupational health and safety programmes and legislation have been initiated to foster a safe work environment.  New legislation is enacted resulting from international working groups and organizations raising awareness of particular work practices which continue to cause death and serious injury.
  5. 5. PROFILE OF THE VOLTA RIVER AUTHORITY The Volta River Authority(VRA) was established on April 26, 1961, under the Volta River Development Act, Act 46 of the Republic of Ghana, with the core business to generate and supply electrical energy for industrial, commercial and domestic use in Ghana.  VRA started with the development of the hydroelectric potentials of the Volta River and the construction and maintenance of a nation-wide grid transmission system. Today, it has expanded into thermal generation to complement inadequate capacity for hydro generation. 
  6. 6. HYDRO  Having an initial installed capacity of 588MW with 4 units in 1965, the hydro capacity was increased to 912 MW in 1972 with 2 additional units  In 2005, the Akosombo Generating Station capacity was again increased to 1020MW after successful completion of a Retrofit Project which involved the replacement of turbine runners to increase efficiency.  The Kpong Generating Station, down stream of Akosombo, commissioned in 1982, also has a capacity of 160MW.
  7. 7. THERMAL In 1999, a 330MW Combined Cycle Thermal Plant was commissioned in Aboadze, followed by a 220MW Simple Cycle in 2000.  Between 2005 and 2009, VRA has added an additional 255MW thermal generation in Tema.  In 2009, the transmission function was hived off into a separate entity, designated National Grid Company (GRIDCo) to perform the transmission activities.  So currently, VRA is mainly into generation, though it is still handling distribution in the northern part of the country. 
  8. 8. RISK ASSESSMENT The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines RISK as the measure of the probability that damage to life, health, property, and /or environment will occur as a result of a given hazard  Risk assessment is the process of evaluating risks to workers’ safety and health from workplace hazards. It is a systematic examination of all aspects of work that considers:  what could cause injury or harm  whether the hazards could be eliminated and, if not  what preventive or protective measures are, or should be, in place to control the risks. 
  9. 9. VRA’S NON FORMAL RISK ASSESSMENT  The usual practice when operational staff are assigned to a job activity, is that they normally hold a “tail board conference” where the job to be done is discussed and all safety issues are discussed and decisions finalized.  In 2010, Management tasked Technical Services Department to come up with a more structured way of conducting risk assessment at the workplace and therefore a simple template was developed which adapts the British Safety Council method of risk assessment to suit VRA’s operational needs.
  10. 10. RISK ASSESSMENT, VRA SAFETY POLICY STATEMENT To create a working environment in which the level of risk to employees and equipment are reasonable and accepted. Safety hand books for staff  The Corporate Safety Hand Book which sets out the Safety Policy and Safety Management Administration of the Authority.
  11. 11. RISK ASSESSMENT, VRA CONT’D The Corporate Safety Rule Book which outlines detailed guide on safe work practices in all our operational activities and finally  The Standard Protection Code which is issued to govern the actions of all operating and maintenance staff of the Authority the execution of their duties. 
  12. 12. RISK ASSESSMENT, VRA CONT’D SAFETY ACTIVITIES  Safety Programmes are drawn out for the year  Safety meetings are held weekly with topics extracted from the safety handbooks  Work area inspections are held monthly  Issues identified are discussed in a WASACO meeting  Safety issues for which solutions are not found are referred to the Central Safety Committee Meeting which has the Chief Executive as the Chairman with all Departmental Heads as members
  13. 13. SAFETY ACTIVITIES (CONT’D)  VRA Safety Management Unit is initiating a process to provide symbolic safety signage such as Firefighting, mandatory, warning and prohibitory signs at its generating stations. These would be displayed at the entrances to the generating stations and various vantage points within those plants.  We are also ensuring the provision of emergency evacuation building plans displayed on all floors of VRA building facilities. These will show escape routes to be followed during emergency evacuations.
  14. 14. FIVE STEPS TO RISK ASSESSMENT 1. Identify the Hazard This is the process of identifying all the hazards that exist in the workplace. You need to be aware of all the possible hazards, but it is the significant ones that are important. There are four main categories of hazards namely;  Physical Hazard  Slipping or tripping hazards  Moving parts of machinery  Work at heights
  15. 15. Chemical Hazard  Fire (e.g. from flammable materials)  Chemicals (e.g. battery acids)  Biological Hazard Dust  Bacteria  Ergonomic Hazard  Manual handling  Poor lighting 
  16. 16. 2. Who Might be harmed and How This is the process of determining who may be at risk from the hazards — the groups of staff and others likely to be affected in the case of an incident involving the hazard. It is important to consider the wider implications of hazards, not just as they may affect those working in the immediate environment
  17. 17. 3. Evaluate the Risks  This is the process of assessing the significance of the risks and what needs to be done to protect people.  The key question is: Have precautions been taken to protect the identified groups against the risk from the identified hazards?  Where any existing measures do not appear to be adequate action needs to be taken
  18. 18. Types of Evaluation Qualitative Evaluation is the comprehensive identification and description of hazards from a specified activity, to people or the environment. Quantitative Evaluation is the application of methodology to produce a numerical representation of the frequency and extent of a specified level of exposure or harm, to specified people or the environment, from a specified activity.
  19. 19. 4. Record Your Findings The significant findings of the assessment must be recorded and kept. There should, then, be a record of all hazards, the risks that they present and what precautions are in place to protect people from harm  The record needs to cover all significant risks and state the current position. 
  20. 20. 5. Review Assessments and Revise if Necessary The way we work is constantly changing — as a result of new or modifications of existing equipment, building alterations, new procedures, new or modified products, etc. Sometimes systems and procedures get changed by the staff themselves.
  21. 21. VRA RISK ASSESSMENT EVALUATION The VRA risk assessment evaluation combines the qualitative and quantitative methods discussed earlier to derive a risk rating. Thus, risk assessment is defined as the determination of the potential impact of an individual risk by measuring or assessing both the likelihood that it will occur and the severity of injury should it occur, and then combining the result according to an agreed rule to give a single measure of potential impact.
  22. 22. LIKELIHOOD Likelihood Description Unlikely Occurrence close to zero 1 May Happen Capable of taking place 2 Likely Tend or inclined to occur 3 Very Likely High inclination of occurrence 4 Certain Most definitely happen – not ‘if’ but ‘when’ 5  Rating For example let’s consider an extension cable across the entrance of an office door thereby creating a trip hazard. The likelihood of someone tripping would be discussed by the team and if they adjudge it to be very likely based on accident history, interviews and experience, then with reference to the table above the value 4 is chosen
  23. 23. SEVERITY Severity Description Rating Minor Injury First Aid on site 1 Minor Injury Treatment off site 2 2 to 4 day Injury Treatment at Hospital 3 Major Injury Amputation, Incapacitation, Disfigurement, etc Hospitalization >= 5 days 4 Death 5 Using the first example of the trip hazard we now consider the severity of the injury should someone trip. If in the judgment of the team the injury will be minor which requires treatment offsite, then the number 2 is chosen with reference to the table above.  Using the risk assessment matrix below with severity 2 against likelihood 4, the risk rating then becomes 8 
  24. 24. RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX Certain (5) Very Likely (4) Likely (3) May Happen (2) Unlikely (1) Death (5) 25 20 15 10 5 Major Injury (4) 20 16 12 8 4 2 to 4 days injury( 3) 15 12 9 6 3 Minor Injury (treatment off site) (2) 10 8 6 4 2 Minor Injury (First aid on site) (1) 5 4 3 2 1
  25. 25. the table below now shows action plan to be taken following the risk assessment. in our example the risk assessment was rated as 8 . therefore the action to be taken should be completed within one month as it falls in the 6-10 score range Score 1-5 Priority Low Action Represents low risk although control measures must be maintained 6-10 Medium Action plan - 1 month 11-19 High Action plan - 2 weeks 20-25 Very High Action plan – Immediate to 1 week
  26. 26. VRA RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Below is the VRA risk assessment form designed to address all the five steps in the risk assessment process. Hazards Persons Existing at risk measures /numbers affected Cable 12 Across office entranc e None control L S R Propose L d Control Measure s S R Action Date 2 4 8 Create a 2 trunk for the cable 1 2 Take action within one month by supervisor One month after asses sment 23/4/1 1 S=Severity L=Likelihood R=Risk rating
  27. 27. Using the trip hazard example, the first column under hazards will be ”extension cable at entrance to office”.  In the second column the number of persons at risk could be estimated by the team to be 12.  Existing control measures is none.  The Severity, S=2 and Likelihood, L=4 resulting in risk rating, R=8.  The next column indicates proposed control measures after which another risk rating is taken. In this case creating a trunk for the cable will reduce the likelihood, L to 1 with the severity, S=2 should someone trip. This results in the risk rating reducing to 2 falling into the 1-6 scale in the action plan table, 
  28. 28. BENEFITS OF RISK ASSESSMENT The introduction of risk assessment based health and safety management has resulted in:  an improved health and safety culture with managers taking a proactive approach to risk and safety management.  fewer accidents, and less loss time through ill-health.  where the working conditions within an organization have improved ,these would seem to be the obvious benefits.  these, in turn, will lead to fewer insurance claims and possibly lower premiums.
  29. 29. HIERARCHY OF RISK CONTROL MEASURES Eliminate the hazard  Reduce the risk at source: Use a less risky option  Isolate and Segregate: This is to prevent access to the hazard  Systems of Work: Organize work to reduce exposure to the hazard  Provide personal protective equipment (PPE)  and provide welfare facilities 
  30. 30. CONSTRAINTS ON THE CONTROL OF RISKS IN THE WORK PLACE Financial  Management Perceptions  Resistance to change  Time 
  31. 31. CONCLUSION It is imperative to deepen the participation and process of risk assessment at our workplace. It is quiet an easy process and must be studied and practiced at all work places. Improving health and safety in the workplace need not be expensive.  The hard work has already been done, a better approach towards assessing risks has been developed let us all endeavour to use it to help create a safer and healthier workplace for all.  IF YOU THINK SAFETY IS EXPENSIVE, TRY ACCIDENT 
  32. 32. THANK YOU!
  34. 34. (c) 2005 TRAXmap.com
  35. 35. Dominga Omolara Odebunmi, Fellow of the Royal Society of Public Health, UK. Member of the British Standards Institutes (BSI), lead auditor [OHSAS 18001, ISO 22000, ISO 9001], an open board member of the UK Food Standard Agency and a science, technology, engineering & mathematics ambassador, UK. Holds a masters and bachelors in sciences, consumer studies and a risk analyst. Has minimum of 25years entrepreneur and academic experience; all encompassing in the field of SAFETY from engineering, consumer, socio-economic and management point of view. 35 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  36. 36. THE VISION OF THE STATE; AFRICA’S MODEL MEGACITY, A GLOBAL ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL HUB THAT IS SAFE, SECURE, FUNCTIONAL AND PRODUCTIVE Its MISSION is to eradicate poverty and promote economic growth through infrastructural renewal and development. Is it fair to say that every development in Lagos is a step towards achieving Africa’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 36 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  37. 37. hers. 37 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  38. 38. Topography of Lagos The smallest state in Nigeria, occupying 3577sqkm; 22% is water Africa’s Model Mega City……. The Birth of Lagos Safety Commission; Timely with the state’s vision and The Law 38 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  39. 39. International/Federal/State/LG Liaison; Self-Regulatory System procedure for effective safety implementation Regulations to address many looming dangers LSC IS FOCUSED, DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH, APPROACHABLE, AUTHORITATIVE & OF WORLD CLASS STANDARD 39 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  40. 40. APPROACH Leadership & Commitment Safety Management Style based on Risk Prioritization High frequency and High Impact Low frequency and Low Impact Effect on the following domain: Fire, Workplace, Construction, Food, Home, Transport, Environment, Public Safety •Population, Economy, Socio-development, Global commitment, Legislation 40 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  41. 41. Training within the organization & invest in capacity and competence. Bridging Gaps, Liaison and collaboration with other agencies and private sectors for consistent intervention. Enhanced communication strategy to effectively manage stakeholders expectations and compliance through public enlightenment campaigns and behaviour change communication. 41 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  42. 42. Traffic Safety School Club for school children (LASTMA/MOT) initiative HOME SAFETY: Community based enlightenment seminar – Safety begins at Home. EVENTS SAFETY: Safety Assessment (Safety Starts With You) event stakeholders; following some fire outbreaks at event centre 42 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  43. 43. Highlights of our first Event: Decorating of his Excellency, the Governor of Lagos State, Mr. Babatunde Raji Fashola (SAN), as the N0. 1 Safety Champion. Bagged the first safety award in Nigeria given by; Nigerian Institute of Safety Professionals Creativity Award Also the Inauguration of 40 Safety Champions from the first set of public service safety champions for MDAs. 43 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  45. 45. 45 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  46. 46. MITIGATING MEETING AT NIGERIAN PORTS AUTHORITY for Port trucks, crane, tankers on Lagos Roads 46 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  48. 48.  SO DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME  PROFIT AND SAFETY. The following are suggested;  SPECIAL BUDGETS Government driven Top Management Safety Knowledge  RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) 48 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  49. 49. Why? Safety+Developing World=improved GDP ADVOCACY ADVOCACY . TRO TRO www.gereisier.com 49 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  51. 51. IF WE CAN DO IT, YOU CAN DO BETTER 51 WASHEQ 2011 LSC; Dominga Odebunmi
  53. 53. ENHANCING MINE CLOSURE FRAMEWORK IN GHANA For Promotion of Sustainable Development - AN INSIGHT FOR POLICY REVIEW - Presented by: Dipl-Ing. Koduah Dapaah, M.Eng; PGD (Mgmt); PMP; MSME (Certified Engineer & HSE Manager) West Africa Safety, Health, Environment & Quality Conference September 23, 2011 La Palm Royal Beach Hotel, Accra - Ghana
  54. 54. CONCEPTS / IDEAS, DEFINITIONS Environment – Physical and Social aspects Decommissioning – break up, dismantling & removal and ensuring safety & security Reclamation – earth works i.e. contouring, flattening & sealing, stabilization Topsoil spread – Load, Haul, Dump & Spread of topsoil (viz. humus and/or oxide soil) Revegetation – transfer of selected healthy seedlings from nursery onto field for planting Care & maintenance – weeds, insects & erosion control, mulching, seedlings replacement, growth monitoring Rehabilitation – reclamation, top-soiling, revegetation, care & maintenance, stabilization Biodiversity – combination and diversity of life forms (return of diverse species of fauna & flora) Restoration – Rehabilitation, biodiversity assessment, self-sustaining & viable ecosystem
  55. 55. CONCEPTS / IDEAS, DEFINITIONS – cont’d Stakeholders – regulators, host communities, employees, share-holders, NGOs, civil society Resource Conservation/management – prolonging useful life of material through reuse, recycling etc. Mine Closure – Financial assurance, Restoration, monitoring, dialogue & disclosure, relinquishment & walk-away, sustainable development, social license Sustainable Development – sustaining improved technical, social, economic & environmental aspects/capacities Post Mining Land-use – enhancing investment options of mined-out lands with relatively reduced (social) risks Closure Certification – regularized close-out documentation
  56. 56. CONCEPTS / IDEAS, DEFINITIONS – cont’d Closure Depletion of mineable reserves within physical limits of mining area Unexpected changes/deterioration in geological conditions Changes in market conditions Financial non-viability Adverse environmental conditions Adverse political conditions or social disruption Changes in external economic factors Kinds/modes of Closure Planned closure – culminates in tenement relinquishment Unplanned closure – force majeure Temporary closure – temporary cessation of operations; under care & maintenance Phases of Closure Planning Initial Closure Plan Interim Closure Plan Final Closure Plan Completion Criteria – Primary, Land use & Final Completion
  57. 57. WHAT IS GOING ON? Exemplified in: • Ayanfuri Gold Mine of former AGC Experience? • Bonte Gold Mine Experience? • Mpasatia Gold Mine of former AGBL/AABL experience? • Resolute Amansie experience? • Decommissioning of ADR Plant @ AGA Iduapriem Mine experience • Other experiences– known and unknown; in and outside Ghana
  58. 58. CURRENT SYSTEM/FRAMEWORK Reclamation Security Agreement with Environmental Protection Agency; Mining Regulation; common practices & practical examples rely on: • Compliance with legislative requirements • Progressive Rehabilitation requirements • Stable landforms, Public safety, self-sustaining ecosystem • Closure criteria/phases • Post-mining land use options
  59. 59. CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL FINANCIAL ASSURANCE Current Practice: • Minerals Commission & EPA are jointly responsible for mine closure; and the EPA is responsible for the implementation and management of the financial surety. Surety instruments – Mostly, Bank Guarantee, cash, Insurance scheme etc. Scope Financial Surety: • No definite aspects of mine closure; as EPA defined all aspects including transfer immovable assets, return of site to pre-mining status, physico-chemical stability of reclaimed site Level of financial surety: • based on full reclamation costs; not specified on which i.e. first, second or third party Review: 2 year basis Release: • Surety is retained for 3 years following completion and returned to proponent in full; however, period is extended to 7 years if there is AMD Experience: • so far only one has been closed that had financial surety in place. Level of financial surety was sufficient to fund all closure costs
  60. 60. CHALLENGES OF CURRENT SYSTEM/FRAMEWORK Strengths: 1. Enhanced awareness in mine closure planning Weaknesses: 1. Lack or inadequacy of exemplary and functional leadership in mine closure and post closure sustainability within the industry 2. Conscious effort and desire 2. of mining companies and allies 3. to do the right thing Sustainability of Resolute Amansie “success” story? 3. Signing or in the process of signing reclamation security agreement with the EPA 4. Lack or inadequacies of policy direction on sustainable development agenda 5. No definite technical and costing/financial model (i.e. no existing cost estimation framework) 6. Lack or inadequacy of national/regional strategic framework on mine closure planning 7. Lack or inadequacy of functional procedural management in mine closure, post closure, relinquishment, walk away and certification 4. Appointment and Availability of competent personnel to handle mined-out land rehabilitation and some sort of closure planning Lack or inadequacies of reproducible data for proper planning e.g. cost/schedule
  61. 61. CHALLENGES OF CLOSURE FRAMEWORK – cont’d Opportunities Threats Opportunities (that may be missed if not strategically planned): Threats: 1. Promotion of sustainable development 1.Conflict of interest regarding preferred land use options 2. Promotion of community sustainability through poverty reduction /eradication, wealth creation and enhancing alternate job creation 2.Disenchantment against mining 3.Potential collapse of mining industry 3. Promotion of social license (basic right to do business profitably) for corporate future 4.Unpredictability of market and investment climate 4. Trust in mining company-community relationships enhanced 5. Promotion of business-of-tomorrow 6. Businesses’ mission fulfilled and stakeholders’ values sustainably enhanced 7. Win-win for all 5.Galamsey destroying rehabilitated/restored mined-out areas through sand wining, gold or other ore re-mining and stone cracking 6.Enhances litigations
  62. 62. DESCRIBE THE FUTURE, DEFINE IDEAL There is a fundamental divide between the interests of mining companies and the interests of the communities where mining takes place. However, - the increasing expectation for promotion of sustainable development on both divide; - desires for reduced human safety and health risks; - converting environmental liabilities into viable closure assets; - competition for land with increasing value of natural environment as enhanced investment option; form the basis to present principles, ideas and guidelines for regional/national strategic policy framework, capacity enhancement, institutional re-orientation that can yield a sustainable mix of social, economic and environmental superior outcomes with certainty; and, all driven by technological innovations and advancement.
  63. 63. DESCRIBE THE FUTURE, DEFINE IDEAL Key Objectives of enhanced mine closure are to: 1. Prevent or minimize adverse long-term socio-economic and environmental impacts 2. Create self-sustaining and viable ecosystem 3. Create sustainable & viable employment and social outcomes 4. Enhance long term resource stewardship 5. Transfer and Enhance technological capacities (technological innovations & advancement) 6. Promote community sustainability 7. Promote Entrepreneurship
  64. 64. RATIONAL AND CONCLUSION There is a search for bridging the gap on fundamental divide between the interests of mining companies and the interests of the communities where mining takes place. The search however should in no way be seen as impediments to dynamic market economy driven by technology, entrepreneurship, sustainability and to individual liberties Society’s effort to bridge the gap must be organized around strategic goals that simultaneously represent the desired objectives of promotion of sustainable development for both sides of the divide – Mining Houses & Host communities Rather than on mere environmental activism based purely on political ideologies (i.e. tango between socialism & capitalism; or idealism & realism), self-seeking secular benefits, etc.
  65. 65. RATIONAL AND CONCLUSION Improvements in all facets of our development must be based on techniques of sustainable development framework with pragmatic objectives and principles, and with periodic re-assessments, dialogue and disclosure, reflecting on the challenges of the times such as global financial crises, corporate future, poverty eradication/reduction and above all promotion of sustainable development with emphasis on community sustainability. Let us re-define criteria for sustainable mine closure completion by improving on the existing one with the challenges of the time (Break-through improvement). Thus, the re-defined sustainable mine closure plan should form a model or standard for the national or regional strategic mine closure framework underpinned by definite strategic direction of the national agenda on sustainable development, especially within host mining communities in Ghana, and perhaps West Africa Region, if not Africa as a whole.
  66. 66. EXAMPLE OF MINE LAYOUT Open Pit RAW Decline RAW Access In-Pit Adit FAW Level Access FAW Access
  71. 71. THANKS & “G L U E C K A U F”
  73. 73. Emergency Preparedness & Response: Case Study from Sohar Refinery, Oman. WASHEQ Conference. 23 September 2011 Presented by : Ing. Ken Yeboah 73
  74. 74. Sohar Refinery - Sohar 74
  75. 75. Sohar Refinery – Brief Profile Oman Refineries & Petrochemicals Co. (ORPC) consists of Mina Al Fahal (MAF) Refinery in Muscat and Sohar Refinery located in Sohar. MAF has been in operation since 1982 while construction of SR commenced in 2004. SR plants commissioned in 2006 with an installed capacity of 116,400 bpd of feedstock. SR Complex is made up of:  Hydrocarbon Process units  Utility plants  Off-site facilities 75
  76. 76. Products Electricity Propylene Atm. Residue 40,000 bpd 14,648 bpd LPG Crude Oil 76,400 bpd 100 MW Naphtha Sohar 8,515 bpd 12,713 bpd Gasoline 44,930 bpd Kerosene 9,042 bpd Gas Oil 30,446 bpd Fuel Oil 5,113 bpd Sulfur 155t/d 76
  77. 77. Emergency Preparedness 77
  78. 78. Emergency Preparedness  All industrial undertakings are prone to incidents, but the stakes are even higher in oil and gas processing facilities.  An emergency situation is an incident which poses an immediate risk to life, health, property or the environment, and which requires immediate remedial action.  In an oil refinery, emergency scenarios could include fires and explosions, plant upset, hydrocarbon spillages, hazardous gas releases, medical emergencies, natural disasters, etc. 78
  79. 79. Sohar Emergency Preparedness  Safety Management in Sohar Refinery is viewed from two perspectives: 1. Systems and practices for the avoidance or prevention of accidents; and 2. Procedures for the protection from exposure to undesirable events or reduction of the consequences of the outcome.  The second point, which deals with emergency preparedness and response, is the focus of this short presentation.  There are three emergency levels in Sohar Refinery; level 1, level 2 & level 3. 79
  80. 80. Sohar Emergency Preparedness & Response  At Sohar Refinery, the key to rapid and effective response to incidents is preparedness; this consists of a documented Emergency Response Plan (ERP), coupled with available resources, trained personnel and excellent communication infrastructure.  The Objectives and Leadership Commitment in the SR ERP are to provide an effective, systematic and yet comprehensive procedural framework to ensure: 1. Containing and controlling incidents so as to minimize the effects on people, environment and properties. 2. Communicating the necessary information to the workforce, public and authorities concerned. 3. Speeding up the recovery processes for both people and the business & clean up of the environment. 80
  81. 81. Emergency Preparedness Arrangements  Well equipped and highly trained Emerg. Response Unit (Fire Station)  New Fire Trucks with boom facilities and high foam storage capacities  Emergency response buses, pick-up vehicles and ambulance  High capacity fixed and trolley-mounted mobile foam monitors  Well laid-out network of Fire & Gas detection system for continuous monitoring of gas leaks around the clock.  Two Plasma Screen Display Monitors: One at MCB and the other at Fire control Room at Fire station with Audio-visual display  Manual alarm call points, emergency siren and public address system  Readily available and well maintained fire water system  Deluge system provided for critical equipments: vessels / tanks/ pressurized storage tanks, etc.  Regular rehearsal (drills) on possible emergency scenarios  Mutual Aid Agreement with major companies within the Sohar Industrial Port Area. 81
  82. 82. SR Emergency Response Organization Emergency Siren & Announcement over Public Address System Emergency Response 14 Operation Shift Fire Crew Fire Engines 2 Lab. Shift Fire Crew Forward Control Centre setup Ambulance 5 HSE Shift Fire Crew On-Scene Commander Emergency Control Center Under Incident Commander Shift Superintendent acts as the OSC until relieved by SR Fire Chief (Head of FP&FF) 30 back up fire crew Civil Defense Crew(Oman Fire Service) All personnel except Operation & Emergency Response Team move to assembly points: ASSEMBLY POINTS Mutual Aid Partners 82
  83. 83. SR Emergency Response Organization  Emergency Control Centre Activated for Level 2 & 3 Emergencies  Serves as the communication link between the support teams and the Onscene Commander.  Serves as the headquarters for the Incident Commander (CEO) 1. Advisory Group  Managers: Technical Services, Reliability, HSE & Production Planning & Marketing 2. Chief Coordination Group  Public Affairs Coordinator  Amenity & Transport Coordinator  Material Coordinator & Financial Support  Equipment & Maintenance Coordinator  Electrical & Communication Coordinator  HSE Coordinator  Contract Manpower Coordinator  Incident Recorder 83
  84. 84. Training & Competency  HSE Fire Crews are sent out for industrial fire fighting training in the US (Nevada), UK and Muscat Fire College.  Operations and Laboratory (1st Line response crew) and Maintenance (2nd Line response crew) are trained on-site at the SR fire fighting grounds.  Periodic emergency mock drills are carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the ER Plan.  This enables review of the plan to ensure continual improvement.  Frequency of Drills  Levels1 & 2: Annually  Level - 3: Once in two years 84
  85. 85. Conclusion  Industrial accidents, particularly in the petroleum industry have always been very devastating.  Recent catastrophic incidents include BP Texas City (2005), Buncefield - UK (2005), Jaipur Oil Depot Fire - India (2009) Tesoro Corp. Refinery - US (2010), TOR Loading Gantry Fire - Ghana (2010), Pembroke Chevron Oil Refinery - UK (2011).  At ORPC - SR, we understand that we are not totally immune from the aforementioned incidents, and therefore commit enormous resources and efforts at preventing such catastrophes in our refinery.  No matter how effective an emergency response infrastructure maybe, the costs associated with industrial accidents are so prohibitive.  Thus our continual drive for excellence in HSE Management, and we believe this has no finishing line……. 85
  86. 86. Thank you Oman Refineries and Petrochemicals Company – Sohar Refinery P. O. Box 282, P. C. 322, Falaj Al Qabail, Sohar, Sultanate of Oman Telephone: +968 26851000 Fax: +968 26851211 http://www.orpc.co.om 86
  88. 88. WASHEQ Conference 2011 The Scourge of g ‘MANUAL HANDLING’ in the Construction Industry Presented by Daniel A. Anoff MSc. Pg. Civil Eng. AMIDE ICIOB
  89. 89. WASHEQ Conference 2011 Introduction • Annually, over 20% of all injuries in • • the Construction Industry were sustained whilst manually lifting and t i d hil t ll lifti d handling materials or equipment. The Construction Industry accounts for 25% of all injury accidents. All manual work involves lifting and handling to some extent.
  90. 90. WASHEQ Conference 2011 Manual Handling ‘Ride’ Ride The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupted. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and then insert it again. BEFORE  DURING  AFTER
  91. 91. WASHEQ Conference 2011 Aim of the Presentation • T improve awareness of Health and S f t To i f H lth d Safety • • • on Construction Project Sites. To gain an understanding of the principles of Safer Manual Handling Techniques for both loads and people. To T explain h l i how th musculoskeletal system the l k l t l t can be used effectively to reduce the risk of injury. To explain safer handling principles and use of safe system of work whilst moving and handling. h dli
  92. 92. WASHEQ Conference 2011 Content 1. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 10 Definition Statistics Anatomy y Mechanics Injuries Risk Assessment Law Guidelines G Kinetic Method of Lifting Conclusion
  93. 93. WASHEQ Conference 2011 1. 1 Definition • Any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain any animate or inanimate object object. • The force or load don’t need to be “heavy” or “awkward” to cause the heavy awkward handler lasting health problems problems.
  94. 94. WASHEQ Conference 2011 2. 2 Statistics Summary of largest cause of accidents at work Summary of largest cause of accidents at work • • • • • • 37% Manual Handling 19% Slips, Trips and Falls 12% Other Causes 20% Struck by an Object 7% Falling from Height 5% Machinery
  95. 95. WASHEQ Conference 2011 3. Anatomy of the Human Body 3 The Spine It has three main functions p p 1. To protect the spinal cord 2. To allow movement 3. To support the upper body The Complex System It consist of the following 1. Spinal Cord 2. Nerves 3. Ligaments 4. Muscles & Tendons
  96. 96. WASHEQ Conference 2011 3. Anatomy-Vertebrae 3 AnatomySpinal Cord • The vertebrae consist of 33 bones: the top 24 are separated by discs. • Each vertebrae has 4 joints hi h j i t which enables bl movement. • The vertebrae are larger towards the bottom of the spine. spine Disc Vertebrae
  97. 97. WASHEQ Conference 2011 3. Anatomy-Disc 3 AnatomyNucleus • • • • Act as shock absorbers Firmly tt h d to Fi l attached t vertebrae t b Poor blood supply Annulus Annulus stretches and relaxes during movement Disc sc
  98. 98. WASHEQ Conference 2011 3. Anatomy-Disc cont’d 3 Anatomycont d • Repeated stresses can cause minute tears and bulging of the disk. • Presses on adjacent nerves and ligaments – pins & needles, pain, numbness • Commonly called a slipped disc di
  99. 99. WASHEQ Conference 2011 3. Anatomy- Muscles 3 Anatomy• Muscles are bundles of fibre which enable movement • Messages from the brain cause them to contract and relax • Connected by tendons and when muscles contract the bones are drawn closer together • A damaged muscle is called a strain
  100. 100. 3. Anatomy-Ligament & Nerves 3 AnatomyLigament Nerves • Strong fibrous tissue • Small deg ee o S a degree of • Millions of fibres • • • elasticity Stooped back posture can result in permanent elongation – weakness and pain Damaged if stretched too far and torn – called a sprain sprain. • • t a s tt g e ect ca transmitting electrical impulses Vertebrae enclose and protect Nerves branch out from the spinal cord and pass i l d d between vertebrae Irritated nerves can be felt right along there length – called sciatica.
  101. 101. WASHEQ Conference 2011 4. 4 Mechanic of Manual Handling • Although mechanical equipment should be used whenever practicable, much practicable of the work will inevitably continue to be done manually. manually • The risk of injury can be j y greatly reduced by a knowledge and application of correct lifting and handling techniques and by taking a few elementary precautions precautions.
  102. 102. WASHEQ Conference 2011 4. Mechanic of Manual Handling 4 ● Balance point is through centre of body when • • • • standing. A load held in front disturbs the balance - tension is generated in the back muscles to compensate Forms a lever effect effect. Average person holding a 10kg load at arms length g g generates a counterbalancing tension up g p to 10 times more – to avoid falling over. High or repetitive levels of tension in the back can cause d damage – called muscle strain. ll d l t i
  103. 103. WASHEQ Conference 2011 4. 4 Mechanics Centre of Gravity Centre of Gravity Lever effect is reduced if load held closer to the body
  104. 104. WASHEQ Conference 2011 4. 4 Mechanics Graphic Illustration‐ Deformation of vertebrae when put under load strain  Graphic Illustration‐
  105. 105. WASHEQ Conference 2011 5. 5 Injuries Injuries I j i are strains and sprains t muscles t i d i to l and joints, torn ligaments and tendons, disc trouble and hernias. ● These are often caused by sudden and awkward movements e g twisting or movements, e.g. jerking while lifting, or handling heavy loads; loads; lifting loads beyond their physical capabilities. capabilities ● Back injuries are most frequently sustained while lifting and handling g g manually.
  106. 106. WASHEQ Conference 2011 5. 5 Injuries • They may be the cumulative effect of repeated minor injuries, or the result of an abrupt strain strain. • Stoop lifting should be avoided; it greatly increases the chances of sustaining back injuries. i j i • Laboratory tests show that the stresses imposed on a rounded back during stoop lifting is six times that experienced if the trunk is kept erect while bending at the knees.
  107. 107. WASHEQ Conference 2011 5. 5 Injuries • The muscles of the abdominal wall are particularly vulnerable, and excessive strain may lead to ruptures. ruptures • Cuts and abrasions from rough surfaces, sharp or jagged edges, , p j gg g , splinters, projections, etc. • Protective clothing should be worn; especially leather or PVC gloves to protect the hands.
  108. 108. WASHEQ Conference 2011 5. 5 Injuries • The risk of injury is reduced by knowledge of correct lifting techniques and not by attempting to lift excessively heavy loads without assistance. • Crushing of limbs, etc. by falling loads, o by fingers, hands o feet oads, or ge s, a ds or eet becoming trapped by loads.
  109. 109. WASHEQ Conference 2011 6. Risk Assessment 6 Before handling a load established the following: load, ● What has to be moved? ● How far does it have to ● What d Wh t does it weigh? i h? be b moved and f d d from where to where? ● Can the process that requires it to be moved be changed? ● C Can th move b carried the be i d out more safely with mechanical assistance? assistance? ● Can it be safely handled by one person? ● Where is the load’s centre of gravity? ● Does it really have to be moved? ● Will assistance be required?
  110. 110. WASHEQ Conference 2011 6. Risk Assessment 6 ● Suitable protective clothing should be worn worn. This may include gloves, safety footwear, safety helmets, and special overalls if hot or corrosive substances are to be carried. ● Ensure that the lifting and lowering areas are g g clear of tripping hazards, and likewise check the route over which the load is to be carried. ● Not all loads need to be carried, of course. It may be easiest to roll, slew or push them. But assistance might still b required t avoid th i t i ht till be i d to id the risk of injury.
  111. 111. WASHEQ Conference 2011 6. Risk Assessment • Correct positioning of hands and feet in relation to the movement of the load is essential. • Timber wedges should be used when raising or lowering heavy loads to prevent fingers and hands becoming crushed. crushed.
  112. 112. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law • The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HASAWA) • The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MHSWA) • The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
  113. 113. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law HASAWA: HASAWA: ● G General d l duty to ensure the h health, safety and welfare at work of their employees. In employees particular, they have a duty to e su e the safe ensure t e sa e use, handling, a d g, storage and transport of articles and substances so far as is reasonably practicable.
  114. 114. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law MHSWR: MHSWR: ● Regulation 3(1) requires employers to risk assess work activities. Thi risk assessment ti iti This i k t should identify whether there is a risk of injury from manual handling operations in the workplace. workplace.
  115. 115. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992: 1992: • These regulations are based on an ergonomic approach to preventing manual handling injuries. This involves fitting the j g job to the worker, taking into account anatomy, physiology and psychology. d h l
  116. 116. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law These regulations require a number of relevant factors to be taken i t t k into consideration d i id ti during manual handling: These are known as TILE: ● Task ● Individual Capability ● Load ● Environment
  117. 117. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law ● Task: What is it about the way that we organise the task which might affect our health and safety? safety? ● Individual Capabilities: What is it about the people who are doing the j that p p g job might affect their health and safety? safety? ● Load: What is it about the load which Load: might affect our health and safety? i ht ff t h lth d safety? f t ● Environment: What is it about the place Environment: which might affect our health and safety?
  118. 118. WASHEQ Conference 2011 7. The Law These regulations set out a hierarchy of measures employers should work through to prevent or reduce the likelihood of injury: injury: ● ● ● ● ● Avoid manual handling Assess the task Reduce th risk R d the i k Monitor the task Inform and train staff on residual risks
  119. 119. WASHEQ Conference 2011 8. 8 Guidelines • There is no such thing as a completely ‘safe’ manual safe handling operation. But working within the following guidelines will cut the risk and reduce the need for a more detailed assessment. assessment
  120. 120. WASHEQ Conference 2011 8. 8 Guidelines Each box in the diagram above shows guideline weights for lifting and lowering
  121. 121. WASHEQ Conference 2011 8. Guidelines Special Factors in Operation S i lF t i O ti Rough Guide R h G id Operation repeated once or twice a minute Reduce weight by 30% Operation repeated five to eight times a minute p p g Reduce weight by 50% g y Operation repeated more than 12 times/second Reduce weight by 80% ‘Average’ Female Reduce weight by 30% Handler twist through 45 degrees Reduce weight by 10% Handler twist through 90 degrees Reduce weight by 20% Handler seated and twisting seated and twisting Less than 5kg than 5kg Handlers seated About 5kg Pushing or pulling a load (assumed that force is  applied with hands between knuckles and  shoulder height) About 25kg for starting or  stopping a load. About 10kg  for keeping a load in motion
  122. 122. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. 9 Kinetic Method of Lifting ● The weight that can be lifted by any individual will vary according to personal physique, age, condition and practice, and the techniques employed. employed. ● Youthful exuberance and bravado often tempt younger employees to attempt to lift loads that are too heavy. While they may succeed in the short heavy term, long term damage may be done. done. ● Lifting capacity declines with age and an older person may not be capable of lifting the same load as a younger person; although this can be offset by employing a better technique. technique
  123. 123. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. Kinetic Method of Lifting ● The weight to be lifted must be within the lifting capacity of the individual worker and the load should be approached squarely, facing the intended direction of travel. travel. ● The feet are positioned about a hip’s width apart, one foot slightly in front of the body. y
  124. 124. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. 9 Kinetic Method of Lifting ● The load is tilted with one hand (if necessary) so that the other hand can obtain a secure grip at the corner g p nearest the body. ● The free hand is then transferred to the furthest corner of the load and drawn as c ose o e u close to the trunk as poss b e possible. ● Arms should be well tucked in to provide maximum support to the load.
  125. 125. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. 9 Kinetic Method of Lifting ● The load should be held firmly into the body and carried to where it is to b d t be deposited. it d ● The closer the centre of gravity of the load can be kept to that of the body, body the easier and more natural the lift. It is important to be able to see over or around the load so as to avoid tripping hazards.
  126. 126. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. 9 Kinetic Method of Lifting ● When the weight is approaching the maximum lifting capacity of the individual, individual it will be necessary to lean back on the hips with the load to bring the trunk to the erect position before straightening th l t i ht i the legs t lift the load. to th l d ● In this instance the body is being used simply as a counterbalance to keep muscular effort down to a minimum.
  127. 127. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. 9 Kinetic Method of Lifting • Grips should not be changed while carrying the load. First rest the load on a ledge or other firm support, then change the grip if necessary necessary.
  128. 128. WASHEQ Conference 2011 9. 9 Kinetic Method of Lifting ● When large or awkward weights are involved, assistance should be sought. sought. ● Co-ordinating team activity is important Co- in team lifting. One person should give directions during lifting, carrying and lowering. ● Properly designed lifting aids will enable some tasks to be performed more quickly and easily and also eliminate the risk of injury or damage.
  129. 129. WASHEQ Conference 2011 10. Conclusion 10 ● Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the biggest cause of occupational ill health in the construction Industry. ● This could be avoided if management and workers did their bit to make the workplace safer.
  130. 130. WASHEQ Conference 2011 10. Conclusion 10 ● F From th top to the bottom, it’s in the t t th b tt it’ i everyone’s interest to keep themselves safe from injuries that are avoidable. ● Unless everyone actually takes so e action some act o to improve t e p o e the situation, nothing will change and construction workers will continue to be seriously injured.
  132. 132. WASHEQ Conference 2011 THE END