Sheq foundation health promotion


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Sheq foundation health promotion

  3. 3. DIABETES
  4. 4. DIABETES DEFINITION S O • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a g p of diseases characterized by high levels ( ) group y g of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. • Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, an anabolic hormone. insulin hormone • The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. • The effects of diabetes mellitus include long–term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs.
  5. 5. TYPES O DIABETES S OF S • Type 1 di b diabetes develops when the body’s immune system destroys pancreatic d l h h b d ’ i d i beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. • Insulin – dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)) - is as a result of the absence or destruction of the beta cells. • Most children with diabetes have IDDM and a lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin. • Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans American race/ethnicity. Americans Americans, Indians, and some Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes. • non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) - i a heterogeneous disorder. i li d d di b lli ( ) is h di d • Most patients with NIDDM have insulin resistance and their beta cells lack the ability to overcome this resistance.
  6. 6. TYPE 1 &2 &
  8. 8. CAUSES AND TREATMENT OF DIABETES CAUSES • Obesity and inactivity • Family history o type 2 d be es y s o y of ype diabetes • Environmental factors interacting with a genetically susceptible person. person TREATMENT • Th goal of therapy is to achieve and maintain euglycemia as The l f th i t hi d i t i l i well as near-normal hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) levels (<7%). • Patients who are not ill at di i h diagnosis can b treated i i i ll i be d initially with lifestyle changes (e.g. diet, exercise, weight control). • Insulin therapy is indicated in symptomatic patients with persistent hyperglycemia or with ketoacidosis. • Pharmacologic therapy.
  9. 9. Values of Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus g
  10. 10. Management of Diabetes • The major components of the treatment of diabetes are: Objectives A • Diet and Exercise B • Oral hypoglycaemic therapy C • Insulin Therapy • To achieve optimal blood glucose concentrations. • To achieve optimal blood lipid concentrations. • To provide appropriate energy id i for reasonable weight, normal growth and development, including during pregnancy and lactation. • To prevent, delay, and treat diabetes-related complications. To improve health through balanced nutrition.
  11. 11. A. Diet • Diet is a basic part of management in every case. Treatment cannot be effective unless adequate attention is given to ensuring appropriate nutrition. • Dietary treatment should aim at: • ensuring weight control • providing nutritional requirements • allowing good glycaemia control with blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible • correcting any associated blood lipid abnormalities i i d bl d li id b li i • Recommended Carbohydrate consumed should be in the form of starch (polysaccharides) • maize, rice, beans, bread, potatoes, cassava, wheat, couscous, semovita, plantain, ‘amala’, garri, pap, etc. • Non recommended Carbohydrate - All refined sugars • Honey, glucose, sucrose, and their products (soft drinks, malt drinks, sweets, toffees, etc.) should be avoided except during severe illness or episodes of hypoglycemia (reduced blood glucose). l ) • Reduce Animal fat butter, lard, yolk pork, cholesterol • butter lard egg yolk, pork other foods high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, replaced with polyunsaturated fats such as vegetable oils.
  12. 12. B. Exercise e c se • Physical activity promotes weight reduction and improves insulin sensitivity, thus lowering blood glucose levels. • Together with dietary treatment, a programme of regular physical activity and exercise should be considered for each person Such a programme person. must be tailored to the individual’s health status and fitness. • People should, however, be educated about the potential risk of hypoglycaemia and how to i l i k fh l i dh avoid it.
  13. 13. C. Insulin Therapy Short-term use: • Acute illness, surgery, stress and emergencies • Pregnancy eg cy • Breast-feeding • Insulin may be used as initial therapy in type 2 diabetes in marked hyperglycaemia • S Severe metabolic d t b li decompensation (di b ti k t id i ti (diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, lactic acidosis, severe hypertriglyceridaemia) Long-term use: • If targets have not been reached after optimal dose of combination therapy or BIDS, consider change to multi-dose insulin therapy. When initiating hi i li i i i i this,insulin secretagogues should be stopped and insulin h ld b d d i li sensitisers e.g. Metformin or TZDs, can be continued.
  14. 14. CHOLESTROL
  15. 15. Cholesterol Soft, fat-like, S ft f t lik waxy substance found in your body and in many bt f di b d di foods. • Bl d Bloodstream and cells d ll • Needed for cell membranes and hormones and to make vitamin D • Comes from 2 sources – Body p y produces it ( (mostly g y genetic) in liver ( ) (1000 mg day) g y) – Food sources (animal products – meats, poultry, fish, eggs, butter, whole milk, and cheese, not from plant sources) (100 – 500 mg day) – Foods with trans fats or saturated fats may cause the body to produce more cholesterol • D we need cholesterol ?? Do d h l t l Yes, for our body to work well. But in excess amount, cholesterol will build up inside the walls of our blood vessels. vessels
  16. 16. GENDER AND HEART DISEASE (WOMEN) Most important risk factors • Diabetes • Low HDL • High triglycerides • Waist measurement of 35 inches or more • I fl Inflammatory di d disorders Symptoms/disease • Fatigue, malaise, shortness of breath, nausea, depression g , , , , p • First heart attack at average age 70 with higher fatality rate than men • More likely to have microvascular disease Diagnostic procedures • ECG stress test less informative than nuclear test • When angiography shows no discrete lesions: IVUs and pressure flow studies Treatment T t t • Less likely to have bypass surgery or angioplasty for coronary lesions • Longer hospital stays, higher complication rate High LDL is responsible for 70% of heart diseases (leading killer of men and women after 45) Every 2% raise in HDL = 2% in men and 3% in women decrease in CAD risk
  17. 17. GENDER AND HEART DISEASE (MEN) ( ) Most important risk factors • High LDL • High blood pressure in young men Symptoms/disease • Unstable angina warrants immediate attention • First heart attack at average age 65 g p Diagnostic procedures • Stress tests more reliable than in women • Angiography more likely to be informative Treatment • More likely to receive bypass surgery, angioplasty for coronary lesions • Shorter hospital stays • More likely to enter cardiac rehabilitation
  18. 18. ABOUT CHOLESTEROL • Must be transported through blood • Carriers are called lipoproteins – Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – High-density lipoprotein (HDL) • Lipoprotein = protein + fat – LDL, more fat, less protein – HDL, more protein, less fat • LDL = “bad” – Too much can clog arteries by forming plaque – Atherosclerosis can cause heart attack or stroke • HDL = “good” – Tends to carry cholesterol away from arteries and back to liver – May also remove excess cholesterol from plaque in arteries, slows buildup • Triglyceride not a cholesterol, also made in body (body fat stored as triglyceride) cholesterol and from food. Help transport dietary fat, metabolism. Trigger liver to make more cholesterol, rising LDL and total cholesterol
  19. 19. Cholesterol Healthy Levels y
  20. 20. C O S O & CHOLESTROL &DIET
  22. 22. What affects cholesterol? • Diet – Poly and monounsaturated fats may help lower cholesterol when used in place of saturated fats, but still limit – High carbs, excessive alcohol may increase triglycerides – S l bl fib may l Soluble fiber lower LDL not HDL LDL, t • • • • • Weight Physical activity Age Gender Heredity H di
  23. 23. Prevention o high c o este o e e t o of g cholesterol
  24. 24. Why does it matter? y • Coronary heart disease is caused by atherosclerosis • Single leading cause of death • The higher LDL you have plus risk factors increases risk for heart attack – – – – – Smoking High Blood pressure g p Low HDL Family history of early heart disease Age
  25. 25. Prevention of high cholesterol g • • • • • • Get it checked Watch fats, eat healthy Consume l than 300 mg of cholesterol a day C less th f h l t l d Be active Quit smoking Some may need medication
  27. 27. HYPERTENSION Hypertension means high blood pressure. High blood pressure is an increased pressure in your blood bl d vessels, and th f l d therefore th there i l is less space for your blood to travel through It can be caused by many factors such as stress, high cholesterol, and inactivity. It is classified into mild, moderate, and severe yp you , , hypertension. If y have mild, moderate, or severe hypertension, you have an increased risk of having a heart attack or a stroke.
  29. 29. BLOOD PRESSURE  Hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. yp j y y  Normal Blood pressure (BP): o Systolic BP< 120mmHg or/and o Diastolic BP < 80mmHg.  Classification of BP is based on the average of two or more properly measured seated BP readings on each of two or more office visits. d di h f ffi ii Blood Pressure classification Normal <120 And <80 Pre-Hypertension 120-139 Or 80-89 Stage 1 Hypertension ype te s o 140-159 0 59 O 90 99 Or 90-99 Stage 2 hypertension   SBP mmHg DBP mmHg > 160 Or > 100
  30. 30. SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTENSION • 1 in 3 adults has hypertension • No symptoms, nearly 1/3 of those people don’t know they have it • No known cause • 2 forces – Blood pumps to arteries and through circulatory system – Arteries resist blood flow • Arteries elastic, stretchy • Heart beats 60-80 times a minute • Sodium/salt – Holds excess fluid in body, heart has to work harder • Potassium – Blunts effects of salt on blood pressure
  31. 31. Factors Influencing the Development of Hypertension • Alcohol consumption • Lack of exercise • High-normal blood pressure g p • Family history of hypertension • Af i African-American ancestry A i • Stress management g • Overweight, reduce fat and exercise..don't be a coach potato
  32. 32. LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION  P i i l of lifestyle modification include: Principles f lif t l difi ti i l d o Encourage healthy life styles for all individuals o Prescribe life style modifications for all patients with prehypertension and hypertension.  Components of lifestyle modifications include o weight reduction, o DASH eating plan plan, o dietary sodium reduction, o aerobic physical activity and o moderation of alcohol consumption.
  33. 33. HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS • Uncontrollable – A Age – Male gender – Heredity (including race) – African Americans = higher blood pressure Also pressure. higher among other races • Controllable – Smoking (2-4x higher than non-smokers) – High cholesterol (high HDL can be positive risk factor) – Hi h blood pressure High bl d – Physical inactivity – Obesity/overweight (especially in abdominal area) – Diabetes • Other factors – Stress – Too much alcohol • Moderate drinkers = less risk than non-drinkers (may increase HDL cholesterol)
  35. 35. FAT IS A REQUIREMENT FOR LIFE Q FACTS: • W can’t live without fats We ’t li ith t f t • A fat-free diet is not healthy • Too much may result in obesity & risks for diseases FUNCTIONS: • Supplies energy for our activities & body processes in building cells, bile formation, hormone production, etc. • Cushions our organs & protects our bones from injury injury. • Keeps us warm in cold weather. V , , , • A carrier for Vitamins A, D, E, K • Source of the Essential Fatty Acids for: – Growth – M i t Maintenance of healthy skin f h lth ki – Normal functions of brain & nervous system • Adds flavor to food & satisfies our hunger longer.
  36. 36. FAT & CHOLESTEROL LIMITS C O S O S HOW MUCH FAT? • No more than 30% of total calories • E.g. if you consume 2000 calories/day, g y y • 30% x 2000 calories = 600 calories • 1 g fat = 9 calories • 600 calories = 600 / 9 = 67 g of fat/day HOW MUCH CHOLESTEROL? • • Not more than 300 mg/day
  38. 38. C CHANGE EATING HABITS G G S • • • • • • • • • Eat right Avoid food that are rich in saturated fat. y g p y Look for the word “Hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” or “Trans fat “ on food labels. Avoid food which has this label. Limit how Li it h much fried foods you eat. hf i df d t Limit how many prepared baked goods you eat. Eat fewer egg yolks, hard cheese, whole milk, cream, butter and fatty meals. Eat food that are high in fibre – Oats, peas, lentils, beans, cereals and brown rice. ,
  39. 39. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (1 0F 8) Sandwich 5 pieces – 580 Calorie Activity • Swimming – 1 hr 20 min • Walking moderate – 2 hr 10 min
  40. 40. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (2 0F 8) Banana 1 No. – 140 Calorie Activity » Singing – 9 min » Walking moderate – 5 min
  41. 41. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (3 0F 8) Red Wine 175 ml glass – 119 Calorie g Activity • Gardening for – 25 min • Mowing for - 20 min
  42. 42. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (4 0F 8) Beer one can 375 ml (or) Whisky with soda 75 ml - 156 calorie Activity • Golf – 35 min • Table tennis – 35 min • Climbing stairs – 15 min
  43. 43. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (5 0F 8) Deep fried pork one piece – 84 Calorie Activity • ironing – for 40 min •h house work – f 20 min k for i
  44. 44. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (6 0F 8) Rice and Fish Curry – 514 Calorie Activity » Bowling - 3 hour 40 Min g » Bicycling – 2 Hour 40 min » Child Care - 3 hour 10 min
  45. 45. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (7 0F 8) Indomie noodle 1 Bowl . – Calorie Activity • Health club exercise – 1 hr • Moderate walking – 1 hr 30 min 366 Cal
  46. 46. FOOD & EXERCISE REQUIRED TO BURN OFF (8 0F 8) Jollof 1 plate . – Calorie 1000 Cal Activity • Carrying heavy loads– 2 hr 10 min loads–
  47. 47. LACK OF SLEEP Leptin - satiety hormone Ghrelin - hunger hormone low high DOs • have regular sleep-wake pattern • l leave bedroom & d something relaxing b d do thi l i • relax at the end of the day Adults - 6 to 10 hours DON’Ts • avoid stimulating food / activities • avoid arguments / debates • avoid long afternoon naps
  48. 48. The Choice is Yours! OBESE OR SLIM
  49. 49. Points to Ponder • Anything ingested contains CALORIES except water and green tea • Any A unconsumed excess d calories will be stored for future need as FAT cells • Balance between intake and requirement • Simplest way is to WATCH YOUR WEIGHT
  50. 50. Sexually Transmitted diseases
  52. 52. SYPHILIS • It is caused by a micro-organism y g (Treponema Pallidum) that can be found in the blood, skin and mucosal lesions of the sick persons. • It is subdivided in three stages: 1. 10-90 days after infection the first symptom (painless ulcer) begins at the entrance spot. t t 2. Even if not treated, it regresses spontaneously, b t th microorganism t l but the i i spreads throughout the whole body. 3. 3 The microorganism is almost non nonexistent in the body, but it has already created severe damages to different organs. It can go on for decades. Treponema Pallidum
  53. 53. Primary syphilis y yp Early syphilis (primary stage) – Ulcer of the penis: There is a primary lesion of the penis. Early syphilis (primary stage) – Ulcer: The ulcer is round with a well defined edge. Th b d The base i clean. S hiliti ulcers are painless and are not t d until is l Syphilitic l i l d t tender til secondarily infected. Typically they are indurated. Early syphilis (primary stage) – Ulcers located on other areas: These lesions are of a fi l i f finger and i th mouth d in the th (oral lesion). Thursday, October 10, 2013
  54. 54. Secondary Syphilis Early E l syphilis hili (secondary stage) – Skin lesions: syphilitic rash of the forehead. Early syphilis (secondary stage) – Skin lesions: leukoderma coli (“collar of Venus”): Whitish patches in areas of increased pigmentation are visible on the neck of this patient. Early syphilis (secondary stage) – ( d t ) Condylomata lata: Multiple condylomata lata of the perineum. These raised, flat, wart-like skin lesions are a t i l pale l i typical l pink-gray in color. They are highly infectious.
  55. 55. Syphilis - General Issues yp • Nowadays it’s curable and rarely exceeds the first stage, obviously if treated on time. • It can be diagnosed with blood analysis too. • It gives no immunity and reinfection is possible. • Treponema Pallidum goes beyond placental barrier infecting the fetus and causing congenital syphilis. • It is extremely susceptible to high temperature and common disinfectant. disinfectant Therefore is transmissible only trough direct contact with blood or skin lesions or mucous membranes full of spirochetes. Thursday, October 10, 2013
  56. 56. GONORRHEA • • • • • • First symptoms appear 3-5 days after the infecting contact contact. The bacterial agent is called: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. Distinguished by abundant purulent secretion, yellowish in color, from urethra or uterus - particularly i th th t ti l l in the morning. More than ever resistant to penicillin If neglected or not treated at all brings serious complications - sterility, chronic p y, infections, narrowing of urethra, etc. It is transmitted with any kind of sexual intercourse. Thursday, October 10, 2013
  57. 57. GONORRHEA Gonorrhea – Cervicitis and Vaginitis: a white mucopurulent exudate which is draining through the terminal p of womb ( g g part (center of p picture) and ) vagina. Gonorrhea – Urethral discharge: There is mild erythema of the external aperture of urethra, which is a common f feature. Gonorrhea - Gonococcal arthritis: There is swelling and redness of the hand joints . Arthritis is a common feature of extended gonococcal infection. CLINICAL FEATURES – URETHRAL DISCHARGE – PAINFUL URINATION COMPLICATIONS – EPIDIDYMITIS – DISSEMINATED SS N INFECTION – URETHRALSTRICTURE
  59. 59. Chlamydia Infections Chlamydial cervicitis • • Chlamydial conjunctivitis Chlamydial venereal lymphogranuloma It is a very common disease and ma create sterilit both in men and women. er may sterility omen After 1 - 3 weeks from infection the symptoms appear: IN MEN it manifests with urethral inflammation and watery secretion associated with burning. If not cured may cause testicle inflammation. IN WOMEN it is manifested with prickly pain, vaginal secretion, abdominal pain. The infection i f ti can progress t th womb an i id abdomen causing severe i fl to the b inside bd i inflammation ti with consequent sterility.
  60. 60. TRICHOMONAS • • • Parasite di P it disease, pathogen agent th t can b f th t that be found i th urine, d in the i in vaginal secretion and sperm. The man often do not present the disease symptoms When symptoms. present, they are the same as of urethral infection with whitish secretion. In women the abundant, white or yellow, frothy secretion with unpleasant smell is observed, accompanied by burning and vaginal pain as well as with pain during the sexual intercourse pain, intercourse. Trichomoniasis – Vaginal discharge :There is a profuse white discharge. P i d i th sexual f hit di h Pain during the l intercourse is common
  61. 61. CANDIDOSIS • It is caused by a fungus called Candida Albicans. • Symptoms appear 3-90 days after infection. • g p p g p In men the redness of glandis and preputium together the white spots and itching can be seen. • pp In women this infection can appear also without sexual intercourse because of the humidity and heat normally present in the genital region. It appears with severe itching and redness of entire surface, with appearance of small g pp white spots. • y p y y May be provoked by an indiscriminate use of antibiotics or by diabetes. • It requires a long treatment. • Candidal balanitis: Several discrete areas of redness on the glandis penis. Such lesions may be asymptomatic but are often associated with i it ti ft i t d ith irritation, soreness and mild pain d ild i during urination
  62. 62. VENEREAL DISEASES CAUSED BY PARASITES Pediculosis, Scabies , • • • • • • These diseases are caused by insects. While the first is almost exclusively due to sexual transmission, it has tendency to locate only in pubic area, the second is transmitted with other kind of contacts too too. Both of them indicate the low level of personal and/or environmental hygiene and can transmit also other types of diseases. The most important symptom is itching, mostly during the night. While crab-louse lives on pubic hair, Sarcoptes Scabies (element that gives the disease called Scabies) lives under the skin where it bores real channels and lays its eggs. Scratching often creates skin lesions. Besides the use of insecticides, the best treatment is the increment of hygiene.
  63. 63. VENEREAL DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES GENITAL HERPES It shows up with small blisters on external genitalia grouped lik t l it li d like branch or chain. They are painful and produce burning sensations. The symptoms begin after 3-14 days after the infection encountered during a non protected sexual relationship with a sick person. E i k Even after the ft th symptoms have disappeared virus remains in the body and periodically can cause the reappearance of the symptoms. Genital herpes – Ulcers of the penis (foreskin retracted): Herpes lesions start as redness or small blisters, which progress to pustule formation and ulcer formation. The lesions are usually painful and itchy itchy. Pain during urination is often present.
  64. 64. CONDYLOMATA Symptoms begin 1-3 month after the infection, with warts grouped like a cauliflower, gray Genital warts: Warts on penis. or reddish in color sometimes color, with purulent secretion and unpleasant smell. They can appear on penis, vagina, uterus, anus and rectum.
  66. 66. HEPATITIS B Hepatitis is a serious disease of the Liver. It is the inflammation (swelling) of the Liver. It is also transmissible with sexual intercourse, because the virus that causes it can be found in saliva, sperm, sperm vaginal secretions blood etc secretions, blood, etc. • The symptomathology may appear even 6 months after the infecting g contact. • It damages liver cells and often becomes a chronic disease, disease worsening further with cirrhosis and malign liver tumors. • The contact with the virus can be diagnosed trough specific blood tests. • Today safe and effective vaccines Today, exist.
  67. 67. HEPATITIS
  68. 68. AIDS It is a disease caused by the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) – a virus that attacks and reduces the defense forces of the human body and can cause AIDS; Serum positive - Carrier of the HIV virus can transmit the infection to the others and is likely t get sick of AIDS th d i lik l to t i k f AIDS; AIDS (sickness) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, disease caused by HIV virus (Final stage) stage).
  69. 69. AIDS - Transmission 1. Sexual transmission – HIV is transmitted by both homosexual and heterosexual contact; HIV infection is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease; the virus has been demonstrated in sperm and vaginal fluid. 2. 2 Transmission by blood and blood products – 90 to 100 percent of individuals who were transfused with HIV infected blood became infected; among IDUs (injectable drugs users), HIV infection occurs trough parenteral exposure to infected blood via contaminated drug paraphernalia (needles and syringes). 3. Maternal-Fetal/Infant transmission – HIV infection can be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus during pregnancy or to her infant during delivery. delivery Postnatal transmission has been clearly documented strongly documented, implicating colostrum and breast milk as the vehicles of infection.
  70. 70. Primary infection y •Has an average incubation period of 2 4 weeks 2-4 •Lasts approximately 1-2 weeks Is self limiting •Is often self-limiting FREQUENT SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:  Fever  Fatigue  Pharyngitis  Joints and muscular pain  Night sweats  Inflammation of lymphatic nodules Loss of appetite and weight loss  Rash and/or skin ulcerations A 25 year old male with HIV 25-year-old seroconversion rash and associated fever and Lymphadenopathy.
  71. 71. Symptoms of late HIV infection      Fever Dry cough Persistent diarrhea Unexplained weight loss Retinitis HIV Increases risk of developing life threatening illness  Tuberculosis  Pneumonia  Meningitis C Cancers
  72. 72. Avoiding AIDS g • Unprotected sexual intercourse • Contaminated needles, syringes etc • Infected blood or blood products • Pregnancy, childbirth and breast feeding
  73. 73. How STDs can be prevented? Knowing very well your own partner - it is a fundamental precaution to reduce the risk before having sex. Avoiding frequent changing of partner - According to the experts g q g g p g p change of more than one partner a year is considered promiscuous behavior, therefore at risk. Avoiding sexual relations with unknown persons or with those with persons, risky behaviors (promiscuous persons, drug addicts, homosexuals, bisexuals) and with those whose attitudes we do not know. Always using a condom - a mean not 100% safe against all venereal diseases, but which undoubtedly reduces considerably the risk of contagion. g Going to the physician - whenever suspecting to have a sexually transmitted disease, or when unprotected sex with a partner having STD, STD especially by HBV or HIV has occurred HIV, occurred. Abstaining from sexual intercourse - if having a sexually transmitted disease, until completely cured. p y Talking with the partner - regarding own sexual life and informing him/her about eventual past sexually transmitted diseases.
  75. 75. ALCOHOL & DRUG ABUSE • Alcohol abuse means having unhealthy or dangerous drinking habit such as drinking everyday or drinking too much at a time • Drug abuse g  Using drugs in a way that harms the user or others.  It includes abuse of : i l d b f o illegal drugs, o prescription drugs g o over the counter drugs.
  76. 76. DRUG & ALCOHOL ABUSE IMPACTS  Drug abuse and excessive alcohol consumption are p g p plain dangerous. g  Alcohol and drug abuse affect o health o ability to function and think.  Women are relatively affected even more than men.  Al h l and drug abusers are danger to others Alcohol d d b d t th o on the high ways, o at work, o at school and o at home.  Alcoholism o often runs in families (genetic) but (g ) o drinking habits are influenced by your environment and o Also influenced by life situation such as friends or stress levels
  77. 77. ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE / DEPENDENCE  Drug abuse like alcohol abuse can lead to dependence d d o where you become addicted to the drug.  The drug eventually controls the life of the addicts o Many consequences follows o Taking more of the drugs over long period of time and need more of the drugs to get “high” o Spending and wasting valuable time trying to get drug and give up other activities in your search for the drug. Q g y g o Quitting difficulty – continue the use the drug even if it harms your relationships and cause you physical problems. o If you stop, you feel sick (withdrawal) syndrome
  78. 78. COMMON SIGNS OF ALCOHOL/DRUG ABUSE  Changes in eating and sleeping habits. g g p g  Problems at work or school because of drunkenness. These range from lateness to absenteeism.  Less attention to dressing, grooming and less interest even in sex.  Unnecessary anger/aggression towards others and treating others badly badly.  After drinking you can’t remember what happended while you were drinking (blackouts)  Poor family relationships.  Dropping very good old friends for new ones-especially people who now indulge with you in abuse of drugs.  Sneaky behavior, lying or stealing.  You cannot quit drinking or control how much you drink.  Drinking more to get same effect.
  79. 79. PHYSICAL SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE         Red eyes, sore throat, dry cough, feeling tired Loss of weight Needle marks on arms or other areas of the body Small “pin point pupils pin point” Seeing things that do not exist (hallucinations) Rapid heart rates, memory loss, impotence, infertility. Tremors, convulsions, Tremors convulsions violent conduct Stupor, coma, death.
  80. 80. Commonly Abused Substance • ALCOHOL • METHAMPHETAMINE cold pills, cough syrups, valium, paracetamol paracetamol, codeine, morphine, • MORPHINE • CANNABIS • COCAINE • • BENZODIAZEPINE AMPHETAMINE
  81. 81. Commonly Abused Substance SUBSTANCE ALCOHOL METHAMPHE TAMINE MORPHINE OTHER NAME / BRAND NAME ROUTE OF USE MEDICAL USE ABUSE EFFECT ‘Beer,’ Wine, ‘Whisky’, ‘Brandy’, Brandy ‘Cognac’, etc. Orally Antiseptic/ Disinfectant (Ethyl / Methyl Alcohol External use only) cirrhosis, major cause of deaths and injuries due to accidents; effects on a baby during pregnancy; stomach pain due to a bleeding ulcer or irritated stomach lining. "speed " speed, "meth," "chalk," "ice," "crystal," "glass," " l " “crank,” and "tina." Orally, Orally Intranasally (snorting the powder), by needle dl Injection, or by Smoking Treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); extreme obesity, and narcolepsy irritability, anxiety insomnia irritability anxiety, insomnia, confusion, tremors, convulsions, and cardiovascular collapse and death; (long-term effects) paranoia, aggressiveness, extreme anorexia, i i memory loss, visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions, and severe dental problems p Oramorph, Astramorph, Duramorph, p Infumorph Orally, by IV and IM injection j Relief of pain associated with myocardial infarction ( (heart attack), sickle cell ) crisis, surgery, trauma, cancer, kidney stone; adjunct to general and epidural anesthesia severe depression, anxiety, insomnia, mood swings, amnesia ( g (forgetfulness), low self-esteem, ) confusion, paranoia, and other psychological disorders
  82. 82. Commonly Abused Substance OTHER NAME / BRAND NAME ROUTE OF USE MEDICAL USE ABUSE EFFECT Marijuana, “ganja ”"grass " ganja, grass, "pot," and "weed" Orally, Smoking Analgesia, or pain relief, glaucoma treatment problems with memory and learning; distorted perception; difficulty in thinking and problem solving; depression, anxiety, personality disturbances, loss of coordination; increased heart rate; di i i dh and cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract bennies, speed, and uppers SUBSTANCE Orally, IV injection Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcoplepsy and other sleep disorder inflammation of the heart lining, damaged blood vessels, and skin abscesses; increase blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, rapid heart rate, and irreversible, stroke-producing damage to small blood vessels in the brain, episodes of violent brain behavior, paranoia, anxiety, confusion, and insomnia. CANNABIS AMPHETAMI NE
  83. 83. Commonly Abused Substance SUBSTANCE COCAINE OTHER NAME / BRAND NAME Blow, nose d candy, snowball, tornado, wicky stick, Perico , (Spanish) ROUTE OF USE MEDICAL USE ABUSE EFFECT Orally, Sniffng/ S iff / snorting or blowing, Smoking, g, Injection Local (topical) anesthesia bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior, i it bilit b h i irritability, restlessness, tl tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, paranoia, deaths resulting from cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest. BENZODIAZE PINE Xanax, Lexotan, Valium, Midazolam, Ativan, Ai Dormicum, etc. Orally; IV and IM injection Treatment of anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasm and alcohol withdrawal l h l i hd l hallucinations, slurred speech, ataxia, coma, hypotonia, weakness, altered mental status, impairment of cognition, amnesia, paradoxical f ii i d i l agitation, respiratory depression, hypotension
  84. 84. EFFECTS ON BODY ORGAN AND SYSTEM • ANAEMIA -reduce oxygen carrying red blood cells leading to anaemia, trigger fatigue, lightheadedness, shortness of breath etc. • CIRRHOSIS -Alcohol/drug is toxic to liver cells, causing scarring of the liver and inhibiting its functions (this may not be related to quantity) and is commoner in women. • CANCERS- increases the risk of cancers especially of the liver, cancers associated with alcohol: oral (mouth) throat, esophagus, and breast • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES -leads to formations of blood clots in the blood vessels Leads to heart attacks/stroke. • HIGH BLOOD pressure-leads to kidney failure, heart diseases and stroke. • Pancreatitis -causes stomach irritation (gastritis), Interfere with digestion leading to severe abdominal pains, persistent diarrhea ,damage the organ that helps to regulate blood sugar pains damage leading to diabetes. cause pins needles • DAMAGE TO NERVES -cause nerve damages leading to painful “pins and needles” feelings, numbness of the extremities, as well as • INFECTIOUS DISEASES - suppress the immune system providing a toehold for infections like tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, pneumonia & other STDs. lik t b l i HIV/AIDS i th STD • OTHERS include seizures, depressions & dementia
  85. 85. CONCLUSIONS • It is your choice to drink or use drugs; • It is also your choice to seek advice, treatment or QUIT