Ions & Isotopes

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Ions & Isotopes

  1. 1. Isotopes and Ions What is the difference?
  2. 2. Some definitions <ul><li>Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge </li></ul>
  3. 3. How does and atom become an Ion? <ul><li>By gaining or losing electrons </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ions <ul><li>Atoms or groups of atoms that have a positive or negative charge </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by gaining or losing electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Ions are NEVER formed by gaining or losing protons </li></ul><ul><li>Cations and Anions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cation <ul><li>Positive charge </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by the atom losing electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Metals form cations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cations <ul><li>Ca Ca 2+ + 2e - </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anion <ul><li>Negative charge </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by the atom gaining electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Non-metals form anions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anions <ul><li>O + 2e - O 2- </li></ul>
  9. 9. How do we know what atoms form which ions? <ul><li>Use the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Columns are called groups or families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The elements in the same group tend to have the same chemical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are referred to by the number over the column </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Groups <ul><li>Group 1 = alkali metals </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2 = alkali earth metals </li></ul><ul><li>Group 7 = halogens </li></ul><ul><li>Group 8 = Noble gases </li></ul><ul><li>In between groups = transition metals </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why is it called the Periodic Table? <ul><li>As the atomic numbers increase, every so often we come across an element that has the same chemical properites. </li></ul><ul><li>Give rise to the rows, that we call periods </li></ul>
  12. 12. The ions formed by selected members of groups 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7.
  13. 13. Metals, non-metals and metalloids <ul><li>Metals = elements to the left of the stair step </li></ul><ul><li>Non-metals = elements to the right of the stair step </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloids = elements along the stair step </li></ul>
  14. 14. Properties of Metals <ul><li>Efficiently conduct heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Malleability = can be hammered into sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Ductility = can be pulled into wires </li></ul><ul><li>Luster = shiny appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Form cations (positive ions) by losing electrons </li></ul>
  15. 15. Non-Metals <ul><li>Lack the properties of metals </li></ul><ul><li>Many are gases at earth’s normal temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Show more variation in their properties than metals </li></ul><ul><li>Form anions (negatively charged ions) by gaining electrons </li></ul>
  16. 16. Metalloids <ul><li>Also called semi-metals </li></ul><ul><li>Display properties of both metals and non-metals </li></ul><ul><li>Include silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium </li></ul>

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