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TOTAL LENGTH - 3,180 km
Basin Area - 1,165 million Sq
Discharge - 6,600m cu/s
Countries - INDIA & PAKISTAN
Sources - Tibet...
INTRODUCTION
 Indus river originates in the Tibetian plateau in the
vicinity of lake Mansarovar,runs across through the
L...
 Its left bank tributary is Chenab & has its own 4
tributaries namely the Jhelum, the Ravi,the Beas, the
Sutlej.
 Its ri...
INDUSVALLEYCIVILISATION-EARLIESTCIVILISATION
INHUAMNHISTORY
ISSUES:-
 Sindh/Indus river is stratigically vital resource for
Pakistan.
 After Pakistan and India declared independenc...
Some Major Dams on India’s Part of Indus River Basin
 The concern over India building large dams over various
Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to
Pakistan...
INDUS WATER TREATY
INDUS WATER TREATY
 It is the eastern distribution treaty between India and
Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then th...
INVOLVEMENT OF THE WORLD BANK
 Initially the bank was reluctant to get involved.
 World bank refuses loans to both count...
ROLE OF WORLD BANK
 In 1951, David E. Lilienthal, former chairman of
Tennessee Valley Authority, visited India and
Pakist...
PROVISIONS
 The treaty under Article 5.1 envisages the sharing of
waters of the rivers of the Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Jhelum,...
 Pakistan has exclusive use of western rivers- the Jhelum,
the Chenab & the Indus.
 Pakistan also recieved one time fina...
ARTICLES AND APPENDICES OF IWT :-
 Article 1- definitions
 Article 2-provisions regarding eastern rivers
 Article 3- pr...
 Annexure A- exchange of notes between
government of india and pakistan.
 Annexure B – agricultural use by pakistan from...
HOW THE WATER COULD BE USED
 As per provisions of the treaty, India could use only
20% of the total water carried by Indu...
THE 3 DISPUTES
THE TULBUL NAVIGATION PROJECT( WULLAR
BARRAGE)
1. It was prosed to be built at the mouth of wullar lake in baramulla
distr...
 IN 1986 Pakistan reffer the project dispute to Indus water
commission ,but after 1 year the commission recorded
failure ...
THE BAGLIHAR PROJECT DISPUTE
 The dispute emerged in 1999, when Pakistan challanged
the design of the project.
 Pakistan...
THE KISHANGANGA PROJECT DISPUTE
 It is a project by India over Kishanganga river at Gurez.
 Project’s power generation c...
CRITICS
 Critics of IWT highlight that it does not consider the
effect of climate change on water availability,
sedimenta...
SUGGESTION
 India and Pakistan need to intiate a serious dialogue on
strengthening the dispute resolution mechanism and
d...
THANK YOU
SUBMITTED BY:-
RANJANA DALAL
31318414
INDUS WATER TREATY.
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INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 1 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 2 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 3 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 4 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 5 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 6 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 7 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 8 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 9 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 10 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 11 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 12 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 13 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 14 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 15 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 16 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 17 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 18 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 19 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 20 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 21 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 22 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 23 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 24 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 25 INDUS WATER TREATY. Slide 26
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INDUS WATER TREATY.

  1. 1. TOTAL LENGTH - 3,180 km Basin Area - 1,165 million Sq Discharge - 6,600m cu/s Countries - INDIA & PAKISTAN Sources - Tibetian plateau,Gar river,Senge zangbo
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Indus river originates in the Tibetian plateau in the vicinity of lake Mansarovar,runs across through the Ladakh region of J&K towards Gilgit-Baltistan & then its flows southerly direction along the entire length of Punjab,Pakistan to merge with Arabian sea near the port city of Karachi  It is the longest river of Pakistan and  21st largest river of world in terms of annual flow.
  3. 3.  Its left bank tributary is Chenab & has its own 4 tributaries namely the Jhelum, the Ravi,the Beas, the Sutlej.  Its right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal, the Kurram.  The flow of rivers is determined by seasons- it deminishes in winter while flooding in monsoon months from July to September.  Around two-third of water supplied for irrigation and in homes comes from the Indus and its associated rivers.
  4. 4. INDUSVALLEYCIVILISATION-EARLIESTCIVILISATION INHUAMNHISTORY
  5. 5. ISSUES:-  Sindh/Indus river is stratigically vital resource for Pakistan.  After Pakistan and India declared independence the use of the waters and its 5 tributaries became a major dispute between them.  The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley & the Bari Doab were split, with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan.
  6. 6. Some Major Dams on India’s Part of Indus River Basin
  7. 7.  The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political constraints due to inherent mistrust and suspicion.  This led to the signing of Indus Water Treaty in 1960.
  8. 8. INDUS WATER TREATY
  9. 9. INDUS WATER TREATY  It is the eastern distribution treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for reconstruction and development).  Treaty signed on sept 19’1960 by India Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and president of Pakistan Ayub Khan.  According to the agreement, control over the 3 eastern rivers ,the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej was given to India & 3 western rivers , the Indus, the Chenab, the Jhelum to Pakistan.
  10. 10. INVOLVEMENT OF THE WORLD BANK  Initially the bank was reluctant to get involved.  World bank refuses loans to both countries even though they were economically viable.  Offered an impartial third party .  Offered an option taking into account both countries’ needs.
  11. 11. ROLE OF WORLD BANK  In 1951, David E. Lilienthal, former chairman of Tennessee Valley Authority, visited India and Pakistan.  Lilienthal wrote an article with suggestions that Indus Basin be treated, exploited, and developed as a single unit.  World Bank mediated from 1952 onwards, and Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in September 1960 although Pakistan, not fully convinced ,refused to sign until 1958.  IWT conferred rights over 3 western rivers of Indus river system (Jhelum, Chenab and Indus) to Pakistan, and over 3 eastern rivers (Sutlej, Ravi and Beas) to India.
  12. 12. PROVISIONS  The treaty under Article 5.1 envisages the sharing of waters of the rivers of the Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Jhelum, Chenab which joins the Indus River on its left bank(eastern side) in Pakistan.  According to this treaty, Ravi, Sutlej, Beas which constitute the eastern rivers are allocated for exclusive use by India before they enter Pakistan.  However a transition period of 10 years was permitted in which India was bound to supply water to Pakistan from these rivers until Pakistan was able to build the canal system for utilisation of water.
  13. 13.  Pakistan has exclusive use of western rivers- the Jhelum, the Chenab & the Indus.  Pakistan also recieved one time financial compensation for the loss of waters from eastern rivers.  Since march 31,1970, after 10 years moratoriam, India secured full rights for use of waters of 3 rivers allocated to it.  The treaty resulted in the partitioning of the rivers rather than sharing of the waters.  It was successful in settling the disagreement over Baglihar dam (Jammu & kashmir).
  14. 14. ARTICLES AND APPENDICES OF IWT :-  Article 1- definitions  Article 2-provisions regarding eastern rivers  Article 3- provisions regarding western rivers  Article 4 - provisions regarding eastern & western rivers.  Article 5- financial provisions  Article 6 - exchange of data  Article 7 - future cooperations  Article 8 – permanent indus commission  Article 9 – settlement of differences and disputes  Article 10 – emergency powers  Article 11 – general provisions  Article 12 – final provisions
  15. 15.  Annexure A- exchange of notes between government of india and pakistan.  Annexure B – agricultural use by pakistan from certain tributaries of the ravi.  Annexure C – agricultural use by india from the western rivers.  Annexure D – Generation of hydroelectric power by india on western rivers.  Annexure E – storage of waters by india on western rivers  Annexure F – neutral expert  Annexure G – court of Arbitration  Annexure H – transitional arrangements.
  16. 16. HOW THE WATER COULD BE USED  As per provisions of the treaty, India could use only 20% of the total water carried by Indus.  All the waters of the eastern rivers shall be available for unrestricted use in India.  Except for domestic and non-comsumptive uses agricultural uses, and generation of hydroelectric power. Pakistan shall be under an obligation to let flow and shall not permit any interference with the waters of Sutluj, Ravi main in the reaches where these rivers flow in Pakistan and have not yet finally crossed into Pakistan.  Pakistan has unrestricted use of all those of waters of western rivers.
  17. 17. THE 3 DISPUTES
  18. 18. THE TULBUL NAVIGATION PROJECT( WULLAR BARRAGE) 1. It was prosed to be built at the mouth of wullar lake in baramulla district of kashmir valley.  The plan was to construct a barrage to increase the flow of water in jhelum to make it navigable during the lean season.  Pakistan objected that it violets the provisions of the treaty. They believed  that the project would adversely affect the triple canal project, upper chenab canal, upper jhelum canal,& lower bari doab canal.  India would control the jhelum river during winters.  Mangla dam would be adversely affected.  Project seemed to be a security threat to pakistan’s sovereignty.
  19. 19.  IN 1986 Pakistan reffer the project dispute to Indus water commission ,but after 1 year the commission recorded failure to resolve it subsequently India stops the construction.  From 1986-1991, 13 rounds of talks held but dipute remained unresolved.  However India agreed to some of Pakistan’s condition but after Pakistan added the condition that of not constructing Kishanganga project. India refused to accept the condition.  Dispute dominated Indo-Pak talks, the Agra summit of 2001, secreatary level talks of 2011, but not much development have been achived yet.
  20. 20. THE BAGLIHAR PROJECT DISPUTE  The dispute emerged in 1999, when Pakistan challanged the design of the project.  Pakistan saw it as the violation of the treaty  The project gives India a strategic leverage to manipulate the flow of river during any critic situation (wars etc).  A neutral expert Prof. Raymond Lafitte of Switzerland instructed India to make some changes in the structure of project but Pakistan was not satisfied with the verdict as he did not consider much of Pakistan’s objection  The Baglihar party settled by third party but relation between two countries beacame hostile when water was to be filled in the Baglihar dam  Pakistan demanded compensation for its loss  Finally differnces over filling dam was resolved in 2010.
  21. 21. THE KISHANGANGA PROJECT DISPUTE  It is a project by India over Kishanganga river at Gurez.  Project’s power generation capacity is 330 MW.  Pakistan was of the view that the diversion will reduce the the flow of water to the Neelum valley.  A series of talks were held to resolve the diferences and dispute but talks remaine unresolved and problematic.
  22. 22. CRITICS  Critics of IWT highlight that it does not consider the effect of climate change on water availability, sedimentation.  The treaty does not address the issue of quality or pollution of water from industrial or agricultural runoff, deforestation etc.  It does not provide for watershed management in respect of rivers whose catchment areas are located across borders.  There are no restrictions on how many dams India could built in indus basin.  Nor the water is distributed quantitatively, thus creating a potential for water exploitation by India.
  23. 23. SUGGESTION  India and Pakistan need to intiate a serious dialogue on strengthening the dispute resolution mechanism and develop strategy and plans for co-operation on water related challenges.  The long term water security of India and Pakistan which is linked to their food and energy security can only be achieved if they estabilish mutual beneficial co-operation on water resources.
  24. 24. THANK YOU
  25. 25. SUBMITTED BY:- RANJANA DALAL 31318414
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INDUS VALLEY TREATY DISPUTE BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN. WITH ARTICLES AND AMENDMENTS DATES.

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