Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

How Adults Learn

Captures many of the new ideas about how we learn, and translates them into simple educational principles and rules. Anyone can follow them when designing learning experiences that stick.

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to comment

How Adults Learn

  1. 1. D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  2. 2. Part One: <br />Some Deep Background<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  3. 3. Creating Great Adult <br />Learning Programs<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  4. 4. Hello!<br />This is my brain <br />trying to get inside your head … <br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  5. 5. … to teach you how-to <br />create great adult learning programs. <br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  6. 6. If we really want to teach adults, <br />then we really need to know <br />how-to reach adults.<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  7. 7. That means looking into the past <br /> when we first became learners, <br />and our brains were hardwired <br />for learning. <br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  8. 8. John Medina, one of the leading brain scientists tells us the following …<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  9. 9. “The brain appears to be designed to solve problems related to survival in an unstable outdoor environment, and to do so in nearly constant motion .” <br />Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  10. 10. The keys to learning and teaching adults are hidden in that statement … solving problems … related to survival … in an unstable environment … <br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  11. 11. That means that we learn what we need to learn , and we are always re-learning, since the world is always changing. <br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  12. 12. This tells us that experience has always been the Best Teacher, and that practice, practice, and more practice is the way adults learn new ways of doing things.<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  13. 13. This program will <br />show you many of the hints, tips <br />(and recently discovered tricks) <br />for creating the most amazing <br />adult learning experiences. <br />
  14. 14. Experiences that will <br /> change people’s lives. <br />
  15. 15. D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  17. 17. As a teacher, <br />you can’t ask for more.<br />Okay, let’s get started …<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  18. 18. Part Two:New Rules for Adult Education<br /> Everything You’ve Been Told Until Now …<br />
  19. 19. Okay, that’s not entirely true, but it got your attention and that’s half the battle … and a lot of what you will learn in this course is new and is part of a proven and better way to put together adult learning programs.<br />D4M2<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />
  20. 20. In the Beginning<br />“Let me tell you a story …”<br />In the Beginning<br />
  21. 21. In the Beginning<br /> “We’ll get to that part later …”<br />In the Beginning<br />
  22. 22. The New Development Model<br />The new model for creating an adult learning program is easy to remember – <br />D4M2<br />(pronounced D 4 M Squared)<br />
  23. 23. D4M2 Defined<br />Definewho needs to learn what<br />Designusing the rules and ideas you learn today<br />Developso you are creating an E=MC2 course (we’ll cover that later – for now just remember E=MC2)<br />Delivera course with a short shelf life – one that can be used right away<br />Managethe box in which you are creating the course<br />Measurebefore during and after – way after - the program ends<br />
  24. 24. D4M2<br />D4M2 comprises the titles of the modules for <br />this course. Follow the method <br />and you’ll find yourself <br />scoring the winning goal in no time<br />
  25. 25. Define<br />
  26. 26. Learning Objectives - Define<br />At the end of this module you will be able to<br />Define clearly what you want people to know or do as the first step<br />Understand the importance of knowing who your adult learners are<br />
  27. 27. 1. Define<br />Will you be teaching your adult learners as smart adults who know how to learn?<br />What are the language issues and how do you plan to overcome them?<br />Can you describe everything in simple easy-to-understand terms<br />
  28. 28. 1. Define<br />Can you clearly see how the lives of the people taking your program would be better after the training?<br />Is your language going to be informal?<br />Do you know how you are perceived by the people in your program?<br />
  29. 29. 1. Define<br />Do you know exactly what people already know?<br />Are you aware of what people are actually doing?<br />Can you clearly define what they need (not want) to learn? <br />
  30. 30. 1. Define<br />Do you plan to build a community of learners after the training program?<br />How will you define what they know?<br />How will you define what they can do?<br />Do you know how ready and able they are to learn and use something new?<br />
  31. 31. 1. Define<br />Are you planning to use the most useful tools for the learners?<br />How will you support the training AFTER the initial learning experience?<br />Do you understand why you have been successful with this group in the past?<br />
  32. 32. 1. Define<br />Do you know why your training programs have been successful?<br />Are you making sure to learn from those successful programs?<br />Is your passion a big part of the program?<br />
  33. 33. Remember - Define<br /><ul><li>Defining a program for adults is the first step - answer the questions that define your learners
  34. 34. Adults need to be treated like adults with adult brains – they already know how to learn
  35. 35. Develop a program that enables that learning process – treat everyone as brilliant - and you and your adult learners win!</li></li></ul><li>Module 2<br />Design<br />
  36. 36. Learning Objectives - Design<br /> At the end of this module you will be able to<br />Understand that the design of a program is the key to really solid adult learning<br />Know the basic strategies and rules for designing great educational experiences<br />
  37. 37. 2. Design<br />What is the best way to transfer the knowledge?<br />What tools can your adult learners use?<br />What has worked for them in the past?<br />
  38. 38. 2. Design<br />What influence does the culture have?<br />What disables their learning?<br />What enables their learning?<br />
  39. 39. The All Important C-B-E’s<br />A lesson must cover the following elements: <br />Cognitive – I Know<br />Behavioral – I Can Do<br />Experiential – I Can Adopt and Adapt<br />The game of football is a great example of making sure each 10-minute lesson covers either one or more of the C-B-E’s<br />
  40. 40. Knowing and Doing<br />Learning to play the game …<br /> You can read about football and say “I know” how to play the game” but you can’t really play football <br /> You can use a football computer game, practice passing or shooting a goal and say “I can”play football, but you still can’t play the game<br />
  41. 41. Adopting and Adapting<br /> Only when you go out for your first game where every ball and every kick and every day is different … when the sun shines, the rain falls, the wind blows, and the sky gets dark early …<br />
  42. 42. Adopting and Adapting<br /> … with every kick you take can you finally say “I can adopt and adapt” what I know and can do under all these constantly changing circumstances … then you’re really learning to play football...<br />
  43. 43. 2. Some Design Rules<br />Each lesson must be no longer <br />than 10-minutes.<br />(That is the maximum length of time that<br />the brain can focus on a lesson.) <br />
  44. 44. 2. Some Design Rules<br /> The learning goals of each module must be SMARTER<br />Specific<br />Measurable<br />Achievable<br />Realistic<br />Time-based<br />Exciting<br />Recorded<br />
  45. 45. 2. Some Design Rules<br /> All exercises find out who learned the lesson OR who missed the point – not who is right or wrong<br />
  46. 46. 2. Great Design<br /> “Great design for adult learning is like building a beautiful and strong web … it starts as a simple and strong thread between your brain and the brain of the learner, and then weaves every brain to every other brain.”<br />David Grebow<br /> Adult Learning Expert<br />
  47. 47. 2. More Design Rules<br />The benefits people will get from the course must be directly related to the <br />learning objectives<br />LO + B<br />
  48. 48. 2. More Design Rules<br />Learning Objective<br />At the end of this course you will be able to<br />develop a small business plan<br />
  49. 49. 2. More Design Rules<br />Benefit<br />At the end of this course you will be able to<br />develop a small business plan that will help you<br />find the funding you need to get started<br />
  50. 50. 2. More Design Rules<br />Good LO + B<br />At the end of this course you will be able to<br />develop a small business plan that will help you<br />find the funding you need to get started<br />
  51. 51. 2. A New Design Idea<br />Soap opera in and soap opera out<br />
  52. 52. 2. A New Design Idea<br /> Every 10-minute lesson starts and ends with a related emotional story. that helps adults enter the lesson and transition to the next one<br />Soap opera in and soap opera out<br />
  53. 53. 2. A New Design Idea<br />Why emotional? <br />Our memory works best when there is an emotion that anchors the lesson<br />(Why? Not sure but we have an idea that it has something to do with remembering to run back to the village really fast when you hear the roar of a saber toothed tiger)<br />
  54. 54. 2. A New Design Idea<br />In other words , Emotion puts the “re” into remember…<br />(maybe we should have called it “remotion”?)<br />
  55. 55. 2. More On Design<br />We’ve all heard that a picture is worth a thousand words. We’ve all heard a thousand words that weren’t worth 2¢, and a few words that were invaluable. <br />Whatever they are worth, use pictures<br />We’re not sure why pictures work so well in adult learning programs, but they do. Graphics too (here’s an example …) <br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57. 2. Design Law One<br /> PowerPoint slides are NOT a course<br />If you use PowerPoint, here are the rules:<br />You should always talk around a slide not use it as a script<br />There is only enough room for three main bullets<br />A slide has a time limit of 1-minute before it blows-up<br />Death by PowerPoint is a pandemic! Each year millions die from the deadly PowerPoint Slide Deck masquerading as a learning program!<br />
  58. 58. 2. Design Law Two<br />It is REALLY important to remember that retention is key for adults who often forget more than they remember so use the Rx4<br />Revisit<br />Reinforce<br />Re-teach<br />Refocus <br />
  59. 59. 2. Design<br />It is REALLY important to remember that retention is key for adults who often forget more than they remember so use the Rx4<br />
  60. 60. 2. Design<br />It is REALLY important to remember that retention is key for adults who often forget more than they remember so use the Rx4<br />Revisit<br />
  61. 61. 2. Design<br />It is REALLY important to remember that retention is key for adults who often forget more than they remember so use the Rx4<br />Revisit<br />Reinforce<br />
  62. 62. 2. Design<br />It is REALLY important to remember that retention is key for adults who often forget more than they remember so use the Rx4<br />Revisit<br />Reinforce<br />Re-teach<br />
  63. 63. 2. Design<br />It is REALLY important to remember that retention is key for adults who often forget more than they remember so use the Rx4<br />Revisit<br />Reinforce<br />Re-teach<br />Refocus <br />
  64. 64. 2. Design Litmus Test<br />Here’s a litmus test for your program<br /> Are you designing a course for adults <br />that is more facilitating & discovering <br />and less leading & teaching?<br />
  65. 65. 2. Design Litmus Test<br />Here’s a litmus test for your program<br /> Are you designing a course for adults <br />that is more facilitating & discovering <br />and less leading & teaching?<br />Yes?<br />
  66. 66. 2. Design Litmus Test<br />Here’s a litmus test for your program<br /> Are you designing a course for adults <br />that is more facilitating & discovering <br />and less leading & teaching?<br />No?<br />
  67. 67. 2. Design Litmus Test<br /> The correct answer is always<br />Yes.<br />Adult learning experiences are always more about facilitation and discovery<br />
  68. 68. Remember - Design<br /><ul><li>Adults need to be treated like adults with adult brains – they already know how to learn
  69. 69. When you design a program, be sure it enables that learning process – treat everyone as brilliant - and you and your adult learners win!</li></li></ul><li>Module 3<br />Develop<br />
  70. 70. Learning Objectives - Develop<br />At the end of this module you will be able to<br />Know some of the key elements that go into developing a great course that will enables the adult learning process <br />
  71. 71. 3. Develop<br />Stick with what you have learned from the the D4M2 Method as you enter the Develop phase<br />Make it as interactive as possible – more facilitating and discovering and less leading<br />
  72. 72. 3. Develop<br />Make sure to keep in touch after the program and find ways to keep the learners together as a group<br />
  73. 73. 3. Develop<br /> The Law of Chunking <br />“The magic seven, plus or minus two (7±2) rule of thumb" <br />George A Miller, 1950’s <br />The human capacity to process information in short-term memory is limited to 5-9 chunks of information<br />
  74. 74. 3. Develop<br />Some important rules used by the best adult <br />learning programs:<br />E=MC2<br />
  75. 75. 3. Develop<br />Some important rules used by the best adult <br />learning programs:<br />E=MC2<br />
  76. 76. 3. Develop<br />E=MC2– The learning must be<br />Elaborate – which is why adults everywhere scratch their heads when trying to learn, the brain must be challenged to switch on the learning connections<br />Meaningful– they need to be able to take it home and use it immediately or it’s forgotten<br />Contextual – most importantly, it needs to fit into their real and current lives! <br />
  77. 77. Review - Develop<br /><ul><li>Always use the E=MC2approach
  78. 78. Make a lesson no longer than 10 minutes
  79. 79. Use chunking as a way to determine the right amount of information to introduce in those 10 minutes
  80. 80. Make the lesson as interactive as possible</li></li></ul><li>Module 4<br />Deliver<br />
  81. 81. Learning Objectives - Deliver<br />At the end of this module you will be able to<br />Know some of the key elements that go into delivering an interactive course in which adults learn from discovering the answers and from one another <br />
  82. 82. 4. Deliver<br />Adults like to discover things – that’s why we eat oysters<br />Adults like to use their bodies when they learn <br />Movement stimulates the learning centers of the brain – sitting is good for things like watching TV<br />
  83. 83. 4. Deliver<br />Take motion breaks every 10 minutes – I’m counting and there should be at least 3 in this program<br />Motion can be practice, breaking into small groups to talk, anything but sitting and listening<br />Test the program on the actual learner(s) to see if they get it and if not, why not …<br />
  84. 84. 4. Deliver the 4 “C’s”<br /> The program should be more than just a single program … learning is a process … it requires the learners to stay in contact, to connectand communicate, to help one another continue to practice and really learn.<br />
  85. 85. Review - Deliver<br /><ul><li>If you have done everything needed in the Define, Design and Develop stage the lesson should be able to almost deliver itself
  86. 86. Be sure to add value to the program – know your subject better than your learners
  87. 87. Add more value! Be a tutor, a mentor, a coach ... make yourself available</li></li></ul><li>Module 5<br />Manage<br />
  88. 88. Learning Objectives - Manage<br />At the end of this module you will be able to<br />Use the Best Practices we currently have when managing a course developed for adults<br />
  89. 89. 5. Manage<br />Every program has limitations which are simply<br />Creative Opportunities to Manage<br />Time for development is always in short supply<br />The need to provide some adults with more help than others is always a time management issue<br />Money … staying within budget is a like a Zen koan … I have no idea what that means I just know it’s hard to do<br />
  90. 90. 5. Manage<br />The amount of knowledge to be transferred is best broken up into many shorter pieces <br />Charles Dickens knew that when he serialized his novels and created “The Cliffhanger” at the end of every episode <br />The Cliffhanger is actually a good way to end each 10-minute ‘courselet’ … make them want to come back for more …<br />
  91. 91. Review - Manage<br /><ul><li>If you follow the D4 steps, you’ll find that the pieces quickly fall into place
  92. 92. Just remember to keep your eyes on the knowledge you want to transfer from your brain to theirs … remember to build the web</li></li></ul><li>Module 6<br />Measure<br />
  93. 93. Learning Objectives - Measure<br />At the end of this module you will be able to<br />Understand why the standard measurements used for adult learning are outdated and close to useless<br />Use the new metrics that show you how much of the learning people have “adopted and adapted” over time.<br />
  94. 94. 6. Measure<br />Which of the follow sentences are <br />not a good measure of a course for adults<br />
  95. 95. 6. Measure<br />“Everyone showed up and stayed to the end”<br />
  96. 96. 6. Measure<br />“Be honest …they had no choice!”<br />
  97. 97. 6. Measure<br />“They all applauded when we were finished”<br />
  98. 98. 6. Measure<br />“Another way of saying thank goodness <br />it’s over!”<br />
  99. 99. 6. Measure<br />The only good measure is to observe what was learned – during AND after the program<br />For example, a survey done 6-8 weeks after the program is a good way to measure the impact<br />
  100. 100. 6. Measure<br />Why?<br />You are not measuring how well anyone did during the program , but how much each individual learned, and whether or not they are using it<br />
  101. 101. 6. Measure<br /> A longer timeframe is always a better measure of how much the learning is really being used.<br />Ashortertimeframe is not as good since it can only measure how much learning was memorized, and then regurgitated on a test<br />
  102. 102. 6. Measure<br /> Question: Remember all those tests you passed when you were in school?<br /> How many of them could you pass right now? <br />
  103. 103. 6. Measure<br />This is all about the “E” <br />in CBE – Experiential<br />
  104. 104. 6. Measure<br />This is all about the “E” <br />in CBE – Experiential<br />Guess What? <br />Experience is the best teacher after all<br />
  105. 105. A New Definition<br />Here’s a new definition of learning to remember when you measure the effectiveness of your program<br />
  106. 106. Learning (verb)<br />Learning is the ability to adopt and adapt what you know and can do under an ever-changing variety of situations.<br />
  107. 107. Remember to Remember<br />Note: There will not be a test at the end <br />so try and remember to remember<br />
  108. 108. Review - Measure<br /><ul><li>The only important outcome of a program to be measured is how well the learner has adopted and adapted the lessons over time
  109. 109. Remember that real learning is not passing a test but learning something that changes the way you live your life every day
  110. 110. Adults don’t really require anything else from a lesson but a starting point, an end point, and a lot of time to practice, practice, practice</li></li></ul><li> “Okay, now let me tell you that funny story about a course that raised the awareness of an entire village. It’s true, listen …”<br />Back to the Beginning<br />
  111. 111.
  112. 112. Thanks!<br />107<br />KnowledgeStar© 2010<br />

×