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KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
LOOKING AT CLASSIFICATION
SYSTEMS FROM A DIFFERENT POV
by ALMILA AKDAG SALAH
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
OUTLINE
¤  deviantArt
¤  Introduction via data collection phase J
¤  A classification system gen...
Data: What are Daily Deviations?
¤  Daily Deviations
¤  One of the promotion mechanisms in dA is the idea of choosing ab...
Category Distribution of dA
Photography
Digital Art
Scraps
Traditional Art
Resources
Cartoons
Customization
Fan Art
Manga ...
A look at the Network StructureKNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Category Network of dA
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Visualizing member’s galleries
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Comparing two categories
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Information visualization
¤  Thomas Laquer’s argument: From One Sex
to Two Sex Model
¤  N-gram Dataset
¤  Building a strategy
¤  Gutenberg & Goo...
Body, gender, sex
¤  A monk, a beautiful -death- girl, and a
story told in three different ways
¤  in 1749, Jacques-Jean...
One Sex Model
¤  Woman has the same genitals as men
except that, as Nemesius, bishop of Emesa
in the 4th century put it: ...
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Two Sex ModelKNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Difference of degree rather
than kind
Identifies a canonical body
—one is inferior version
They are bound together in
the ...
Data Collection/Re-collection
¤  Test phase for a digital humanities project:
¤  We develop different ideas to translate...
Research Strategies
¤  Looking at adjectives:
¤  Is there a difference in adjectives used for
man/woman?
¤  Is there a ...
Research Strategies II
¤  Looking at color only:
¤  The association of certain colors with specific
gender is recent.
¤...
Research Strategies III
¤  Looking at Book Covers:
¤  Can we transfer knowledge from our color
study done for paintings ...
Data Resources & Shortcomings
¤  Google N-grams
¤  Gutenberg
¤  Goodreads
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Metadata of Google N-grams
¤  For each word in an n-gram we know
¤  In which year it appeared
¤  With which words it ap...
N-Gram Corpora
¤  English/American
¤  French
¤  German
¤  Italian
¤  Spanish
¤  Chinese
¤  Russian
¤  Hebrew
N-Gra...
Metadata of Gutenberg
¤  For each book in Gutenberg
¤  The authors name
¤  Title
¤  The full text
¤  Language
¤  LoC...
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
A Snapshot from Gutenberg Bibrec
¤  Author Doyle, Arthur Conan, 1859-1930
¤  Title The Sign of the...
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Crawling Goodreads
¤  data on the books:
¤  Reviews
¤  ratings
¤  number of ratings
¤  number o...
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
When and where does KOS come into play?
¤  Classification of Color
¤  Population of classification...
KNOWESCAPE
05.03.2015
Thanks to…
¤  deviantArt:
¤  Albert Ali Salah
¤  Lev Manovich
¤  Jay Chow
¤  From One Sex to Tw...
References
Borgatti, Steve. Netdraw: Graph Visualization Software. Harvard: Analytic
Technologies. http://www.analytictech...
Almila Akdag Salah: Looking at classification systems from the point of view of users: analyzing deviantArt's categories
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Almila Akdag Salah: Looking at classification systems from the point of view of users: analyzing deviantArt's categories

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Almila Akdag Salah (eHg) “Looking at classification systems from the point of view of users: analyzing deviantArt's categories”
Presentation at the KnoweScape workshop "Evolution and variation of classification systems" March 4-5, 2015 Amsterdam

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Almila Akdag Salah: Looking at classification systems from the point of view of users: analyzing deviantArt's categories

  1. 1. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015 LOOKING AT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FROM A DIFFERENT POV by ALMILA AKDAG SALAH
  2. 2. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015 OUTLINE ¤  deviantArt ¤  Introduction via data collection phase J ¤  A classification system generated out of user needs ¤  Fingerprints of these users ¤  Thomas Laqueur ¤  One Sex – Two Sex Model ¤  Cultural implications ¤  Translation ¤  Data & Strategies
  3. 3. Data: What are Daily Deviations? ¤  Daily Deviations ¤  One of the promotion mechanisms in dA is the idea of choosing about 20-30 works daily, and publishing these on the main webpage of the site for the duration of a single day. ¤  These selected works illustrate a representative distribution of the dA community: they might belong to the earliest or latest members, to popular or unknown members. ¤  The jargon of the site: every member is called a ‘deviant’ and every uploaded work is a ‘deviation’. The selected ‘deviations’ for each day are ‘daily deviations’ (DD’s). ¤  Our dataset: ¤  30.643 daily deviations created by 21.745 deviants between 2000-2011. ¤  These deviants had a total of 1.321.264 artworks in dA archive at the time of data retrieval. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  4. 4. Category Distribution of dA Photography Digital Art Scraps Traditional Art Resources Cartoons Customization Fan Art Manga & Anime dA-related Designs/ Interfaces Literature Artisan & Crafts Antrho KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  5. 5. A look at the Network StructureKNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  6. 6. Category Network of dA KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  7. 7. Visualizing member’s galleries KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  8. 8. Comparing two categories KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  9. 9. Information visualization
  10. 10. ¤  Thomas Laquer’s argument: From One Sex to Two Sex Model ¤  N-gram Dataset ¤  Building a strategy ¤  Gutenberg & Goodreads ¤  Where does KOS come into play? OutlineKNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  11. 11. Body, gender, sex ¤  A monk, a beautiful -death- girl, and a story told in three different ways ¤  in 1749, Jacques-Jean Bruhier ¤  In 1752, by Antoine Louis ¤  In 1836, by Michael Ryan ¤  What does the story has to do with body, gender and sex? KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  12. 12. One Sex Model ¤  Woman has the same genitals as men except that, as Nemesius, bishop of Emesa in the 4th century put it: “theirs are inside the body and not outside it.” ¤  In the world of Galen, who in the 2nd century developed the most powerful and resilient model of male/female reproductive organs, the vagina is imagined as an interior penis, the labia as foreskin, the uterus as scrotum, and the ovaries as testicles. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  13. 13. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  14. 14. Two Sex ModelKNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  15. 15. Difference of degree rather than kind Identifies a canonical body —one is inferior version They are bound together in the same system Re-zoning of maleness requires a relocation of femaleness Construed as two essentially different kinds New vocabulary introduced to describe femininity as essentially different from masculinity E.g. “ovaries” rather than “female testes” One Sex Two sex From One Sex Model to Two Sex ModelKNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  16. 16. Data Collection/Re-collection ¤  Test phase for a digital humanities project: ¤  We develop different ideas to translate the break from one sex to two sex model in quantitative formats, and test them ¤  We define explicitly what kind of data we need (in this case which words/word grams to search for in the dataset) ¤  We might have to go to this stage and recollect data according to the test phase results KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  17. 17. Research Strategies ¤  Looking at adjectives: ¤  Is there a difference in adjectives used for man/woman? ¤  Is there a change in adjectives associated with man/woman over time? ¤  Looking at verbs: ¤  Can we talk about different verbs used for male vs. female protagonists/characters in novels? ¤  Are there any differences in the frequency of passive/active voice for male/female characters? KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  18. 18. Research Strategies II ¤  Looking at color only: ¤  The association of certain colors with specific gender is recent. ¤  How did color association change over time? ¤  Image Analysis problems: automatic face/ gender identification where the current norms do not apply! ¤  Looking at objects: ¤  In portraits, which objects were mostly used with which gender? ¤  What are the color usage for the common used objects? KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  19. 19. Research Strategies III ¤  Looking at Book Covers: ¤  Can we transfer knowledge from our color study done for paintings to analyze book covers? ¤  How do book covers change over time? ¤  Differences in book covers reflecting the gender of the author ¤  Looking at Authors/Text/Reviews: ¤  Historical data: Reviews, reactions to authors who published first with male name ¤  How do male authors ‘voice & describe’ female characters vs how do female authors do that KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  20. 20. Data Resources & Shortcomings ¤  Google N-grams ¤  Gutenberg ¤  Goodreads KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  21. 21. Metadata of Google N-grams ¤  For each word in an n-gram we know ¤  In which year it appeared ¤  With which words it appears (at most with 5- words distance ¤  The position of it in the sentence (i.e. we can look for words that are at the start or end of a sentence, or search for word/adjective pairs, word/verb pairs etc.) ¤  What we do not know: ¤  The publication venue (book, journal, ?) ¤  The genre (poem, novel, scientific text, religious text, etc) ¤  The full sentence it appears KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  22. 22. N-Gram Corpora ¤  English/American ¤  French ¤  German ¤  Italian ¤  Spanish ¤  Chinese ¤  Russian ¤  Hebrew N-Gram CorporaKNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  23. 23. Metadata of Gutenberg ¤  For each book in Gutenberg ¤  The authors name ¤  Title ¤  The full text ¤  Language ¤  LoC class ¤  Subjects ¤  What we do not know: ¤  The publication year ¤  The publication edition KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015
  24. 24. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015 A Snapshot from Gutenberg Bibrec ¤  Author Doyle, Arthur Conan, 1859-1930 ¤  Title The Sign of the Four ¤  Language English ¤  LoC Class PR: Language and Literatures: English literature ¤  Subject Holmes, Sherlock (Fictitious character) -- Fiction ¤  Subject Private investigators -- England -- Fiction ¤  Subject Detective and mystery stories ¤  Category Text ¤  EBook-No. 2097 ¤  Release DateMar 1, 2000 ¤  Copyright Status Public domain in the USA. ¤  Downloads 2811 downloads in the last 30 days. ¤  Price $0.00
  25. 25. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015 Crawling Goodreads ¤  data on the books: ¤  Reviews ¤  ratings ¤  number of ratings ¤  number of reviews ¤  author ¤  first publication date ¤  as for the authors, they have their separate profile pages which we can use to collect additional data: ¤  age (born/died info) ¤  gender (yahoo :) ¤  genre (yes!)  ¤  and the reviewer info: ¤  age ¤  gender ¤  number of reviews ¤  number of ratings ¤  achievements (best reviewer, top reviewer etc. anything that is listed on their profile page under their profile pic)
  26. 26. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015 When and where does KOS come into play? ¤  Classification of Color ¤  Population of classification systems as a mirror of sub-cultures ¤  How differently are books classified in different library collections and what does the differences tell us? ¤  Classification Systems as a way to assess an overview, evolution, interests and goals of an SNS community
  27. 27. KNOWESCAPE 05.03.2015 Thanks to… ¤  deviantArt: ¤  Albert Ali Salah ¤  Lev Manovich ¤  Jay Chow ¤  From One Sex to Two Sex: ¤  Alexender Petersen (IMT) ¤  Orion Penner (IMT) ¤  Zoe Borovsky (UCLA) ¤  Arzucan Ozgur ¤  Alper Çetin ¤  Albert Ali Salah
  28. 28. References Borgatti, Steve. Netdraw: Graph Visualization Software. Harvard: Analytic Technologies. http://www.analytictech.com/Netdraw/netdraw.htm Clover, Carol J. 1993. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. Princeton University Press. Danowski, James. WORDij. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago. http://wordij.net/. -----. 2009. Network analysis of message content. In The content analysis reader, ed. Krippendorff, K and Bock, M., 421-430. Sage Publications. L Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press. Borovsky, Zoe. 2010. Hota, Sobhan, et al. "Performing gender: Automatic stylistic analysis of Shakespeare’s characters." Proceedings of the Digital Humanities Conference. 2006. Google Books - https://developers.google.com/books/ Wikipedia API - http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/API:Main_page Project Gutenberg - https://www.gutenberg.org/ Stanford Parser - http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/lex-parser.shtml KNOWESCAPE 05Ç03Ç2015

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