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  1. The End of 20th Century Journalism: “Every Citizen is a Reporter”
  2. 2:22 p.m. on the 22nd of February, 2000
  3. New Concept: “Every Citizen is a Reporter”
  4. Trajectory of human communications WOM at pre-industrial town - Newspaper - Radio & Television - Internet - Mobile phones The Scale of Diffusion Interactivity BlogsBlogs Citizen journalismCitizen journalism Bulletin boardsBulletin boards
  5. Digital divide alongside age in Korea Print & TV News Internet News News makers &News makers & News sourcesNews sources News makers &News makers & News sourcesNews sources
  6. OhmyNews was founded on the premise of “Citizen Reporters” “Every citizen's a reporter. Journalists aren't some exotic species, they're everyone who seeks to take new developments, put them into writing, and share them with others.” – Oh Yeon Ho, founder and CEO of OhmyNews
  7. OhmyNews was founded on the premise of “Citizen Reporters” “OhmyNews does not regard straight news articles as the standard. Articles including both facts and opinions are acceptable when they are good.” – Oh Yeon Ho, Speaking with Japan Media Review
  8. Number of Citizen Reporters explodes from 727 to 37,000+ 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 Feb.2000 Sep. 2000 Mar. 2001 Nov. 2001 Oct. 2002 Mar. 2003 Nov. 2003 Apr.2004 PresidentialPresidential ElectionElection 20022002 GeneralGeneral ElectionElection 20042004 GeneralGeneral ElectionElection 20002000
  9. Citizen Reporters – Who Are They? By Gender Male, 76.6% Female, 23.4% *As of Dec. 09 2003
  10. Citizen Reporters – Who Are They? By Occupation Others, 42.4% Freelancers, 5.1% Teachers, 4.3% College Students, 19.7% White Collar, 15.5% Small businesses, 5.9% Journalists, 7.1% *As of Dec. 09 2003
  11. By Age 10~19, 8.5% 20~29, 38.4% 30~39, 34.5% 40~49, 14.4% 50~59, 3.2% 60~, 1.0% Citizen Reporters – Who Are They? *As of Dec. 09 2003
  12. Why they write for OhmyNews  Eyeballs; thousands of readers (current record is 100,000 views) guaranteed for their story  Instant feedback from readers; up to 3,500 readers’ comments recorded depending on nature of the story  Sense of empowerment by participating in changing society  Monetary rewards; 20,000 won for top story, 10,000 won for sub-top and 2,000 won for ingul story *Readers can tip writers using a mobile phone payment system  “News Guerillas of the Month”, “News Guerillas’ Day”
  13. What they write for OhmyNews Topics they have easy access to:  Essay-style musings on daily life  Columns on various political and social issues  Film and book reviews  Media criticism mostly on reports by conservative established media  On any given day, they submit 150 to 200 stories, over 70% of the news content for OhmyNews
  14. It’s not bulletproof but a system is in place to guarantee credibility  Background-check for every single netizen before they can sign up as an OhmyNews citizen reporter  No news can appear on the main page until they pass through fact- check and screening process by OhmyNews copyeditors – we reject as many as 30% of 150-200 stories submitted daily for various reasons  Sensitive stories that contain claims that potentially damage news makers’ reputation get more thorough fact-check and sometimes entail even on-site visits  Citizen reporters tend to write softer news like movie review, travel essays minimizing any chance of legal conflict in the first place
  15. Tale of Two Internet News Media Content Reader participation Use of technology Updates Attitude News consumption Use Web as… Quality news, analysis, editorials and op-eds Limited feedback to the editor via “Readers’ Opinion” Web as a carrier of print news to cyber space New York Times Digital 10~15 times per day Modernistic elite media I produce. You consume and leave. a pipe for news delivery Focused news on politics and social issues by staff reporters Essay style reports by citizen reporters Write as a citizen reporter, post your comments or give money to reporters HTML, Web-radio, Web-TV, Mobile news and Weekly print edition OhmyNews As many as necessary; 24 times per day in case of live text casting Post-modernistic “We” media We produce. We consume and stay. a playground for readers
  16. “Attention Netizens!” Citizen Reporters vs. Bloggers
  17. OhmyNews, One-stop Marketplace of Eyeballs “Is there something else that flows through cyberspace, something that is scarce and desirable? There is. No one would put anything on the Internet without the hope of obtaining some. It's called attention. And the economy of attention - not information - is the natural economy of cyberspace.” -Excerpt from Attention Shoppers! By Michael H. Goldhaber
  18. OhmyNews, One-stop Marketplace of Eyeballs & Intermediary for tips News& OpinionNews& Opinion Eyeballs &Eyeballs & MoneyMoney Citizen Reporters News AudienceBloggers
  19. Why Citizen Reporter Instead of Blogging?  A lot more eyeballs than blogging: plenty of views and readers’ comments guaranteed  Professional peer review by OhmyNews editors  Instant Fame: “Honey, I am on OhmyNews!”  Sense of solidarity and empowerment  Scarcity of “real estate” makes appearance on OhmyNews all the more valuable  Market mechanism: a thrill of competition to grab prized spots on the main page  Monetary rewards: fee from OhmyNews and tip from readers
  20. OhmyNews Editorial Process Citizen Reporters (37,000+) Staff Reporters (48) Essays & Columns Film & Book Reviews Media Criticism Screening by News Guerilla Desk Hard News Analysis Columns & Editorials Screening by Editorial Desk PublicationPublication
  21. Story contributions by citizen reporters far outstrip those by staff reporters 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu 3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4 3/5 3/6 3/7 3/8 3/9 3/10 3/11 3/12 3/13 3/14 3/15 3/16 3/17 3/18 3/19 3/20 3/21 3/22 3/23 3/24 3/25 3/26 3/27 3/28 3/29 3/30 3/31 News by staff reporters News by Agency News by business wire OhmyNews International News by citizen reporters Total Ratio: Citizen reporters/Staff reporters
  22. Stories flow in and they sparkle even more on weekends 0% 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% 600% 700% 800% 900% Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu 3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4 3/5 3/6 3/7 3/8 3/9 3/10 3/11 3/12 3/13 3/14 3/15 3/16 3/17 3/18 3/19 3/20 3/21 3/22 3/23 3/24 3/25 3/26 3/27 3/28 3/29 3/30 3/31 Ratio: No. of articles by Citizen reporters/Staff reporters
  23. Paradox of Conflicting Readers’ Demands The Beauty of Professionally-presented Editorial Control A Sense of Editorial Control with Readers’ Participation Tricky Balancing Act
  24. Always-on nature ofAlways-on nature of broadband accessbroadband access encourages readersencourages readers to stayto stay for hoursfor hours,, posting over 85,000posting over 85,000 comments andcomments and chatting with eachchatting with each other during live web-other during live web- casting.casting. OhmyTV’s Coverage on the General Election in April
  25. OhmyNews’ Coverage on the Anti- impeachment Protest in March
  26. OhmyNews’ Coverage on the Anti- impeachment Protest in March
  27. Marketplace for Tip hunters (if you are): “Thank you for the excellent writing, please take my money” Mobile phone Tipping Credit card Tipping
  28. Versioning of premium insider information tantalizes our readers to switch to paid subscription Number of paying customers as of Feb. 17
  29. Ad Sales, 70% Voluntary subscription fee and others, 10% News Content Sales, 20% Income Sources
  30. Highly efficient news operations  Word of mouth self-promotion by citizen reporters: as potential bloggers join OhmyNews as citizen reporters they bring with them their own audience thus contributing to increase in web-traffic  Virtual newsroom: any place with Internet access transforms into a virtual office for OhmyNews staff where they report and edit the news remotely and collaboratively
  31. Why in Korea?
  32. Digital ‘Soft’ Index Source: MIC as of June 2004 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s Korean Internet Usage Rate
  33. Digital ‘Soft’ Index Total Number of Internet Users (Unit: million) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1997 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source: MIC as of June 2004 32,730,000
  34. *Source: Asia Network Research by Institute for Hyper Network Society 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Broadband E-biz Online Game Mobile Internet Digital Music VOD Netizen E-Govt. Korea Japan USA Europe China Digital “Soft” Index
  35. Why Korea gravitated to the citizen reporter model  Negative public sentiment against near monopolistic dominance by three conservative, autocratic papers  Pent up demand for fair and independent news media  Over 75% broadband penetration; ideal for multimedia, always-on and interactive news service  3.6 degrees of separation; small land size and closely networked society  Uni-polar society; the entire country can be engulfed by couple of issues in a matter of days  Politically active 20-somethings and “386 generation” (*Korean equivalent of “68 generation” in Europe)  High literacy rate (98%) and Hangul’s adaptability to computer systems
  36. The Next Step
  37. Citizen Anchors
  38. Oh my! News by Million Phonecams?
  39. and it goes global with…. OhmyNews tests its Citizen ReporterOhmyNews tests its Citizen Reporter Model among Global AudienceModel among Global Audience
  40. OhmyNews International Citizen Reporter Seminars in Brussels & Seoul
  41. Readers of OhmyNews International are globally distributed
  42. The Vision: a News media with thousands of citizen correspondents world-wide
  43. 50-50 Society: Are we there yet?
  44. *Supplements
  45. - Overcome geographical barriers - Find like-minded people - Connect with each other - Become core supporters Conservative Moderate Liberal The Web enables Netizens to….
  46. Digital divide alongside age in Korea Print & TV News Internet News News makers &News makers & News sourcesNews sources News makers &News makers & News sourcesNews sources
  47. Hypersurface: cyber space and real space fuse together Cyber space HYPERSURFACEHYPERSURFACE Real space
  48. South Korea: a densely populated economy with over 80% urbanization coupled with 75% broadband penetration, i.e. a Hypersurface,
  49. Information Saliency in Hypersurface Cyber space Real space Demographics Time Psychographics Location
  50. HYPERSURFACE Snowballing effect of online and offline interactions among supporters Online Online interaction interaction OfflineOffline MeetingMeeting Enhanced Enhanced Online Online interaction interaction M ore desire for M ore desire for offline reunions offline reunions EmpoweredEmpowered SupportersSupporters Spreadtheword Spreadtheword totheskeptics totheskeptics
  51. Cyber warfare: the Ruling Uri Party vs. GNP *Source: Chosun Ilbo Nov. 29 2004 WHO HOW WHERE Personal Homepage Internet News Portals (DAUM, Naver) The Opposition’s Homepage Cyber Warfare Generate Supporting Arguments Copy & Paste Leave Your Comments Swarm Attacks Supporting Netizens Uri: Nosamo GNP: Parksamo Cyber Pundits Uri: Ryu Shi-min GNP: Jeon Yeo-ok
  52. E-politics: Korea-specific factors  ‘386 generation’, Korea’s new political leaders had been heavily influenced during the 80’s by communication and propaganda tactics they borrowed from socialists. They tested these viral communications techniques with the new media, i.e. Internet  The young generation shared the strong will to reform Korean society and were ready to sacrifice themselves for this noble cause  The elderly and conservative feared a tech-savvy, younger generation and anticipated an outbreak of their capability embodied in their political icon: Roh Moo Hyun  Thanks to the explosion of college education in the 80s, Netizens, the younger generation was generally well-educated  The conservatives’ favored print and TV media didn’t allow them to network with each other as fast and efficiently as the Internet did for progressive young voters -- a critical factor in galvanizing the last-minute voter turn-out on the election day  Young Netizens’ geographical proximity helped them interact with each other across on-line and off-line borders thus forming the core supporters
  53. They are million miles apart across the age-line… hence the civil war inside your homes Prefer bottom up, democratic & distributed communication Feel comfortable with top down and authoritative voice Communication mode Mostly enjoyed college education Barely finished high school education Education Uri Party and Roh Moo Hyun GNP and Park Geun HyeParty allegiance 20~4040~60Age distribution Preferred medium Internet, Mobile phones, TV, Radio Newspapers, Magazines, TV, Radio Political spectrum Liberal & Reform-minded Conservative & dominated by Cold War agenda The NetizensThe Old Guard
  54. 4 Years of OhmyNews  2000 February 22, 2000 OhmyNews site opens. November 9, 2000 Ranked 10th in a survey of “Korea’s Most Influential Media” by Sisa Journal and Media Research. December 11, 2000 Named “Hit Website” for 2000 by Hanguk Ilbo.  2001 October 6, 2001 OhmyNews president Oh Yeon Ho included in Kyeonghyang Sinmun’s “55 Faces that Represent Korea” October 20, 2001 Ranked 8th in a survey of “Korea’s Most Influential Media,” performed by Sisa Journal and Media Research.  2002 April 30, 2002 OhmyNews weekly print edition begins. October 21, 2002 Ranked 8th in a survey of “Korea’s Most Influential Media” performed by Sisa Journal and Media Research. December 18, 2002 Logs 6.23 million visitors, 19.10 million page views.  2003 February 22, 2003 Exclusive interview with President-elect Roh Moo Hyun on the third anniversary of OhmyNews. October 21, 2003 Ranked 6th in a survey of “Korea’s Most Influential Media” by a Sisa Journal panel of experts  2004 February 22, 2004 OhmyNews International beta version goes online.
  55. OhmyNews in the News  “More and more people were getting their information and political analysis from spunky news services on the Internet… Most influential by far has been a feisty three-year-old start up with the unusual name of OhmyNews. Around election time the free online news service was registering 20 million page views per day.” - The New York Times  “It's entertaining, it's heartfelt and it's caring. It's like blogs. It has a personal side and an emotional side. It has human texture. It's not bland and objective like traditional news. There's a definite bias. It's not professional, but you get the facts…. I trust it." - Don Park, blogger  "OhmyNews is as influential as any newspaper," a South Korean diplomat told the paper. "No policy maker can afford to ignore it. South Korea is changing in ways that we cannot believe ourselves.“ –  “The marriage of a fledgling democracy and broadband technology has spawned a precocious new media child in South Korea that would have been unimaginable 15 years ago.” – Christian Science Monitor  “OhmyNews is transforming the 20th century's journalism-as-lecture model, where organizations tell the audience what the news is and the audience either buys it or doesn't, into something vastly more bottom-up, interactive and democratic.” - San Jose Mercury News
  56. 3rd Generation Internet News Media  Strengthen multimedia component such as OhmyTV and mobile news service  Globalize OhmyNews, a native Korean product  Launch of OhmyNews International, its English language edition  Replicate and export OhmyNews model worldwide  Achieve qualitative development of citizen participatory journalism  OhmyNews by thousands of phonecam reporters  Go beyond criticism of the existing social establishment to propose alternatives for a new society  OhmyForum
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