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The “Black’s Wheel”:The “Black’s Wheel”:
a technique to develop hypermedia narrativesa technique to develop hypermedia narratives..
Prof. Dr. Maria Laura MartinezProf. Dr. Maria Laura Martinez ((ml.martinez@usp.brml.martinez@usp.br))
Journalism and Publishing DepartmentJournalism and Publishing Department
Prof. Dr. Sueli Mara FerreiraProf. Dr. Sueli Mara Ferreira ((smferrei@usp.brsmferrei@usp.br))
Lybrary and Documentation DepartmentLybrary and Documentation Department
University of Sao Paulo (USP) - BrazilUniversity of Sao Paulo (USP) - Brazil
Communications and Arts SchoolCommunications and Arts School
User Centered Design Research Center (CEDUs)User Centered Design Research Center (CEDUs)
CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra
MLauraMartinez
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The Black’s WheelThe Black’s Wheel
 Roger BLACK & Sean ELDERRoger BLACK & Sean ELDER
book: “Web sites that work”book: “Web sites that work”
(1997)(1997)
 Describes theDescribes the narrativenarrative
structurestructure used by Black’sused by Black’s
team that places narrativeteam that places narrative
elementselements in a wheel-likein a wheel-like
formatformat..
 InIn 20052005 we created thewe created the
technique called “The Black’stechnique called “The Black’s
Wheel”, introducing:Wheel”, introducing:
 (1)(1) GRAPHIC DIAGRAMGRAPHIC DIAGRAM ofof
the narrative wheelthe narrative wheel
concept, andconcept, and
 (2)(2) GUIDELINESGUIDELINES forfor
building it, aiming atbuilding it, aiming at
facilitating nonlinearfacilitating nonlinear
content design with usercontent design with user
focus.focus.
 InIn 20092009 we improve it againwe improve it again
creating, thecreating, the
 (3) “(3) “ELABORATIONELABORATION
DOCUMENTDOCUMENT” of each” of each
narrative element.narrative element.
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The Black’s Wheel DiagramThe Black’s Wheel Diagram
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The Black’s Wheel Guidelines and DocumentationThe Black’s Wheel Guidelines and Documentation
GUIDELINES:GUIDELINES:
 (1) USER CONCERN(1) USER CONCERN
 (2) ELEMENTS(2) ELEMENTS
IDENTIFICATIONIDENTIFICATION
 (3) INTERACTIVITY(3) INTERACTIVITY
 (4) MULTIMEDIALITY(4) MULTIMEDIALITY
 (5) PERSONALIZATION(5) PERSONALIZATION
 (6) NAVIGATION(6) NAVIGATION
 (7) LABELING(7) LABELING
 (8) DOCUMENTATION(8) DOCUMENTATION
ELABORATION DOCUMENT:ELABORATION DOCUMENT:
 (1) Name of the narrative(1) Name of the narrative
elementelement
 (2) Label(2) Label
 (3) Summary of the content(3) Summary of the content
 (4) Journalistic speech(4) Journalistic speech
 (5) Interactive contents(5) Interactive contents
 (6) Quality of interaction(6) Quality of interaction
 (7) Multimedia contents(7) Multimedia contents
 (8) Incorporated(8) Incorporated
functionalities (tools andfunctionalities (tools and
services)services)
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Case study MethodologyCase study Methodology
 Multiple case-study designMultiple case-study design
 (1) Research Questions to be investigated(1) Research Questions to be investigated::
Is the Black’s Wheel technique:Is the Black’s Wheel technique:
 understandable? / applicable?understandable? / applicable?
 useful? / Can enhance project?useful? / Can enhance project?
 complete?complete?
 (2) Research methods selection(2) Research methods selection
 Document analysisDocument analysis
 Participant observationParticipant observation
 (3) Case-study Protocol development(3) Case-study Protocol development
 (4) Case Analysis(4) Case Analysis
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Case study ProtocolCase study Protocol
 Protocol’sProtocol’s GlobalGlobal variablesvariables
1.1. Original Title.Original Title.
2.2. Language.Language.
3.3. Title in English.Title in English.
4.4. When it was developed.When it was developed.
5.5. Where.Where.
6.6. Manager.Manager.
7.7. Brief Description.Brief Description.
8.8. User profile.User profile.
9.9. The Black's WheelThe Black's Wheel
Diagram.Diagram.
10.10. Wheel Unit Replication.Wheel Unit Replication.
11.11. NavigationNavigation
Representation.Representation.
12.12. Independency betweenIndependency between
Wheel Spokes.Wheel Spokes.
13.13. Non-content elements.Non-content elements.
14.14. Size.Size.
 Protocol’sProtocol’s LocalLocal variablesvariables
1.1. Original labelOriginal label
2.2. Label in English.Label in English.
3.3. Hierarchy level.Hierarchy level.
4.4. SummarySummary
5.5. Journalistic speechJournalistic speech
6.6. Interactive elementsInteractive elements
7.7. Quality of interactionQuality of interaction
8.8. Multimedia elementsMultimedia elements
9.9. FunctionalitiesFunctionalities
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Case study presentationCase study presentation
 Main objective:Main objective:
 Evaluating theEvaluating the
Black’s WheelBlack’s Wheel
techniquetechnique
 www.uspvirtual.usp.brwww.uspvirtual.usp.br
 www.eca.usp.brwww.eca.usp.br
Communications and Arts School BuildingsCommunications and Arts School Buildings
University of São Paulo - BrazilUniversity of São Paulo - Brazil
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Case studyCase study UniverseUniverse 30 works since 200530 works since 2005
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Case studyCase study Sample UniverseSample Universe 1717 worksworks out of 30 (57% )out of 30 (57% )
Selection criteria:
 had used graphic
diagram to
describe the
Black’s Wheel
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Case studyCase study Sample UniverseSample Universe 22 out of 17out of 17 .
 2 was analyzed to evaluate
the Black’s Wheel technique.
Case 1Case 1
““Human Beings TrafficHuman Beings Traffic””
Case 2Case 2
““GuianaGuiana””
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 2 was analyzed to evaluate
the Black’s Wheel technique.
Case 1Case 1
““Human Beings TrafficHuman Beings Traffic””
Case 2Case 2
““GuianaGuiana””
Case studyCase study Sample UniverseSample Universe 22 out of 17out of 17 .
CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra
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1st research question: Is it understandable?1st research question: Is it understandable?
 Observations made in class:Observations made in class:
 students commonly applystudents commonly apply
the techniquethe technique withoutwithout
much difficulty.much difficulty.
 Documental analysis:Documental analysis:
 Case 1Case 1
 2005, 2nd. Semester.2005, 2nd. Semester.
 generally succeedgenerally succeed
applying the techniqueapplying the technique
 distinguishdistinguish clearlyclearly
between thebetween the
InformationInformation
ArchitectureArchitecture and theand the
Black’s WheelBlack’s Wheel..
Nevertheless...Nevertheless...
 Documental analysis:Documental analysis:
 Some teams prefer toSome teams prefer to
textually describetextually describe thethe
elements in the wheelelements in the wheel
instead of drawinginstead of drawing it (17it (17
out of the 30 )out of the 30 )
 Case 2Case 2 analysisanalysis mixmix
Information ArchitectureInformation Architecture
and Black’s Wheeland Black’s Wheel
concepts.concepts.
 Possible explanations...Possible explanations...
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2rd research question: Is it useful?2rd research question: Is it useful?
 Observations made in class:Observations made in class:
 the technique applicationthe technique application
usuallyusually causes fruitfulcauses fruitful
quarrelsquarrels around thearound the non-non-
linearlinear storytelling.storytelling.
 Documental analysis showsDocumental analysis shows
that Thethat The Black’s WheelBlack’s Wheel
 facilitatesfacilitates understandingunderstanding
at a glanceat a glance the wholethe whole
nonlinear story and itsnonlinear story and its
constituent elements andconstituent elements and
 maymay highlight the lack ofhighlight the lack of
contentscontents that couldthat could
enhance the story.enhance the story.
 GLOBAL and LOCAL protocolGLOBAL and LOCAL protocol
variablesvariables
 Black’s Wheel techniqueBlack’s Wheel technique
evaluationevaluation;;
 AlsoAlso be useful to assessbe useful to assess
the hypermedia narrativethe hypermedia narrative
by identifying projectby identifying project
weakness and strengths.weakness and strengths.
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3rd research question: Is it complete?3rd research question: Is it complete?
 No,No, it isn't completeit isn't complete
 althoughalthough it can be appliedit can be applied
to the hypermediato the hypermedia
narrative design withnarrative design with
relativerelative successsuccess, as, as
previously seen.previously seen.
 Navigation representationNavigation representation
into the Graphic diagram:into the Graphic diagram:
 hashas no clear modelno clear model,,
 needsneeds more discussionmore discussion..
 Case 1Case 1 uses auses a creativecreative
navigation representationnavigation representation
which doesn’t matchwhich doesn’t match
completely the Informationcompletely the Information
architecture’s navigation.architecture’s navigation.
 Journalistic speechJournalistic speech modelsmodels
 compatibilitycompatibility andand co-co-
existenceexistence into ainto a
hypermedia special reporthypermedia special report
isn’t a consensusisn’t a consensus..
 NeedsNeeds more thinkingmore thinking
under multiple caseunder multiple case
perspectives.perspectives.
 Elaboration DocumentElaboration Document
 recentrecent introduction andintroduction and
application,application,
 couldcould not be evaluatednot be evaluated inin
this case studythis case study yetyet..
 Their applicationTheir application shouldshould
be monitoredbe monitored..
 ......
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ConclusionsConclusions
 The Black’s Wheel, besidesThe Black’s Wheel, besides
being at a research stage, hasbeing at a research stage, has
shown to beshown to be
 a graphical technique thata graphical technique that
facilitates the visualizationfacilitates the visualization
and constructionand construction of theof the
hypermedia structure andhypermedia structure and
 also analso an efficient strategyefficient strategy
for Online Journalismfor Online Journalism
classes.classes.
 It’s anIt’s an Open TechniqueOpen Technique
 can enhanced with othercan enhanced with other
people’s contributions.people’s contributions.
 Future works:Future works:
 Development of anDevelopment of an onlineonline
databasedatabase that collect andthat collect and
document cases,document cases,
 will use Protocol variableswill use Protocol variables
toto standardize informationstandardize information
collectioncollection..
 The workingThe working URL baseURL base willwill
be:be: http://http://
www.cedus.usp.brwww.cedus.usp.br//
hypermedianarrativeshypermedianarratives
©©2002MLM2002MLMLSI-EPUSPLSI-EPUSP
Thank you!Thank you!
M Laura MartinezM Laura Martinez
ml.martinez@usp.brml.martinez@usp.br

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Maria

  • 1. The “Black’s Wheel”:The “Black’s Wheel”: a technique to develop hypermedia narrativesa technique to develop hypermedia narratives.. Prof. Dr. Maria Laura MartinezProf. Dr. Maria Laura Martinez ((ml.martinez@usp.brml.martinez@usp.br)) Journalism and Publishing DepartmentJournalism and Publishing Department Prof. Dr. Sueli Mara FerreiraProf. Dr. Sueli Mara Ferreira ((smferrei@usp.brsmferrei@usp.br)) Lybrary and Documentation DepartmentLybrary and Documentation Department University of Sao Paulo (USP) - BrazilUniversity of Sao Paulo (USP) - Brazil Communications and Arts SchoolCommunications and Arts School User Centered Design Research Center (CEDUs)User Centered Design Research Center (CEDUs)
  • 2. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 22 The Black’s WheelThe Black’s Wheel  Roger BLACK & Sean ELDERRoger BLACK & Sean ELDER book: “Web sites that work”book: “Web sites that work” (1997)(1997)  Describes theDescribes the narrativenarrative structurestructure used by Black’sused by Black’s team that places narrativeteam that places narrative elementselements in a wheel-likein a wheel-like formatformat..  InIn 20052005 we created thewe created the technique called “The Black’stechnique called “The Black’s Wheel”, introducing:Wheel”, introducing:  (1)(1) GRAPHIC DIAGRAMGRAPHIC DIAGRAM ofof the narrative wheelthe narrative wheel concept, andconcept, and  (2)(2) GUIDELINESGUIDELINES forfor building it, aiming atbuilding it, aiming at facilitating nonlinearfacilitating nonlinear content design with usercontent design with user focus.focus.  InIn 20092009 we improve it againwe improve it again creating, thecreating, the  (3) “(3) “ELABORATIONELABORATION DOCUMENTDOCUMENT” of each” of each narrative element.narrative element.
  • 4. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 44 The Black’s Wheel Guidelines and DocumentationThe Black’s Wheel Guidelines and Documentation GUIDELINES:GUIDELINES:  (1) USER CONCERN(1) USER CONCERN  (2) ELEMENTS(2) ELEMENTS IDENTIFICATIONIDENTIFICATION  (3) INTERACTIVITY(3) INTERACTIVITY  (4) MULTIMEDIALITY(4) MULTIMEDIALITY  (5) PERSONALIZATION(5) PERSONALIZATION  (6) NAVIGATION(6) NAVIGATION  (7) LABELING(7) LABELING  (8) DOCUMENTATION(8) DOCUMENTATION ELABORATION DOCUMENT:ELABORATION DOCUMENT:  (1) Name of the narrative(1) Name of the narrative elementelement  (2) Label(2) Label  (3) Summary of the content(3) Summary of the content  (4) Journalistic speech(4) Journalistic speech  (5) Interactive contents(5) Interactive contents  (6) Quality of interaction(6) Quality of interaction  (7) Multimedia contents(7) Multimedia contents  (8) Incorporated(8) Incorporated functionalities (tools andfunctionalities (tools and services)services)
  • 5. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 55 Case study MethodologyCase study Methodology  Multiple case-study designMultiple case-study design  (1) Research Questions to be investigated(1) Research Questions to be investigated:: Is the Black’s Wheel technique:Is the Black’s Wheel technique:  understandable? / applicable?understandable? / applicable?  useful? / Can enhance project?useful? / Can enhance project?  complete?complete?  (2) Research methods selection(2) Research methods selection  Document analysisDocument analysis  Participant observationParticipant observation  (3) Case-study Protocol development(3) Case-study Protocol development  (4) Case Analysis(4) Case Analysis
  • 6. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 66 Case study ProtocolCase study Protocol  Protocol’sProtocol’s GlobalGlobal variablesvariables 1.1. Original Title.Original Title. 2.2. Language.Language. 3.3. Title in English.Title in English. 4.4. When it was developed.When it was developed. 5.5. Where.Where. 6.6. Manager.Manager. 7.7. Brief Description.Brief Description. 8.8. User profile.User profile. 9.9. The Black's WheelThe Black's Wheel Diagram.Diagram. 10.10. Wheel Unit Replication.Wheel Unit Replication. 11.11. NavigationNavigation Representation.Representation. 12.12. Independency betweenIndependency between Wheel Spokes.Wheel Spokes. 13.13. Non-content elements.Non-content elements. 14.14. Size.Size.  Protocol’sProtocol’s LocalLocal variablesvariables 1.1. Original labelOriginal label 2.2. Label in English.Label in English. 3.3. Hierarchy level.Hierarchy level. 4.4. SummarySummary 5.5. Journalistic speechJournalistic speech 6.6. Interactive elementsInteractive elements 7.7. Quality of interactionQuality of interaction 8.8. Multimedia elementsMultimedia elements 9.9. FunctionalitiesFunctionalities
  • 7. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 77 Case study presentationCase study presentation  Main objective:Main objective:  Evaluating theEvaluating the Black’s WheelBlack’s Wheel techniquetechnique  www.uspvirtual.usp.brwww.uspvirtual.usp.br  www.eca.usp.brwww.eca.usp.br Communications and Arts School BuildingsCommunications and Arts School Buildings University of São Paulo - BrazilUniversity of São Paulo - Brazil
  • 8. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 88 Case studyCase study UniverseUniverse 30 works since 200530 works since 2005
  • 9. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 99 Case studyCase study Sample UniverseSample Universe 1717 worksworks out of 30 (57% )out of 30 (57% ) Selection criteria:  had used graphic diagram to describe the Black’s Wheel
  • 10. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 1010 Case studyCase study Sample UniverseSample Universe 22 out of 17out of 17 .  2 was analyzed to evaluate the Black’s Wheel technique. Case 1Case 1 ““Human Beings TrafficHuman Beings Traffic”” Case 2Case 2 ““GuianaGuiana””
  • 11. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 1111  2 was analyzed to evaluate the Black’s Wheel technique. Case 1Case 1 ““Human Beings TrafficHuman Beings Traffic”” Case 2Case 2 ““GuianaGuiana”” Case studyCase study Sample UniverseSample Universe 22 out of 17out of 17 .
  • 13. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 1313 1st research question: Is it understandable?1st research question: Is it understandable?  Observations made in class:Observations made in class:  students commonly applystudents commonly apply the techniquethe technique withoutwithout much difficulty.much difficulty.  Documental analysis:Documental analysis:  Case 1Case 1  2005, 2nd. Semester.2005, 2nd. Semester.  generally succeedgenerally succeed applying the techniqueapplying the technique  distinguishdistinguish clearlyclearly between thebetween the InformationInformation ArchitectureArchitecture and theand the Black’s WheelBlack’s Wheel.. Nevertheless...Nevertheless...  Documental analysis:Documental analysis:  Some teams prefer toSome teams prefer to textually describetextually describe thethe elements in the wheelelements in the wheel instead of drawinginstead of drawing it (17it (17 out of the 30 )out of the 30 )  Case 2Case 2 analysisanalysis mixmix Information ArchitectureInformation Architecture and Black’s Wheeland Black’s Wheel concepts.concepts.  Possible explanations...Possible explanations...
  • 14. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 1414 2rd research question: Is it useful?2rd research question: Is it useful?  Observations made in class:Observations made in class:  the technique applicationthe technique application usuallyusually causes fruitfulcauses fruitful quarrelsquarrels around thearound the non-non- linearlinear storytelling.storytelling.  Documental analysis showsDocumental analysis shows that Thethat The Black’s WheelBlack’s Wheel  facilitatesfacilitates understandingunderstanding at a glanceat a glance the wholethe whole nonlinear story and itsnonlinear story and its constituent elements andconstituent elements and  maymay highlight the lack ofhighlight the lack of contentscontents that couldthat could enhance the story.enhance the story.  GLOBAL and LOCAL protocolGLOBAL and LOCAL protocol variablesvariables  Black’s Wheel techniqueBlack’s Wheel technique evaluationevaluation;;  AlsoAlso be useful to assessbe useful to assess the hypermedia narrativethe hypermedia narrative by identifying projectby identifying project weakness and strengths.weakness and strengths.
  • 15. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 1515 3rd research question: Is it complete?3rd research question: Is it complete?  No,No, it isn't completeit isn't complete  althoughalthough it can be appliedit can be applied to the hypermediato the hypermedia narrative design withnarrative design with relativerelative successsuccess, as, as previously seen.previously seen.  Navigation representationNavigation representation into the Graphic diagram:into the Graphic diagram:  hashas no clear modelno clear model,,  needsneeds more discussionmore discussion..  Case 1Case 1 uses auses a creativecreative navigation representationnavigation representation which doesn’t matchwhich doesn’t match completely the Informationcompletely the Information architecture’s navigation.architecture’s navigation.  Journalistic speechJournalistic speech modelsmodels  compatibilitycompatibility andand co-co- existenceexistence into ainto a hypermedia special reporthypermedia special report isn’t a consensusisn’t a consensus..  NeedsNeeds more thinkingmore thinking under multiple caseunder multiple case perspectives.perspectives.  Elaboration DocumentElaboration Document  recentrecent introduction andintroduction and application,application,  couldcould not be evaluatednot be evaluated inin this case studythis case study yetyet..  Their applicationTheir application shouldshould be monitoredbe monitored..  ......
  • 16. CEDUS-USP&LIBER–UFPEProfa.Dra MLauraMartinez 1616 ConclusionsConclusions  The Black’s Wheel, besidesThe Black’s Wheel, besides being at a research stage, hasbeing at a research stage, has shown to beshown to be  a graphical technique thata graphical technique that facilitates the visualizationfacilitates the visualization and constructionand construction of theof the hypermedia structure andhypermedia structure and  also analso an efficient strategyefficient strategy for Online Journalismfor Online Journalism classes.classes.  It’s anIt’s an Open TechniqueOpen Technique  can enhanced with othercan enhanced with other people’s contributions.people’s contributions.  Future works:Future works:  Development of anDevelopment of an onlineonline databasedatabase that collect andthat collect and document cases,document cases,  will use Protocol variableswill use Protocol variables toto standardize informationstandardize information collectioncollection..  The workingThe working URL baseURL base willwill be:be: http://http:// www.cedus.usp.brwww.cedus.usp.br// hypermedianarrativeshypermedianarratives
  • 17. ©©2002MLM2002MLMLSI-EPUSPLSI-EPUSP Thank you!Thank you! M Laura MartinezM Laura Martinez ml.martinez@usp.brml.martinez@usp.br