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Kian

ISOJ 2009

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Kian

  1. 1. Framing Differences inFraming Differences in Gender-Related Sport CoverageGender-Related Sport Coverage by Internet Sitesby Internet Sites and Newspapersand Newspapers Presented by Edward (Ted) M. Kian, Ph.D.Presented by Edward (Ted) M. Kian, Ph.D. University of Central FloridaUniversity of Central Florida Sport Leadership and CoachingSport Leadership and Coaching The International Symposium on OnlineThe International Symposium on Online Journalism, April 17-18, 2009, Austin, TXJournalism, April 17-18, 2009, Austin, TX
  2. 2. New MediaNew Media New media are changing the way newsNew media are changing the way news is gathered, distributed, accessed, andis gathered, distributed, accessed, and consumedconsumed (Shultz & Sheffer, 2007).(Shultz & Sheffer, 2007). Internet readers tend to be youngerInternet readers tend to be younger than other media consumers. Thethan other media consumers. The Internet has now surpassedInternet has now surpassed newspapers as a primary news sourcenewspapers as a primary news source for Americans, and rivals television asfor Americans, and rivals television as the predominant news source for U.S.the predominant news source for U.S. youthyouth (Pew Research, 2008).(Pew Research, 2008).
  3. 3. Research on Sport MediaResearch on Sport Media Content and textual analyses onContent and textual analyses on magazine, newspaper, andmagazine, newspaper, and television sport coverage over thetelevision sport coverage over the past 35 years have generallypast 35 years have generally shown men receive more overallshown men receive more overall coverage than women at all levelscoverage than women at all levels of sportof sport (e.g., Bishop, 2003; Eastman & Billings,(e.g., Bishop, 2003; Eastman & Billings, 2000; Kian, 2008).2000; Kian, 2008).
  4. 4. Research on Sport MediaResearch on Sport Media Sport media often frame femaleSport media often frame female athletes as sex objects, are moreathletes as sex objects, are more likely to delve into the personallikely to delve into the personal lives of women in sport, andlives of women in sport, and minimize their accomplishmentsminimize their accomplishments and skill by regularly comparingand skill by regularly comparing their abilities to mentheir abilities to men (Hardin et al., 2005; Vincent, 2004).(Hardin et al., 2005; Vincent, 2004).
  5. 5. FramingFraming Framing is a term regularly employedFraming is a term regularly employed to describe the means through whichto describe the means through which journalists make sense of newsjournalists make sense of news events by selecting facts andevents by selecting facts and embedding them in storylines. Mediaembedding them in storylines. Media not only determine which stories arenot only determine which stories are newsworthy, but also the ways innewsworthy, but also the ways in which those news events are framedwhich those news events are framed and portrayedand portrayed (Kuypers, 2002; Lind & Salo, 2002).(Kuypers, 2002; Lind & Salo, 2002).
  6. 6. Research on Sport MediaResearch on Sport Media Historically, in most of the world, sportHistorically, in most of the world, sport has served as a hegemonic institution,has served as a hegemonic institution, helping to preserve the power of menhelping to preserve the power of men over womenover women (Schell & Rodriguez, 2000).(Schell & Rodriguez, 2000). Numerous scholars contended theNumerous scholars contended the institutions of sport and mass mediainstitutions of sport and mass media are two of the primary forcesare two of the primary forces reinforcing hegemonic masculinity inreinforcing hegemonic masculinity in Western societyWestern society (e.g., Connell, 1990; Duncan &(e.g., Connell, 1990; Duncan & Messner, 1998; Kian & Hardin, 2009).Messner, 1998; Kian & Hardin, 2009).
  7. 7. PurposePurpose A challenge to the traditional framing ofA challenge to the traditional framing of men’s and women’s sport bymen’s and women’s sport by mainstream media may be emergingmainstream media may be emerging with the increasing prevalence of thewith the increasing prevalence of the Internet.Internet. Several authors have found theSeveral authors have found the community nature of the Internet iscommunity nature of the Internet is more accommodating to women thanmore accommodating to women than traditional forms of communicationtraditional forms of communication (e.g., Royal, 2008; Spender, 1995; Turkle, 1995).(e.g., Royal, 2008; Spender, 1995; Turkle, 1995).
  8. 8. PurposePurpose However, research on Internet sportHowever, research on Internet sport media is in its infancymedia is in its infancy (Real, 2006).(Real, 2006). The fewThe few published studies on gender havepublished studies on gender have provided mixed resultsprovided mixed results (e.g., Cunningham,(e.g., Cunningham, 2003; Kian et al., in press; Jones, 2004; Sagas et al.2003; Kian et al., in press; Jones, 2004; Sagas et al. 2000).2000). None of those published worksNone of those published works compared Internet content of femalecompared Internet content of female athletes with coverage of women’s sportathletes with coverage of women’s sport through more traditional mediums.through more traditional mediums.
  9. 9. PurposePurpose This study attempts to determine if anyThis study attempts to determine if any significant differences are present in howsignificant differences are present in how more traditional media (newspapers) andmore traditional media (newspapers) and newer media (Internet) use descriptors tonewer media (Internet) use descriptors to frame coverage of the same men’s andframe coverage of the same men’s and women’s sport.women’s sport. Since tennis is one of the only sportsSince tennis is one of the only sports where the women’s and men’s gameswhere the women’s and men’s games have similar levels of popularity, the U.S.have similar levels of popularity, the U.S. Open was selected for examination.Open was selected for examination.
  10. 10. Research QuestionsResearch Questions Research questions were employedResearch questions were employed rather than hypotheses for thisrather than hypotheses for this exploratory study. Three overridingexploratory study. Three overriding research questions guided this study:research questions guided this study: RQ1: What significant differences – if anyRQ1: What significant differences – if any – exist in the gender-specific descriptors– exist in the gender-specific descriptors used to frame newspaper articles on theused to frame newspaper articles on the U.S. Open men’s tournament, women’sU.S. Open men’s tournament, women’s tournament, and articles on both?tournament, and articles on both?
  11. 11. Research QuestionsResearch Questions RQ2: What significant differences – if anyRQ2: What significant differences – if any – exist in the gender-specific descriptors– exist in the gender-specific descriptors used to frame Internet articles on theused to frame Internet articles on the U.S. Open men’s tournament, women’sU.S. Open men’s tournament, women’s tournament, and articles on both?tournament, and articles on both? RQ3: What significant differences – if anyRQ3: What significant differences – if any – exist in the gender-specific descriptors– exist in the gender-specific descriptors used to frame newspaper articles on theused to frame newspaper articles on the U.S. Open men’s tournament, women’sU.S. Open men’s tournament, women’s tournament, and articles on bothtournament, and articles on both compared to descriptors in online sportcompared to descriptors in online sport sites on the same tournaments?sites on the same tournaments?
  12. 12. MethodologyMethodology Content analysis of all byline (name ofContent analysis of all byline (name of author) U.S. Open tennis articlesauthor) U.S. Open tennis articles published in three daily newspapers (published in three daily newspapers (TheThe Los Angeles TimesLos Angeles Times,, The New York TimesThe New York Times,, USA TodayUSA Today) and three mainstream online) and three mainstream online sport media sites (ESPN Internet,sport media sites (ESPN Internet, FoxSports.com, SI.com) over a 16-dayFoxSports.com, SI.com) over a 16-day period in fall, 2007.period in fall, 2007. Byline articles…Byline articles…
  13. 13. Coding Categories and ProceduresCoding Categories and Procedures Text of articles were coded for nineText of articles were coded for nine descriptive categories derived fromdescriptive categories derived from pervious research: (1) physicalpervious research: (1) physical appearances/attire; (2) athleticappearances/attire; (2) athletic prowess/strengths; (3) athleticprowess/strengths; (3) athletic weaknesses/limitations; (4) positive skillweaknesses/limitations; (4) positive skill level/accomplishments;level/accomplishments;
  14. 14. Coding Categories and ProceduresCoding Categories and Procedures (5) negative skill level/failures; (6) family(5) negative skill level/failures; (6) family role/personal relationships; (7)role/personal relationships; (7) psychological/emotional strengths; (8)psychological/emotional strengths; (8) psychological/emotional weaknesses; (9)psychological/emotional weaknesses; (9) humor.humor. Pretest and Intercoder reliabilityPretest and Intercoder reliability Excel; ANOVA (alpha=0.05); PairwiseExcel; ANOVA (alpha=0.05); Pairwise comparisons; Binomial test forcomparisons; Binomial test for proportionsproportions
  15. 15. Assumptions Based onAssumptions Based on Previous ResearchPrevious Research Women’s stories wouldWomen’s stories would include more descriptorsinclude more descriptors on physical appearances,on physical appearances, family roles or personalfamily roles or personal relationships, athleticrelationships, athletic weaknesses, negativeweaknesses, negative skill level or failures,skill level or failures, psychological orpsychological or emotional weakness,emotional weakness, and humor.and humor. Men’s articles wouldMen’s articles would include moreinclude more descriptors ondescriptors on athletic prowess,athletic prowess, positive skill level orpositive skill level or accomplishments,accomplishments, and psychological orand psychological or emotional strengthsemotional strengths (e.g., Billings et al.,(e.g., Billings et al., 2002; Harris & Clayton,2002; Harris & Clayton, 2002; Kian et al.,2002; Kian et al., 2008).2008).
  16. 16. General FindingsGeneral Findings Internet ArticlesInternet Articles Total ArticlesTotal Articles % of all Articles% of all Articles Men’s TennisMen’s Tennis 2727 48.2%48.2% Women’s TennisWomen’s Tennis 1414 25%25% BothBoth 1515 27%27% TotalTotal 5656 100%100% Newspaper ArticlesNewspaper Articles Total ArticlesTotal Articles % of all Articles% of all Articles Men’s TennisMen’s Tennis 5757 41.9%41.9% Women’s TennisWomen’s Tennis 2626 19.1%19.1% BothBoth 5353 39%39% TotalTotal 136136 100%100%
  17. 17. RQ1 and RQ 2RQ1 and RQ 2 For all newspaper articles examined, pairwiseFor all newspaper articles examined, pairwise comparisons showed results mostly reinforcingcomparisons showed results mostly reinforcing previous sport media research.previous sport media research. Among the 10 significant differences, the onlyAmong the 10 significant differences, the only unexpected results were humor wasunexpected results were humor was significantly more likely to be used in articlessignificantly more likely to be used in articles about men’s tennis than articles on women’sabout men’s tennis than articles on women’s tennis or on both genders.tennis or on both genders. Coding and pairwise comparisons of InternetCoding and pairwise comparisons of Internet articles offered mixed results that overall didarticles offered mixed results that overall did not reinforce traditional stereotypes in sportnot reinforce traditional stereotypes in sport media coverage as assumed, since only five ofmedia coverage as assumed, since only five of the 11 significant findings were expected.the 11 significant findings were expected. ““Both” as a category impacting results…Both” as a category impacting results…
  18. 18. RQ3RQ3 When comparing newspaper and Internet articlesWhen comparing newspaper and Internet articles only on men’s tennis, online articles wereonly on men’s tennis, online articles were significantly more likely to use descriptors onsignificantly more likely to use descriptors on psychological strengths and physical weaknesses,psychological strengths and physical weaknesses, while newspapers significantly used morewhile newspapers significantly used more descriptors on family roles and humor.descriptors on family roles and humor. For articles solely on women’s tennis,For articles solely on women’s tennis, newspapers were significantly more likely tonewspapers were significantly more likely to employ descriptors on physical appearances,employ descriptors on physical appearances, athletic weaknesses, and family roles. Onlineathletic weaknesses, and family roles. Online articles were more likely to use attributes onarticles were more likely to use attributes on positive skill level, psychological strengths, andpositive skill level, psychological strengths, and psychological weaknesses on women’s tennis.psychological weaknesses on women’s tennis.
  19. 19. RQ3RQ3 In articles focusing on both men’s andIn articles focusing on both men’s and women’s tennis, the binomial tests forwomen’s tennis, the binomial tests for two proportions showed newspaperstwo proportions showed newspapers were significantly more likely to usewere significantly more likely to use descriptors on athletic prowess, athleticdescriptors on athletic prowess, athletic weakness, and family roles. Internetweakness, and family roles. Internet sites used significantly more descriptorssites used significantly more descriptors per article for positive skill level andper article for positive skill level and negative skill level in articles on bothnegative skill level in articles on both genders.genders.
  20. 20. DiscussionDiscussion Results for descriptors within newspaper articlesResults for descriptors within newspaper articles reinforced the plethora of previous gender-relatedreinforced the plethora of previous gender-related sport media research, minimizing the athleticism ofsport media research, minimizing the athleticism of women and trivializing their accomplishments.women and trivializing their accomplishments. Results within Internet articles were mixed but didResults within Internet articles were mixed but did not represent a significant challenge to traditionalnot represent a significant challenge to traditional framing of men’s and women’s sport.framing of men’s and women’s sport. However, comparisons between mediums showedHowever, comparisons between mediums showed Internet articles were significantly more likely toInternet articles were significantly more likely to alter the ways media frame female athletes thanalter the ways media frame female athletes than were newspaper articles.were newspaper articles. Thus, hegemonic masculinity was challenged farThus, hegemonic masculinity was challenged far more in online articles.more in online articles.
  21. 21. Limitations/DelimitationsLimitations/Delimitations This research only examined six major mediaThis research only examined six major media outlets, and focused on one men’s and women’soutlets, and focused on one men’s and women’s sport played at the highest level.sport played at the highest level. Generalizations cannot be made fromGeneralizations cannot be made from examining six sport news outlets based in theexamining six sport news outlets based in the United States, where tennis is not construed asUnited States, where tennis is not construed as an overly masculine sport.an overly masculine sport. These six newspapers or online sites are allThese six newspapers or online sites are all very popular, national outlets. However, novery popular, national outlets. However, no smaller, or regional outlets were examined.smaller, or regional outlets were examined. Therefore, the scope of this research may haveTherefore, the scope of this research may have been too broad.been too broad.

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