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ISOJ 2012

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  1. 1. AJM 1ISOJ 2012 Prof. Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva Vittoria Sacco Marco Giardina Content Curation: a new form of Gatewatching for social media?
  2. 2. AJM 2ISOJ 2012 Characteristics and similarities of media content curation with gatewatching processes. Potential roles of media content curation to be a filter for social media content. Potential changes imposed by media content curation on the media landscape. GOALS
  3. 3. AJM 3ISOJ 2012 INTRODUCTION & GAPS Online journalism has created new forms and new genres. The audience is more involved in news production and distribution. Social media have lowered the barriers for citizen contributions. But, eyewitness journalism in social media has several disadvantages: the sheer amount of information provided is overwhelming and cannot reach everyone; information pushed forward by new contributions vanishes from readers' screens; several sources talk about the same events but from different perspectives; lacks a clear storyline which calls for the need to have someone to make sense out of the flow of information, to find the best content and to give credit to the right sources.
  4. 4. AJM 4ISOJ 2012 LITERATURE REVIEW Gatekeeping Gatewatching Definition It is the practice of deciding why one story is selected to be reported and the other is not (Bruns, 2006). It concerns the newsgathering and news production processes and the reasons given by newspapers editors for discarding possible news issues (White, 1950). Gatewatching should represent the new role of media organizations which have lost the power to choose what news to include or to exclude in the editorial processes (Bruns, 2006). Gatewatchers do not embody journalists’ roles but they amalgamate traditional gatekeeping processes with information aggregation (Bruns, 2003). Characteristics Organizational factors and journalists’ workflows (Beam, 1990; Reese & Ballinger, 2001; Shoemaker et al., 2001); Events concurring within the time frame of publication Unpredicted stories (Singer, 1998); Events diverging from others already published (Singer, 1998); Expert judgment motivation (Berkowitz, 1997); Political ideology (Chang & Lee, 1992); Education (Peterson, 1979); Other background experiences (Peterson, 1979); Class position (Gans, 1979); And career pressures(Gans, 1979). Gatewatching is based on accessible information and sources (Bruns, 2003). The public is an active reader by taking some of the roles of traditional gatekeepers, such as the assessment of sources and misinformation bias moderated by gatewatchers’ comments (Bruns, 3003). Three stages of Gatewatching (Bruns, 2008): 1. Disclosure and access to original sources of information; 2. Openness towards users to check input information; 3. Participation of users in all stages of news production. Examples Traditional newspapers Slashdot, IndyMedia, Kuro5hin, MediaChannel, OhmyNews & Wikinews
  5. 5. AJM 5ISOJ 2012 MEDIA CONTENT CURATION From a structural point of view, main components of curated stories are: The original contributions curated from social and/or conventional media; The context and background information provided by the author; Additional meta-data as date and time of publication, author and other such similar information. The number of provided additional meta-information depends on the tool used to curate and create the story. Key aspects of media content curation based on gatewatching (Bruns, 2005) are the following: All submitted stories are published instantly (no editorial intervention at the input or output stage); Where editorial decisions are made, they are entirely transparent to users; News stories and the entire website system itself are freely redistributable.
  6. 6. AJM 6ISOJ 2012 STORIFY.COM Number of views Author’s Profile Content created by the author Hyperlink on an online journal Curated content : Youtube video Curated content: Picture from yfrog Curated content: Tweet Curated content : Tweets Content created by the author Profile of the person who has posted the Tweet Date and hour when the Tweet has been posted Source: egypt-effect
  7. 7. AJM 7ISOJ 2012 RESEARCH QUESTIONS RQ1: Which are the sources employed in social media curation? RQ2: What are the types of interactive features commonly adopted in social media curation? RQ3: Is social media curation affecting the levels of gates?
  8. 8. AJM 8ISOJ 2012 METHODOLOGY Sources Definition Media Organizations All level of media professionals involved in media organizations without country distinction Citizens Eyewitnesses, victims, prisoners, fighters, protesters and their families from the country of revolutions. Official Official and administration authorities (i.e. members of governments or military forces). NGOs Non-profit organizations (i.e. Amnesty International or the Red Cross). Non-Arab People People not physically involved in the rebellions and that do not live in Arab countries. Arab People Arab people and refugees that do not live in the countries of the rebellion stories. Themselves Social media posts of the writers themselves. Others/unknown Sources not identified or that could not be part of the other categories Content Analysis (Krippendorff, 2004; Kolbe &Brunett, 1991; Kassarjian, 1977)
  9. 9. AJM 9ISOJ 2012 DATA GATHERING AND CODING PROCESS Sample 450 Storify’s stories whose Yemen (43), Syria (74), Barhain (74), Libya (96), Egypt (96), more than one revolution (66). Period from January-February 2011 to August 2011. Key words searched in Google: revolution, rebellion, freedom, flag, fight and civil war, main cities, name of the dictators + the country name (There was no search engine directly in the website at the time of the study). Coding Unit of analysis = the story Binary coding + demographic variables of authors Crosstabs for describing the inference about variables meaning. Reliability (Krippendorff, 2004) Krippendorff’s α for sources = 0.820 Krippendorff’s α normal for technical sources = 0.956
  10. 10. AJM 10ISOJ 2012 RESULTS 77% 87% 80% 55% 48.00% 59% 40% 39.20% 51% 35% 36.00% 27% 25% 24.80% 26% 13% 12.00% 23% 8% 5.60% 8% 14% 12.80 % 16% 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 Hours Day Days Others Official NGOs Themselves Arab People Non Arab People Citizens Media Original Contributors
  11. 11. AJM 11ISOJ 2012 RESULTS 37% 37% 26% 29% 24% 47% 15% 51% 34% 33% 0 67% 19% 30% 51% 24% 19% 57% 36% 25% 39% 35% 23% 42% 17% 20% 63 % 30% 23% 47% 0 20 40 60 80 Hours Day Days Others You Tube Lockers Yfrog Flickers RSS Facebook Photos Facebook Twitpic Twitter Digital sources
  12. 12. AJM 12ISOJ 2012 CONCLUSIONS RQ1: Which are the sources employed in social media curation? Social media curation comprise several sources, while at the same time posting one’s own story as the primary source of information. Social media curation gives access to internal and external sources in ways that are unique and add enough value to attract news users. RQ2: What are the types of interactive features commonly adopted in social media curation? Results reveal that curation glues existing social media content and traditional media content without creating original news itself. Readers can quickly access of news delivery since new stories can be published as soon as source information is found anywhere on the Web.
  13. 13. AJM 13ISOJ 2012 CONCLUSIONS RQ3: Is social media curation affecting the levels of gates? Stages Gatekeeping (Bruns, 2005, p.12) Citizen Journalism (Bruns, 2008, p.79) Storify’s stories Amateurs authors Media Professionals authors Gatewatchi ng - Gatewatching of news sources open to all users Gatewatching as primary source open to all users Gatewatching as primary source open to all users Input News gathering only by staff journalists Submission of gatewatched stories to all users Submission of gatewatched stories to all users Submission of gatewatched stories to all users Output Closed editorial hierarchy Instant publishing or collaborative editing of stories Instant publishing Story selection controlled by media editors. Response Editorial selection of letters/calls to be made public Discussion and commentary open to all users. Discussion and commentary open to all users. Discussion and commentary open to all users.
  14. 14. AJM 14ISOJ 2012 REFERNCES • Beam, R. A. (1990). Journalism professionalism as an organizational-level concept: Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. • Berkowitz, D. A. (1997). Social meanings of news: A text-reader: Sage Publications, Inc. • Bruns, A. (2003). Gatewatching, not gatekeeping: Collaborative online news. Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: quarterly journal of media research and resources, 107, 31-44. • Bruns, A. (2005). Gatewatching: Collaborative online news production (Vol. 26): Peter Lang Pub Inc. • Bruns, A. (2006). Wikinews: The Next Generation of Online News? Scan Journal, 3(1). • Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and beyond: From production to produsage (Vol. 45): Peter Lang Pub Inc. • Chang, T. K., & Lee, J. W. (1992). Factors affecting gatekeepers' selection of foreign news: A national survey of newspaper editors. Journalism Quarterly, 69, 554-554. • Kassarjian, H. H. (1977). Content analysis in consumer research. Journal of consumer research, 8-18. • Kolbe, R. H., & Burnett, M. S. (1991). Content-analysis research: An examination of applications with directives for improving research reliability and objectivity. Journal of consumer research, 243-250. • Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology: Sage Publications, Inc. • Gans, H. J. (1979). Deciding what's news: a study of CBS evening news, NBC nightly news, Newsweek, and Time: Northwestern Univ Pr. • Peterson, S. (1979). Foreign News Gatekeepers and Criteria of Newsworthiness. Journalism Quarterly, 56(1), 116-125. • Reese, S. D., & Ballinger, J. (2001). The roots of a sociology of news: Remembering Mr. Gates and social control in the newsroom. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(4), 641-658. • Shoemaker, P. J., Eichholz, M., Kim, E., & Wrigley, B. (2001). Individual and routine forces in gatekeeping. Journalism Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(2), 233-246. • Singer, J. B. (1998). Online journalists: Foundations for research into their changing roles. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(1). • White, D. M. (1950). The “gate keeper”: A study in the selection of news. Journalism Quarterly, 27, 383–390.
  15. 15. AJM 15ISOJ 2012 Thank you for your Attention !!!