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The Image of the United States Portrayed inThe Image of the United States Portrayed in
Arab World Online JournalismArab World Online Journalism
Dr. Ashraf GalalDr. Ashraf Galal
Associate professor Qatar UniversityAssociate professor Qatar University
Dr. Mahmoud GalanderDr. Mahmoud Galander
Qatar UniversityQatar University
Dr. Philip J. AuterDr. Philip J. Auter
University of Louisiana at LafayetteUniversity of Louisiana at Lafayette
Naseeg.
com
What you need, when
you need it
Elaph
news. com
Let’s start with someLet’s start with some
questions:questions:
 Do we have an image about each other?Do we have an image about each other?
 What about the nature of this image? Is it about ourWhat about the nature of this image? Is it about our
values, culture, system, people, policy, or somethingvalues, culture, system, people, policy, or something
else?else?
 Is it biased, distorted, good, bad, in-depth, superficial orIs it biased, distorted, good, bad, in-depth, superficial or
something else? How could we judge?something else? How could we judge?
 How it had been formed? And measured?How it had been formed? And measured?
 Would we really want to change the false image?Would we really want to change the false image?
 Would we have enough motivations to change it?Would we have enough motivations to change it?
 Could we change it? HOW? And WHY?Could we change it? HOW? And WHY?
How the American media portrayHow the American media portray
Arab?Arab?
How the Arab Media portray Unite States
internally?
Biased image? isn’t it? YESBiased image? isn’t it? YES
How the Arab Media portrays Unite States
externally? biased image, isn’t it YES
Is there any kind of relation betweenIs there any kind of relation between
internal and external policy? YESinternal and external policy? YES
Which one is correct? A conference of Hezbollah operatives inWhich one is correct? A conference of Hezbollah operatives in
Lebanon. The English-language sloganLebanon. The English-language slogan
in the background reads: “Our enemies forever - U.S.A. and Israel”in the background reads: “Our enemies forever - U.S.A. and Israel”
Instead of rolling at schools? The doctrine ofInstead of rolling at schools? The doctrine of
Hezbollah: Suicide attacks (“the shortest road toHezbollah: Suicide attacks (“the shortest road to
Allah”) are of supreme valueAllah”) are of supreme value
It owes
BLOOD to all
of humanity
What is the results? The domino-What is the results? The domino-
effect!!!!!!!!!!!effect!!!!!!!!!!!
Research problemResearch problem
 This study is trying to examine to what extent theThis study is trying to examine to what extent the
online journalism in the Arab World has adoptedonline journalism in the Arab World has adopted
biased coverage of the United States? The studybiased coverage of the United States? The study
hopes to provide a current assessment of how thehopes to provide a current assessment of how the
U.S. is portrayed in Arab World onlineU.S. is portrayed in Arab World online
journalism. This valid, updated information willjournalism. This valid, updated information will
enable researchers and communicators alike toenable researchers and communicators alike to
better understand not only what is being done,better understand not only what is being done,
but may lead to ways of providing a solid basisbut may lead to ways of providing a solid basis
for better dealing with American issues andfor better dealing with American issues and
images in the future.images in the future.
It is commonly believed that media in the ArabIt is commonly believed that media in the Arab
World predominantly portray the United States inWorld predominantly portray the United States in
 A negative light. However someA negative light. However some
evidence suggests that these portrayalsevidence suggests that these portrayals
may vary due to the type of topic beingmay vary due to the type of topic being
covered (e.g. U.S. foreign policy ascovered (e.g. U.S. foreign policy as
opposed to stories about the Americanopposed to stories about the American
public.) Portrayals can also vary frompublic.) Portrayals can also vary from
publication to publication and countrypublication to publication and country
to country.to country.
Research ImportanceResearch Importance
 Increasing importance of the media andIncreasing importance of the media and
images through a number of regional andimages through a number of regional and
international bodiesinternational bodies
 Rising-up the rates of viewing talk shows andRising-up the rates of viewing talk shows and
public affairs programs..public affairs programs..
 Growing of criticism directed to media inGrowing of criticism directed to media in
presenting a biased coverage for the other.presenting a biased coverage for the other.
 Foreign News sources are considered the mainForeign News sources are considered the main
or sole source for some Arab channels.or sole source for some Arab channels.
 Lack of studies that concentrate on dealing withLack of studies that concentrate on dealing with
cross cultural image in mass media.cross cultural image in mass media.
 Increasing the importance of civilizations dialogue as aIncreasing the importance of civilizations dialogue as a
result to the biased media coverage as well as the falseresult to the biased media coverage as well as the false
stereotypes.stereotypes.
 There is a case of mixture between the United StateThere is a case of mixture between the United State
policy and people who don't know too much about thepolicy and people who don't know too much about the
foreign and other countries.foreign and other countries.
 There are mutual false perceptions between the ArabThere are mutual false perceptions between the Arab
and American people. These perceptions had beenand American people. These perceptions had been
formed by media coverage.formed by media coverage.
 With heightened instability in the Middle East, theWith heightened instability in the Middle East, the
media has played a vital role in laying out what seemsmedia has played a vital role in laying out what seems
to be the groundwork for many contradictions, biases,to be the groundwork for many contradictions, biases,
and much animosity toward the west in general andand much animosity toward the west in general and
United States specifically.United States specifically.
Research HypothesesResearch Hypotheses
 H 1 There is differences among web sitesH 1 There is differences among web sites
(whether biased or not) in image type-covered(whether biased or not) in image type-covered
topics-US image-used evidences-maintopics-US image-used evidences-main
concentration-ways of distortion-salience-mainconcentration-ways of distortion-salience-main
issue-news values-attraction tools-includedissue-news values-attraction tools-included
figures.figures.
 H 2 There is a positive correlation between imageH 2 There is a positive correlation between image
bias (totally biased-totally objective-some howbias (totally biased-totally objective-some how
objective/biased) and image type (negative-objective/biased) and image type (negative-
neutral-positive)neutral-positive)
 H 3 There is a correlation between webH 3 There is a correlation between web
site affiliation (Arab and non Arab website affiliation (Arab and non Arab web
sites) and web sites bias, US image andsites) and web sites bias, US image and
image type (negative-neutral-positive)image type (negative-neutral-positive)
of the United States,of the United States,
 H 4 There is a correlation between USH 4 There is a correlation between US
image and used appeals, evidence,image and used appeals, evidence,
evidence type and main concentrationevidence type and main concentration
at the materials.at the materials.
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
 Eight on line news web sites had been selectedEight on line news web sites had been selected
among 14 are considered the most importantamong 14 are considered the most important
news web sites at the Arab world based on thenews web sites at the Arab world based on the
nomination of some experts in this field. Newsnomination of some experts in this field. News
and editorial materials at the first pageand editorial materials at the first page
(whether complete or none complete materials.(whether complete or none complete materials.
Internal topics which had any signs at the frontInternal topics which had any signs at the front
pages had been analyzed also. The studypages had been analyzed also. The study
postulated that the most important topics arepostulated that the most important topics are
shown on the first page whether completely orshown on the first page whether completely or
partially.partially.
 Analysis had been started from March 2007-Analysis had been started from March 2007-
February 2008 using a structured refereed toolFebruary 2008 using a structured refereed tool
included all the content analysis items. Weincluded all the content analysis items. We
depended on many analysis units such as :depended on many analysis units such as :
( subject or issue unit-natural media unit-word( subject or issue unit-natural media unit-word
unit-space or time unit). After applying theunit-space or time unit). After applying the
validity test, it was 93% and reliability test wasvalidity test, it was 93% and reliability test was
91%. .The study depended on a cumulative scale91%. .The study depended on a cumulative scale
to measure the salience and attractiveness of theto measure the salience and attractiveness of the
published materials included the following items:published materials included the following items:
 Content size ( space or time )Content size ( space or time )
 TitlesTitles
 PhotosPhotos
 VideosVideos
 ColorsColors
 MotionMotion
 PromoPromo
 LocationLocation
 News barsNews bars
 Side materialsSide materials
 Other itemsOther items
We targeted the United States material andWe targeted the United States material and
defined this item in the following definition :defined this item in the following definition :
 Any news or editorial material that includes theAny news or editorial material that includes the
US name in a literal way). We aimed to avoid anyUS name in a literal way). We aimed to avoid any
misperception of the material by depending on amisperception of the material by depending on a
very clear definition of what is meant by USvery clear definition of what is meant by US
material. The sample included about one yearmaterial. The sample included about one year
materials using artificial week technique andmaterials using artificial week technique and
materials had been gathered from both Arab andmaterials had been gathered from both Arab and
Non Arab web sites for both news and editorialsNon Arab web sites for both news and editorials
using all forms published or broadcasted on theusing all forms published or broadcasted on the
web sites such as written, sound and videoweb sites such as written, sound and video
materials.materials.
 Data analyzers and coders had been subjected toData analyzers and coders had been subjected to
intensive training as well as validity andintensive training as well as validity and
reliability tests. This project is a part of a big onreliability tests. This project is a part of a big on
going research included other media such asgoing research included other media such as
satellite channels, other web sites and aim tosatellite channels, other web sites and aim to
measure the effect of media coverage on themeasure the effect of media coverage on the
audience especially the perceptions of theaudience especially the perceptions of the
"Other" as presented via Satellite channels: A"Other" as presented via Satellite channels: A
Comparative Study on Arab and AmericanComparative Study on Arab and American
Media & Audiences.Media & Audiences.
Added valueAdded value
 The findings of this research as wellThe findings of this research as well
as the big research project will helpas the big research project will help
in presenting many techniques andin presenting many techniques and
strategies to improve the mutualstrategies to improve the mutual
image and false perception betweenimage and false perception between
the Arab and the west in generalthe Arab and the west in general
and between Arab and American inand between Arab and American in
Sample Selection CriteriaSample Selection Criteria
 The study depended onThe study depended on
representing many criteriarepresenting many criteria
selection such as :selection such as :
 Web site 2-Affiliation 3-Web site 2-Affiliation 3-
Content4-Page 5-MaterialContent4-Page 5-Material
Presentation 6- Time periodPresentation 6- Time period
2007versus 20082007versus 2008
The total sample of the study wasThe total sample of the study was
1624 had been selected based on1624 had been selected based on
 The artificial week from March 2007-FebruaryThe artificial week from March 2007-February
2008.We targeted the United States news and2008.We targeted the United States news and
defined this item in the following definition:( anydefined this item in the following definition:( any
news or editorial material that include the USnews or editorial material that include the US
name in a literal way) . We aimed to avoid anyname in a literal way) . We aimed to avoid any
misperception of the news by depending on amisperception of the news by depending on a
very clear definition of what is meant by USvery clear definition of what is meant by US
news. All the selected web pages are hourlynews. All the selected web pages are hourly
updated based and considered the mostupdated based and considered the most
important web pages at the Arab world based onimportant web pages at the Arab world based on
rating figures. Some of these web pages recordedrating figures. Some of these web pages recorded
daily more than 3 million visitors.daily more than 3 million visitors.
Sample disstribution according to Web Site
13%
7%12%13%
18%
14%
16%
7%
www.arabic.cnn.com www.afp.com/arabichom
www.ara.reuters.com www.news.bbc.co.uk
www.islamonline.net. www.news.naseeg.com
www.aljazeera.net www.elaph.com
Naseeg.
com
What you need,
when you need it
Elaph
news.
com
Sample disstribution according
to affiliation
39%
61%
Non Arab Web Pages Arab Web Pages
Sample disstribution according to
content
20%
80%
News Editorials
Sample disstribution according
to page
6%
94%
Front page Inside
945
265
414
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Written Sound Video
Sample disstribution according to material presentation
Sample distribution according to year
42%
58%
2007 2008
Validating and ReliabilityValidating and Reliability
 After validating and checking data, coding,After validating and checking data, coding,
transcription, and entering data, statisticaltranscription, and entering data, statistical
analysis had been performed to address theanalysis had been performed to address the
hypothesis and research questions.hypothesis and research questions.
Findings had been used to better explainFindings had been used to better explain
current portrayals of the U.S. in Arab andcurrent portrayals of the U.S. in Arab and
non Arab on line media and offerednon Arab on line media and offered
suggestions on how these could be changedsuggestions on how these could be changed
to be more accurate.to be more accurate.
Review of literature:Review of literature:
 The Arab opinion of United States policy in theThe Arab opinion of United States policy in the
Middle East is heavily influenced by the ArabMiddle East is heavily influenced by the Arab
media. Images and sounds of violence in the Westmedia. Images and sounds of violence in the West
Bank and Gaza Strip are captured and deliveredBank and Gaza Strip are captured and delivered
by Arab satellite news channels, radio and nearby Arab satellite news channels, radio and near
simultaneously by news services to millions ofsimultaneously by news services to millions of
Arabs and Muslims around the World. UnitedArabs and Muslims around the World. United
States policy is defined and debated over theseStates policy is defined and debated over these
mediums as it unfolds; generally, with nomediums as it unfolds; generally, with no
response, discussion or rebuttal by the Unitedresponse, discussion or rebuttal by the United
States governmentStates government
American efforts to present a clearer picture ofAmerican efforts to present a clearer picture of
U.S. society and policies have been largelyU.S. society and policies have been largely
inconsequential.inconsequential.
 Washington sponsors an array of Arabic-Washington sponsors an array of Arabic-
language media outlets, including Allanguage media outlets, including Al
Hurra TV, Radio Sawa and Hi Magazine,Hurra TV, Radio Sawa and Hi Magazine,
but despite generous funding ($62 millionbut despite generous funding ($62 million
to Al Hurra in 2004 alone), these stationsto Al Hurra in 2004 alone), these stations
and publications have failed to win aand publications have failed to win a
significant Arab following or to boostsignificant Arab following or to boost
American credibility in the regionAmerican credibility in the region
Testing hypothesesTesting hypotheses
There was a difference among web sites in image type
whether it is positive-negative or neutral where both
the positive and negative image was biased. Also, there
was a difference in US image as unfair, imbalanced
and imperial country violating law or use it to justify
aggression whether by US or by it’s close alliance
Israel. Also, there was a difference in evidence used
(figures, facts, examples and testimonial). Some of the
Arab web sites used more than one evidence. Also,
differences extended to main concentration whether
issue- event-person .Except the main issue and salience
the first hypothesis had been approved
VARIABLES DIFFERENCES SUM OF
SQUARES
DF MEAN
SQUARE
F SIG
image type Between group 200.170 2 100.085 364.892 .000**
Within Group 444.618 1621 0.274
Total 644.788 1623
covered topics Between group 24.560 2 12.280 5.974 .003*
Within Group 3332.297 1621 2.056
Total 3356.857 1623
US image Between group 41.101 2 20.550 5.186 .005*
Within Group 6423.825 1621 3.963.
Total 6464.925 1623
H 1 There is differences among web sites (whether biased or not) in image type-H 1 There is differences among web sites (whether biased or not) in image type-
covered topics-US image-used evidences-main concentration-ways of distortion-covered topics-US image-used evidences-main concentration-ways of distortion-
salience-main issue-news values-attraction tools-included figures.salience-main issue-news values-attraction tools-included figures.
H 2 There is a positive correlation between image biasH 2 There is a positive correlation between image bias
(totally biased-totally objective-some how objective/biased)(totally biased-totally objective-some how objective/biased)
and image type (negative-neutral-positive)and image type (negative-neutral-positive)
IMAGE TYPE
BIASED OR NOT
NEGATIVE NEUTRAL POSITIVE TOTAL
totally biased 1326 63 90 1479
totally objective 2 47 -- 49
somehow
objective/biased
18 6 72 96
Total 1346 116 162 1624
1326
63
1479
2
47
49
18
6
96
1346
116
1624
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Totally biased Totally objective Some how O.B Total
Correlation between image bias and image type
Negative Neutral Positive Total
TEST VALUE DF SIG
Chi Square 1084.734 4
.000
Likelihood ratio 521.735 4
.000
Linear by Linear
association
502.852 1
.000
TEST VALUE SIG
Contingency
Coefficient
.633 .000
Pearson’s R .557 .000
Spearman
Correlation
.570 .000
H 3 There is a correlation between web site affiliation (ArabH 3 There is a correlation between web site affiliation (Arab
and non Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image andand non Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image and
image type (negative-neutral-positive) of the United States,image type (negative-neutral-positive) of the United States,
IMAGE TYPE
AFFILIATION
NEGATIVE NEUTRAL POSITIVE TOTAL
Arab web sites 811 89 90 990
Non Arab web
sites
535 27 72 634
Total 1346 116 162 1624
811
89 90
990
535
27 72
634
1346
116
162
1624
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Arab web sites Non Arab web sites Total
Correlation betweenweb site affiliation and image type
Negative Neutral Positive Total
TEST VALUE DF SIG
Chi
Squar
e
14.384 2 .001
Likeliho
od
ratio
15.525 2 .000
TEST VALUE SIG
Contingency
Coefficient
.094 .001
*There is no correlation between web site affiliation (Arab and non*There is no correlation between web site affiliation (Arab and non
Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image as calculated Q2 wasArab web sites) and web sites bias, US image as calculated Q2 was
less then tabulated one.less then tabulated one.
H 4 There is a correlation between US image and usedH 4 There is a correlation between US image and used
appeals, no. evidence, and main concentration at theappeals, no. evidence, and main concentration at the
materialsmaterials
APPEAL
US IMAGE
EMOTIONAL RATIONAL BOTH NA TOTAL
Unfair 630 28 10 13 681
Imbalanced 119 190 15 24 338
Using law to justify
aggression
34 9 127 2 172
Violating Law 84 - - - 84
Imperial Country 94 - - - 94
Others 91 - 1 - 92
NA 38 6 5 114 163
Total 1090 223 158 153 1624
630
13
119
24
34
2
84 94 91
38
114
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Unfair Imbalamced Aggressive Violating Law Imperial Others NA
Correlation between US image and used appeals
Emotional Rational Both NA
TEST VALUE DF SIG
Chi Square 2281.943 18 .000
Likelihood
ratio
1518.127 18 .000
TEST VAL
UE
SIG
Contingency
Coefficient
.764
.000
No. of evidence
US IMAGE
ONE
EVIDENCE
MORE THAN
ONE
EVIDENCE
TOTAL
Unfair 171 510 681
Imbalanced 88 250 338
Using law to justify
aggression
36 109 172
Violating Law 17 67 84
Imperial Country 35 59 94
Others 38 54 92
NA 78 85 163
Total 1090 223 1624
171
510
88
250
36
109
17
67
35
59
36
54
75 85
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Unfair Imbalamced Aggressive Violating Law Imperial Others NA
Correlation between US image and No. of used evidence
One evidence More than One
TEST VALU
E
DF SIG
Chi Square 50.186 6
.000
Likelihood
ratio
48.496 6
.000
TEST VALUE SIG
Contingency
Coefficient
.173 .000
Main concentration
US IMAGE
ISSUE EVEN
T
PERS
ON
MORE
THAN
ONE
ELEME
NTS
TOT
AL
Unfair 449 31 4 197 681
Imbalanced 106 124 10 98 338
Using law to justify
aggression
34 9 127 2 172
Violating Law 44 - - 40 84
Imperial Country 46 - - 48 94
Others 91 - 1 - 92
NA 32 9 5 117 163
449
197
106
98
34
2
44 40 46 48
91
32
117
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
Unfair Imbalamced Aggressive Violating Law Imperial Others NA
Correlation between US image and main concentration
Issue Events Person More than elements
TEST VALUE DF SIG
Chi Square 1015.793 18 .000
Likelihood
ratio
734.885 18 .000
TEST VALUE SIG
Contingency
Coefficient
.620 .000
Conclusion& Recommendations;Conclusion& Recommendations;
 US has a very bad image at the Arab media s aUS has a very bad image at the Arab media s a
results to its foreign policy at the Middle East inresults to its foreign policy at the Middle East in
general and at the Arab world specifically.general and at the Arab world specifically.
There are no big differences among Arab andThere are no big differences among Arab and
non Arab web sites coverage for US news asnon Arab web sites coverage for US news as
many of the crews who are working at the nonmany of the crews who are working at the non
Arab web sites are belonging to Arab roots.Arab web sites are belonging to Arab roots.
They are working as a gate keeper in publishingThey are working as a gate keeper in publishing
news and editorials especially in electronicnews and editorials especially in electronic
coverage.coverage.
US image is associated withUS image is associated with
many:many:
 Bad symbols and meanings such as unfairBad symbols and meanings such as unfair
country adopts imbalanced policies towardcountry adopts imbalanced policies toward
Middle East. It always adopts offensive policiesMiddle East. It always adopts offensive policies
as an imperial country but in a new way. Itas an imperial country but in a new way. It
violates law or uses law to justify illegal actions.violates law or uses law to justify illegal actions.
Arab and non Arab web sites didn’t differentiateArab and non Arab web sites didn’t differentiate
or separate between US a country and US as aor separate between US a country and US as a
foreign policy. Dealing with Arabic issues such asforeign policy. Dealing with Arabic issues such as
Iraq-Palestine, Lebanon and Gulf area isIraq-Palestine, Lebanon and Gulf area is
working always as a parameter for the way theworking always as a parameter for the way the
media deal with US.media deal with US.
We actually need to provide :We actually need to provide :
 Communicators with valid updated and accurateCommunicators with valid updated and accurate
information enabling them to have an excellent solidinformation enabling them to have an excellent solid
basis for dealing with Arab and West issues and images.basis for dealing with Arab and West issues and images.
This could be achieved via developing an action plan toThis could be achieved via developing an action plan to
improve the distorted image the media which had beenimprove the distorted image the media which had been
cultivated by different segments of West and Arabcultivated by different segments of West and Arab
society through different media in light of the varioussociety through different media in light of the various
international political developments since Sept.11th,international political developments since Sept.11th,
2001.Also, we need to define the dimensions of distorted2001.Also, we need to define the dimensions of distorted
image of both Arab and West people as well as compareimage of both Arab and West people as well as compare
between the shaped image among different politicalbetween the shaped image among different political
systems and different media.systems and different media.
More intensive efforts areMore intensive efforts are
neededneeded
 For measuring the historical factorsFor measuring the historical factors
which lead to the cumulative distortedwhich lead to the cumulative distorted
image for both Arab and West. Reformimage for both Arab and West. Reform
in the media will happen as a process,in the media will happen as a process,
not a decision by fiat; and with thenot a decision by fiat; and with the
tradition of governmental control, ittradition of governmental control, it
will not occur easily. So we have towill not occur easily. So we have to
start and do the maximum that we canstart and do the maximum that we can
even it is slowly but surely.even it is slowly but surely.
Thank youThank you
Ashraf GalalAshraf Galal a.galal@qu.edu.qaa.galal@qu.edu.qa
ashrafgalall@yahoo.comashrafgalall@yahoo.com
00974-570174400974-5701744
Mahmoud Galander, Ph.D.(Mahmoud Galander, Ph.D.(
galender@qu.edu.qagalender@qu.edu.qa))
Philip J. Auter, Ph.D. (Philip J. Auter, Ph.D. (auter@louisiana.eduauter@louisiana.edu))

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Galal

  • 1. The Image of the United States Portrayed inThe Image of the United States Portrayed in Arab World Online JournalismArab World Online Journalism Dr. Ashraf GalalDr. Ashraf Galal Associate professor Qatar UniversityAssociate professor Qatar University Dr. Mahmoud GalanderDr. Mahmoud Galander Qatar UniversityQatar University Dr. Philip J. AuterDr. Philip J. Auter University of Louisiana at LafayetteUniversity of Louisiana at Lafayette Naseeg. com What you need, when you need it Elaph news. com
  • 2. Let’s start with someLet’s start with some questions:questions:  Do we have an image about each other?Do we have an image about each other?  What about the nature of this image? Is it about ourWhat about the nature of this image? Is it about our values, culture, system, people, policy, or somethingvalues, culture, system, people, policy, or something else?else?  Is it biased, distorted, good, bad, in-depth, superficial orIs it biased, distorted, good, bad, in-depth, superficial or something else? How could we judge?something else? How could we judge?  How it had been formed? And measured?How it had been formed? And measured?  Would we really want to change the false image?Would we really want to change the false image?  Would we have enough motivations to change it?Would we have enough motivations to change it?  Could we change it? HOW? And WHY?Could we change it? HOW? And WHY?
  • 3. How the American media portrayHow the American media portray Arab?Arab?
  • 4. How the Arab Media portray Unite States internally?
  • 5. Biased image? isn’t it? YESBiased image? isn’t it? YES
  • 6. How the Arab Media portrays Unite States externally? biased image, isn’t it YES
  • 7. Is there any kind of relation betweenIs there any kind of relation between internal and external policy? YESinternal and external policy? YES
  • 8. Which one is correct? A conference of Hezbollah operatives inWhich one is correct? A conference of Hezbollah operatives in Lebanon. The English-language sloganLebanon. The English-language slogan in the background reads: “Our enemies forever - U.S.A. and Israel”in the background reads: “Our enemies forever - U.S.A. and Israel”
  • 9. Instead of rolling at schools? The doctrine ofInstead of rolling at schools? The doctrine of Hezbollah: Suicide attacks (“the shortest road toHezbollah: Suicide attacks (“the shortest road to Allah”) are of supreme valueAllah”) are of supreme value It owes BLOOD to all of humanity
  • 10. What is the results? The domino-What is the results? The domino- effect!!!!!!!!!!!effect!!!!!!!!!!!
  • 11.
  • 12. Research problemResearch problem  This study is trying to examine to what extent theThis study is trying to examine to what extent the online journalism in the Arab World has adoptedonline journalism in the Arab World has adopted biased coverage of the United States? The studybiased coverage of the United States? The study hopes to provide a current assessment of how thehopes to provide a current assessment of how the U.S. is portrayed in Arab World onlineU.S. is portrayed in Arab World online journalism. This valid, updated information willjournalism. This valid, updated information will enable researchers and communicators alike toenable researchers and communicators alike to better understand not only what is being done,better understand not only what is being done, but may lead to ways of providing a solid basisbut may lead to ways of providing a solid basis for better dealing with American issues andfor better dealing with American issues and images in the future.images in the future.
  • 13. It is commonly believed that media in the ArabIt is commonly believed that media in the Arab World predominantly portray the United States inWorld predominantly portray the United States in  A negative light. However someA negative light. However some evidence suggests that these portrayalsevidence suggests that these portrayals may vary due to the type of topic beingmay vary due to the type of topic being covered (e.g. U.S. foreign policy ascovered (e.g. U.S. foreign policy as opposed to stories about the Americanopposed to stories about the American public.) Portrayals can also vary frompublic.) Portrayals can also vary from publication to publication and countrypublication to publication and country to country.to country.
  • 14. Research ImportanceResearch Importance  Increasing importance of the media andIncreasing importance of the media and images through a number of regional andimages through a number of regional and international bodiesinternational bodies  Rising-up the rates of viewing talk shows andRising-up the rates of viewing talk shows and public affairs programs..public affairs programs..  Growing of criticism directed to media inGrowing of criticism directed to media in presenting a biased coverage for the other.presenting a biased coverage for the other.  Foreign News sources are considered the mainForeign News sources are considered the main or sole source for some Arab channels.or sole source for some Arab channels.  Lack of studies that concentrate on dealing withLack of studies that concentrate on dealing with cross cultural image in mass media.cross cultural image in mass media.
  • 15.  Increasing the importance of civilizations dialogue as aIncreasing the importance of civilizations dialogue as a result to the biased media coverage as well as the falseresult to the biased media coverage as well as the false stereotypes.stereotypes.  There is a case of mixture between the United StateThere is a case of mixture between the United State policy and people who don't know too much about thepolicy and people who don't know too much about the foreign and other countries.foreign and other countries.  There are mutual false perceptions between the ArabThere are mutual false perceptions between the Arab and American people. These perceptions had beenand American people. These perceptions had been formed by media coverage.formed by media coverage.  With heightened instability in the Middle East, theWith heightened instability in the Middle East, the media has played a vital role in laying out what seemsmedia has played a vital role in laying out what seems to be the groundwork for many contradictions, biases,to be the groundwork for many contradictions, biases, and much animosity toward the west in general andand much animosity toward the west in general and United States specifically.United States specifically.
  • 16. Research HypothesesResearch Hypotheses  H 1 There is differences among web sitesH 1 There is differences among web sites (whether biased or not) in image type-covered(whether biased or not) in image type-covered topics-US image-used evidences-maintopics-US image-used evidences-main concentration-ways of distortion-salience-mainconcentration-ways of distortion-salience-main issue-news values-attraction tools-includedissue-news values-attraction tools-included figures.figures.  H 2 There is a positive correlation between imageH 2 There is a positive correlation between image bias (totally biased-totally objective-some howbias (totally biased-totally objective-some how objective/biased) and image type (negative-objective/biased) and image type (negative- neutral-positive)neutral-positive)
  • 17.  H 3 There is a correlation between webH 3 There is a correlation between web site affiliation (Arab and non Arab website affiliation (Arab and non Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image andsites) and web sites bias, US image and image type (negative-neutral-positive)image type (negative-neutral-positive) of the United States,of the United States,  H 4 There is a correlation between USH 4 There is a correlation between US image and used appeals, evidence,image and used appeals, evidence, evidence type and main concentrationevidence type and main concentration at the materials.at the materials.
  • 18. Research MethodologyResearch Methodology  Eight on line news web sites had been selectedEight on line news web sites had been selected among 14 are considered the most importantamong 14 are considered the most important news web sites at the Arab world based on thenews web sites at the Arab world based on the nomination of some experts in this field. Newsnomination of some experts in this field. News and editorial materials at the first pageand editorial materials at the first page (whether complete or none complete materials.(whether complete or none complete materials. Internal topics which had any signs at the frontInternal topics which had any signs at the front pages had been analyzed also. The studypages had been analyzed also. The study postulated that the most important topics arepostulated that the most important topics are shown on the first page whether completely orshown on the first page whether completely or partially.partially.
  • 19.  Analysis had been started from March 2007-Analysis had been started from March 2007- February 2008 using a structured refereed toolFebruary 2008 using a structured refereed tool included all the content analysis items. Weincluded all the content analysis items. We depended on many analysis units such as :depended on many analysis units such as : ( subject or issue unit-natural media unit-word( subject or issue unit-natural media unit-word unit-space or time unit). After applying theunit-space or time unit). After applying the validity test, it was 93% and reliability test wasvalidity test, it was 93% and reliability test was 91%. .The study depended on a cumulative scale91%. .The study depended on a cumulative scale to measure the salience and attractiveness of theto measure the salience and attractiveness of the published materials included the following items:published materials included the following items:
  • 20.  Content size ( space or time )Content size ( space or time )  TitlesTitles  PhotosPhotos  VideosVideos  ColorsColors  MotionMotion  PromoPromo  LocationLocation  News barsNews bars  Side materialsSide materials  Other itemsOther items
  • 21. We targeted the United States material andWe targeted the United States material and defined this item in the following definition :defined this item in the following definition :  Any news or editorial material that includes theAny news or editorial material that includes the US name in a literal way). We aimed to avoid anyUS name in a literal way). We aimed to avoid any misperception of the material by depending on amisperception of the material by depending on a very clear definition of what is meant by USvery clear definition of what is meant by US material. The sample included about one yearmaterial. The sample included about one year materials using artificial week technique andmaterials using artificial week technique and materials had been gathered from both Arab andmaterials had been gathered from both Arab and Non Arab web sites for both news and editorialsNon Arab web sites for both news and editorials using all forms published or broadcasted on theusing all forms published or broadcasted on the web sites such as written, sound and videoweb sites such as written, sound and video materials.materials.
  • 22.  Data analyzers and coders had been subjected toData analyzers and coders had been subjected to intensive training as well as validity andintensive training as well as validity and reliability tests. This project is a part of a big onreliability tests. This project is a part of a big on going research included other media such asgoing research included other media such as satellite channels, other web sites and aim tosatellite channels, other web sites and aim to measure the effect of media coverage on themeasure the effect of media coverage on the audience especially the perceptions of theaudience especially the perceptions of the "Other" as presented via Satellite channels: A"Other" as presented via Satellite channels: A Comparative Study on Arab and AmericanComparative Study on Arab and American Media & Audiences.Media & Audiences.
  • 23. Added valueAdded value  The findings of this research as wellThe findings of this research as well as the big research project will helpas the big research project will help in presenting many techniques andin presenting many techniques and strategies to improve the mutualstrategies to improve the mutual image and false perception betweenimage and false perception between the Arab and the west in generalthe Arab and the west in general and between Arab and American inand between Arab and American in
  • 24. Sample Selection CriteriaSample Selection Criteria  The study depended onThe study depended on representing many criteriarepresenting many criteria selection such as :selection such as :  Web site 2-Affiliation 3-Web site 2-Affiliation 3- Content4-Page 5-MaterialContent4-Page 5-Material Presentation 6- Time periodPresentation 6- Time period 2007versus 20082007versus 2008
  • 25. The total sample of the study wasThe total sample of the study was 1624 had been selected based on1624 had been selected based on  The artificial week from March 2007-FebruaryThe artificial week from March 2007-February 2008.We targeted the United States news and2008.We targeted the United States news and defined this item in the following definition:( anydefined this item in the following definition:( any news or editorial material that include the USnews or editorial material that include the US name in a literal way) . We aimed to avoid anyname in a literal way) . We aimed to avoid any misperception of the news by depending on amisperception of the news by depending on a very clear definition of what is meant by USvery clear definition of what is meant by US news. All the selected web pages are hourlynews. All the selected web pages are hourly updated based and considered the mostupdated based and considered the most important web pages at the Arab world based onimportant web pages at the Arab world based on rating figures. Some of these web pages recordedrating figures. Some of these web pages recorded daily more than 3 million visitors.daily more than 3 million visitors.
  • 26. Sample disstribution according to Web Site 13% 7%12%13% 18% 14% 16% 7% www.arabic.cnn.com www.afp.com/arabichom www.ara.reuters.com www.news.bbc.co.uk www.islamonline.net. www.news.naseeg.com www.aljazeera.net www.elaph.com Naseeg. com What you need, when you need it Elaph news. com
  • 27. Sample disstribution according to affiliation 39% 61% Non Arab Web Pages Arab Web Pages
  • 28. Sample disstribution according to content 20% 80% News Editorials
  • 29. Sample disstribution according to page 6% 94% Front page Inside
  • 30. 945 265 414 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Written Sound Video Sample disstribution according to material presentation
  • 31. Sample distribution according to year 42% 58% 2007 2008
  • 32. Validating and ReliabilityValidating and Reliability  After validating and checking data, coding,After validating and checking data, coding, transcription, and entering data, statisticaltranscription, and entering data, statistical analysis had been performed to address theanalysis had been performed to address the hypothesis and research questions.hypothesis and research questions. Findings had been used to better explainFindings had been used to better explain current portrayals of the U.S. in Arab andcurrent portrayals of the U.S. in Arab and non Arab on line media and offerednon Arab on line media and offered suggestions on how these could be changedsuggestions on how these could be changed to be more accurate.to be more accurate.
  • 33. Review of literature:Review of literature:  The Arab opinion of United States policy in theThe Arab opinion of United States policy in the Middle East is heavily influenced by the ArabMiddle East is heavily influenced by the Arab media. Images and sounds of violence in the Westmedia. Images and sounds of violence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip are captured and deliveredBank and Gaza Strip are captured and delivered by Arab satellite news channels, radio and nearby Arab satellite news channels, radio and near simultaneously by news services to millions ofsimultaneously by news services to millions of Arabs and Muslims around the World. UnitedArabs and Muslims around the World. United States policy is defined and debated over theseStates policy is defined and debated over these mediums as it unfolds; generally, with nomediums as it unfolds; generally, with no response, discussion or rebuttal by the Unitedresponse, discussion or rebuttal by the United States governmentStates government
  • 34. American efforts to present a clearer picture ofAmerican efforts to present a clearer picture of U.S. society and policies have been largelyU.S. society and policies have been largely inconsequential.inconsequential.  Washington sponsors an array of Arabic-Washington sponsors an array of Arabic- language media outlets, including Allanguage media outlets, including Al Hurra TV, Radio Sawa and Hi Magazine,Hurra TV, Radio Sawa and Hi Magazine, but despite generous funding ($62 millionbut despite generous funding ($62 million to Al Hurra in 2004 alone), these stationsto Al Hurra in 2004 alone), these stations and publications have failed to win aand publications have failed to win a significant Arab following or to boostsignificant Arab following or to boost American credibility in the regionAmerican credibility in the region
  • 35. Testing hypothesesTesting hypotheses There was a difference among web sites in image type whether it is positive-negative or neutral where both the positive and negative image was biased. Also, there was a difference in US image as unfair, imbalanced and imperial country violating law or use it to justify aggression whether by US or by it’s close alliance Israel. Also, there was a difference in evidence used (figures, facts, examples and testimonial). Some of the Arab web sites used more than one evidence. Also, differences extended to main concentration whether issue- event-person .Except the main issue and salience the first hypothesis had been approved
  • 36. VARIABLES DIFFERENCES SUM OF SQUARES DF MEAN SQUARE F SIG image type Between group 200.170 2 100.085 364.892 .000** Within Group 444.618 1621 0.274 Total 644.788 1623 covered topics Between group 24.560 2 12.280 5.974 .003* Within Group 3332.297 1621 2.056 Total 3356.857 1623 US image Between group 41.101 2 20.550 5.186 .005* Within Group 6423.825 1621 3.963. Total 6464.925 1623 H 1 There is differences among web sites (whether biased or not) in image type-H 1 There is differences among web sites (whether biased or not) in image type- covered topics-US image-used evidences-main concentration-ways of distortion-covered topics-US image-used evidences-main concentration-ways of distortion- salience-main issue-news values-attraction tools-included figures.salience-main issue-news values-attraction tools-included figures.
  • 37. H 2 There is a positive correlation between image biasH 2 There is a positive correlation between image bias (totally biased-totally objective-some how objective/biased)(totally biased-totally objective-some how objective/biased) and image type (negative-neutral-positive)and image type (negative-neutral-positive) IMAGE TYPE BIASED OR NOT NEGATIVE NEUTRAL POSITIVE TOTAL totally biased 1326 63 90 1479 totally objective 2 47 -- 49 somehow objective/biased 18 6 72 96 Total 1346 116 162 1624
  • 38. 1326 63 1479 2 47 49 18 6 96 1346 116 1624 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Totally biased Totally objective Some how O.B Total Correlation between image bias and image type Negative Neutral Positive Total
  • 39. TEST VALUE DF SIG Chi Square 1084.734 4 .000 Likelihood ratio 521.735 4 .000 Linear by Linear association 502.852 1 .000 TEST VALUE SIG Contingency Coefficient .633 .000 Pearson’s R .557 .000 Spearman Correlation .570 .000
  • 40. H 3 There is a correlation between web site affiliation (ArabH 3 There is a correlation between web site affiliation (Arab and non Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image andand non Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image and image type (negative-neutral-positive) of the United States,image type (negative-neutral-positive) of the United States, IMAGE TYPE AFFILIATION NEGATIVE NEUTRAL POSITIVE TOTAL Arab web sites 811 89 90 990 Non Arab web sites 535 27 72 634 Total 1346 116 162 1624
  • 41. 811 89 90 990 535 27 72 634 1346 116 162 1624 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Arab web sites Non Arab web sites Total Correlation betweenweb site affiliation and image type Negative Neutral Positive Total
  • 42. TEST VALUE DF SIG Chi Squar e 14.384 2 .001 Likeliho od ratio 15.525 2 .000 TEST VALUE SIG Contingency Coefficient .094 .001 *There is no correlation between web site affiliation (Arab and non*There is no correlation between web site affiliation (Arab and non Arab web sites) and web sites bias, US image as calculated Q2 wasArab web sites) and web sites bias, US image as calculated Q2 was less then tabulated one.less then tabulated one.
  • 43. H 4 There is a correlation between US image and usedH 4 There is a correlation between US image and used appeals, no. evidence, and main concentration at theappeals, no. evidence, and main concentration at the materialsmaterials APPEAL US IMAGE EMOTIONAL RATIONAL BOTH NA TOTAL Unfair 630 28 10 13 681 Imbalanced 119 190 15 24 338 Using law to justify aggression 34 9 127 2 172 Violating Law 84 - - - 84 Imperial Country 94 - - - 94 Others 91 - 1 - 92 NA 38 6 5 114 163 Total 1090 223 158 153 1624
  • 44. 630 13 119 24 34 2 84 94 91 38 114 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Unfair Imbalamced Aggressive Violating Law Imperial Others NA Correlation between US image and used appeals Emotional Rational Both NA
  • 45. TEST VALUE DF SIG Chi Square 2281.943 18 .000 Likelihood ratio 1518.127 18 .000 TEST VAL UE SIG Contingency Coefficient .764 .000
  • 46. No. of evidence US IMAGE ONE EVIDENCE MORE THAN ONE EVIDENCE TOTAL Unfair 171 510 681 Imbalanced 88 250 338 Using law to justify aggression 36 109 172 Violating Law 17 67 84 Imperial Country 35 59 94 Others 38 54 92 NA 78 85 163 Total 1090 223 1624
  • 47. 171 510 88 250 36 109 17 67 35 59 36 54 75 85 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Unfair Imbalamced Aggressive Violating Law Imperial Others NA Correlation between US image and No. of used evidence One evidence More than One
  • 48. TEST VALU E DF SIG Chi Square 50.186 6 .000 Likelihood ratio 48.496 6 .000 TEST VALUE SIG Contingency Coefficient .173 .000
  • 49. Main concentration US IMAGE ISSUE EVEN T PERS ON MORE THAN ONE ELEME NTS TOT AL Unfair 449 31 4 197 681 Imbalanced 106 124 10 98 338 Using law to justify aggression 34 9 127 2 172 Violating Law 44 - - 40 84 Imperial Country 46 - - 48 94 Others 91 - 1 - 92 NA 32 9 5 117 163
  • 50. 449 197 106 98 34 2 44 40 46 48 91 32 117 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Unfair Imbalamced Aggressive Violating Law Imperial Others NA Correlation between US image and main concentration Issue Events Person More than elements
  • 51. TEST VALUE DF SIG Chi Square 1015.793 18 .000 Likelihood ratio 734.885 18 .000 TEST VALUE SIG Contingency Coefficient .620 .000
  • 52. Conclusion& Recommendations;Conclusion& Recommendations;  US has a very bad image at the Arab media s aUS has a very bad image at the Arab media s a results to its foreign policy at the Middle East inresults to its foreign policy at the Middle East in general and at the Arab world specifically.general and at the Arab world specifically. There are no big differences among Arab andThere are no big differences among Arab and non Arab web sites coverage for US news asnon Arab web sites coverage for US news as many of the crews who are working at the nonmany of the crews who are working at the non Arab web sites are belonging to Arab roots.Arab web sites are belonging to Arab roots. They are working as a gate keeper in publishingThey are working as a gate keeper in publishing news and editorials especially in electronicnews and editorials especially in electronic coverage.coverage.
  • 53. US image is associated withUS image is associated with many:many:  Bad symbols and meanings such as unfairBad symbols and meanings such as unfair country adopts imbalanced policies towardcountry adopts imbalanced policies toward Middle East. It always adopts offensive policiesMiddle East. It always adopts offensive policies as an imperial country but in a new way. Itas an imperial country but in a new way. It violates law or uses law to justify illegal actions.violates law or uses law to justify illegal actions. Arab and non Arab web sites didn’t differentiateArab and non Arab web sites didn’t differentiate or separate between US a country and US as aor separate between US a country and US as a foreign policy. Dealing with Arabic issues such asforeign policy. Dealing with Arabic issues such as Iraq-Palestine, Lebanon and Gulf area isIraq-Palestine, Lebanon and Gulf area is working always as a parameter for the way theworking always as a parameter for the way the media deal with US.media deal with US.
  • 54. We actually need to provide :We actually need to provide :  Communicators with valid updated and accurateCommunicators with valid updated and accurate information enabling them to have an excellent solidinformation enabling them to have an excellent solid basis for dealing with Arab and West issues and images.basis for dealing with Arab and West issues and images. This could be achieved via developing an action plan toThis could be achieved via developing an action plan to improve the distorted image the media which had beenimprove the distorted image the media which had been cultivated by different segments of West and Arabcultivated by different segments of West and Arab society through different media in light of the varioussociety through different media in light of the various international political developments since Sept.11th,international political developments since Sept.11th, 2001.Also, we need to define the dimensions of distorted2001.Also, we need to define the dimensions of distorted image of both Arab and West people as well as compareimage of both Arab and West people as well as compare between the shaped image among different politicalbetween the shaped image among different political systems and different media.systems and different media.
  • 55. More intensive efforts areMore intensive efforts are neededneeded  For measuring the historical factorsFor measuring the historical factors which lead to the cumulative distortedwhich lead to the cumulative distorted image for both Arab and West. Reformimage for both Arab and West. Reform in the media will happen as a process,in the media will happen as a process, not a decision by fiat; and with thenot a decision by fiat; and with the tradition of governmental control, ittradition of governmental control, it will not occur easily. So we have towill not occur easily. So we have to start and do the maximum that we canstart and do the maximum that we can even it is slowly but surely.even it is slowly but surely.
  • 56. Thank youThank you Ashraf GalalAshraf Galal a.galal@qu.edu.qaa.galal@qu.edu.qa ashrafgalall@yahoo.comashrafgalall@yahoo.com 00974-570174400974-5701744 Mahmoud Galander, Ph.D.(Mahmoud Galander, Ph.D.( galender@qu.edu.qagalender@qu.edu.qa)) Philip J. Auter, Ph.D. (Philip J. Auter, Ph.D. (auter@louisiana.eduauter@louisiana.edu))