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  1. Four Dimensions of Journalistic Convergence A preliminary approach to current media trends at Spain David Domingo University of Iowa
  2. Convergence dimensions  Integrated production  Multiskilled professionals  Multiplatform delivery  Active audience
  3. Research design  Explorative sample of 58 Spanish media companies (+200 media outlets)  Criteria: exploring convergence, any size (local to national)  Parameters coded by researchers based on corporate info and interviews with news editors
  4. Journalistic convergence dimensions in Spanish media 35 36 51 22 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Integrated production Multiskilled professionals Multiplatform delivery Active audience
  5. Integrated production  Three main strategies:  Collaboration of independent newsrooms  Coordination of separate newsrooms  Integration in one multimedia newsroom
  6. Integrated production 23 20 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 None Collaboration Coordination Integration
  7. Multiskilled professionals  Aspects we analyzed:  Media, issue and technical multiskilling  Different degrees of intensity  Training for multiskilled professionals?
  8. Multiskilled professionals 23 18 11 36 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Media Issue Technical Total cases
  9. Multiplatform delivery  Distribution strategies:  Independent content in each medium  Scarce content exchanges  Automatic repurposing  Manual repurposing  Coordinated multiplatform production
  10. Multiplatform delivery Just this form Combined with other forms Total Independent content for each medium 7 - 7 Scarce content exchanges among media 6 7 13 Automatic repurposing of content from one medium to others 23 10 33 Repurposing of content made by journalists 10 4 14 Coordinated production of content for multiple media by journalists 6 3 9
  11. Active Audience  Explored opportunities for audience involvement in news commentary or production (not just forums or polls)  Webs concentrate active audience services
  12. Active Audience 5 11 7 16 10 4 5 4 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 Audience interviews Comments on news Comments in op-ed articles Journalists blogs User- submitted photos User- submitted videos Audience blogs Audience news Total cases
  13. Discussion  Journalistic convergence is diverse, our conceptual proposal is comprehensive  Spanish media facing convergence are modest in their exploration  Local media tend to develop integration and multiskilling  National media tend to develop multiplatform and active audience
  14. Thank you! David Domingo

Editor's Notes

  1. Convergence has a different meaning in each media company developing it Try to create a comprehensive analytical grid that helps dealing with these different meanings
  2. The common ground is the blurring of established differences: between media, skills and roles. Analytical framework based on the research literature. The dimensions cover the different stages of news production and distribution, and let us analyze the trends as an open process that can take different directions. Avoiding deterministic approaches (full convergence is the best?), any project can develop each dimension differently or just some of them. This is an analytical breakdown, in real world each dimension has tight relationships to others.
  3. Research group of 25 scholars from Spanish universities. This is preliminary research, to map the overall situation in Spain prior to select specific cases and analyze the dynamics of their convergence projects in detail.
  4. Multiplatorm is the most prevalent dimension. Active audience the least. Take into account that this refers to any initiative in any dimension, be it simple or complex. We will see that most of the initiatives are quite conservative, not challenging established professional routines and values. Most of the media explore more than 1 dimension at the same time. Few all the same time.
  5. This dimension is specially popular among local and regional media, suggesting that it is a need rather than a will. Small staff, more productivity. National media have distinct newsrooms that not collaborate. This may change, as there are announcements of newsroom mergers (print-web, broadcast-web)
  6. Media: produce the same story for different media; Issue: cover different topics, not specialized; Technical: perform most of the technical work of the whole production process.
  7. Media multiskilling and issue multiskilling are usually separate. Technical, instead is usually a complement of media multiskilling, specially in broadcasting newsrooms (radio+tv) and newspaper-web relationships. Few having all the forms. Again, almost all of the initiatives are in regional media.
  8. Many media have different strategies for different content. Automatic repurposing is the most common form. Few cases involve journalists. Usually two media are involved. Web is the most common, as print and broadcasting materials are uploaded automatically online. Bigger national media are the ones with more complex multiplatform delivery options (RSS, podcasts, mobile alerts…)
  9. Only 2 newspapers and one tv network published audience news.
  10. Comment options are the most usual. User-generated content is less common. National newspapers lead in the exploration of this options.
  11. Few challenges to established routines, as we said before. Integrated production is mainly collaboration, multiplatform distribution is mainly automatic, and audience participation is seldom related to involvement in news production. Only media multiskilling can be a challenge to a relevant number of media. Local: convergence is a need to survive National: they have the money for this technology rich processes Other reasons shall be investigated through deeper case studies, etnography, interviews.