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Chae

ISOJ 2005

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Chae

  1. 1. Online Public Forums Within Private Institutions Young-Gil Chae Radio-TV-Film UT at Austin
  2. 2. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium2 Public Forum  A place or space “in which persons come together to discuss issues, form opinions or plan action”  “conversational arena” in which “[people can] talk with each other in pubic settings about public issues”  “a communication space that allows for many-to- many communication in which citizens can treat of public affairs in public” Space/ Participant/ Issue
  3. 3. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium3 Online Public Forum ONLINE FORUM Technological Aspect -Interactivity -Deliberation Psychological Aspect - Anonymity Social Aspect - Public policy - Market
  4. 4. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium4 Technological Aspect  Interactivity  Inclusion of users  Promoting reciprocity enhancing conversation between users  Deliberation  Providing opportunity to have “critical-rational reflection”
  5. 5. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium5 Psychological Aspect  User Anonymity  Meaningless and uncertain relation?  Internalize and reinforce opinions of users  Help form collective identity  Reflection  Enabling user to ‘observe’ and ‘contemplate’ conversations  The power of lurkers  Passive free riders? Or Active users?
  6. 6. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium6 Social Aspect  Public Policy  Digital divide  Censorship  Market values  Forms and uses of technology  Other regulators  Norms/ Law
  7. 7. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium7 Research Purpose  How is a communication technology constructed and used for public sphere in U.S?  What are the characteristics of the technological aspects of the online forums in online newspapers?  Forms: Format and Usability  Uses: Interactivity and Deliberation
  8. 8. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium8 Methodology  Content analysis  Sampling  Frame: Who’s who (Columbia Journalism Review)  Samples  Forum: 25 local online newspapers out of 5 publications (N =12)  Message: War in Iraq, Sep. 29 and Oct. 1, N = 83, The Star Ledger and Trenton Times (Advance)
  9. 9. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium9 Sampled newspapers  Advance Publications Allentown Times, Star-Ledger, Trenton Times, Plain Dealer, Post- Standard  Cox Enterprises, Inc. Daily Advance, Rocky Mount Telegram, Middletown Journal, Austin American-Statesman, Atlanta Journal-Constitution  Gannett Journal and Courier, Clarion-Ledger, Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, Argus Leader, Sheboygan Press  Hearst Corporation Beaumont Enterprise, Houston Chronicle, Laredo Morning Times, Midland Reporter, San Antonio Express-News  Knight-Ridder Charlotte Observer, News-Sentinel, El Nuevo Herald, Philadelphia Inquirer, Wichita Eagle
  10. 10. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium10 Measurement Form Format - Threaded, Serial, other Usability - Location (Depth) - Procedure (Authentication) Uses Interactivity - Responsiveness: The number of messages posted on the forum in response to the previous message Deliberation - Substantive and rational discussion: The degree of knowledge and logic of a message
  11. 11. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium11 Findings (Form)  Adoption of online forum: 52% Advance 5/5 Allentown Times, Star-Ledger, Trenton Times, Plain Dealer, Post-Standard COX 3/5 Daily Advance, Rocky Mount Telegram, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Garnett 2/5 Journal and Courier, Argus Leader Hearst 1/5 Houston Chronicle Knight-Ridder 1/5 News-Sentinel
  12. 12. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium12 .  Format  Threaded: 58% (Advance, COX)  Serial: 42% (Garnett, Hearst, Knight-Ridder)  Sharing technology  Same template: Advance (5/5), COX (2/3)  Same forum: Star-Ledger, Trenton Times (Advance)
  13. 13. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium13 .  Location and Procedure  100%: User authentication process (Login in)  75%: to view a message, at least 3 links from the main page  67%: to post message, at least 5 links from the main page (Newspapers of Advance: 6 links)
  14. 14. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium14 Findings (Uses)  Low use  41% has less than 5 users  33% has more than 10 users  Frequent uses by Regulars  Posting ratio: Number of messages per user (M = 2), Advance (M = 2.3)
  15. 15. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium15 .  Interactivity: the ratio of responsiveness to both the previous user and the message  Ratio: 3.5 (Lead 18 : Response 64)  Deliberation: the degree of embedded knowledge or logic in the messages  Not deliberative (emotional or bashful): 27.8%  Deliberative (knowledgeable or logical): 72.2%
  16. 16. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium16 Examples (1) D: Frst coalition in the first iraq war the French sent the second largest number of military vehicules after the us flew the second largest number of flights after the us and in 2 days of combat captured 50000 iraqi prisoners , in afghanistan they are leading the 6000 man euro corps and in liberia it was french marines who went in and freed the american missionaries because we were stretched so thin France has 65000 troops in africa we do need them and I bet that if Kerry is elected you will see a considerable change in our allies attitudes it not us they dont like its bush they dont trust . In the first coalition there were 700000 troops we dont even have a third now so dont talk about a coalition its us . If you asked the dutch british danes poles italians those people want out did you see the polls in britain 80 percent want bush to lose and its worse elsewhere with bush we are stuck E: Impressive numbers. Where do you get your stats from? D: Available from the us army geopolitical studies stats are true I did not mention that the US uses the French Naval base in Djibouti as a staging are or that France has the second largest number of naval units in that area
  17. 17. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium17 Examples (2) A: I know not to send my children there, if your grammar and spelling capacity is indicative of Widener students! B: Your kids more than likely will not go to college with a remark like that. Hintertux made no Don’t to what so ever he made a point if you don’t like it Don’t be sour but Don’t be an insulting moron, Hey hintertux your better than this person, keep up the good work in school.
  18. 18. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium18 Examples (3) C: I've been reading and contributing to this board for about two years. Not ONCE have I seen a "liberal" tell a neo-con that he should leave the country because his views were not welcome. (I HAVE seen neo-cons invited to join the conflict in Iraq, but not to just "get out!") On the other hand, it is a frequent suggestion to me and others branded as "AntiAmerican" and "Liberal". I have explained numerous times that we, too, love our country and speak out against the corruption of our American values, the rape of the economy by elected officials in cooperation with corporate raiders and the perversion of our foreign policy by lackeys of foreign governments precisely because we DO love our country. Neo-cons seem to unanimously believe that its "MY WAY or the HIGHWAY." Even though that con
  19. 19. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium19 Example (4) F: Historically polls have not been the deciding factor in elections, don’t get me wrong they have an impact but they don't decide elections. Its just more meat for the Media. Bush lost the debate on the style side just as it came to no surprise that everyone knew he would. Kerry's foreigin policies really in all don’t differ much from Bush's accept for the North Korean Issue I do not agree with. We've been there for nearly 50 years its time that Japan, China, Russia and South Korea have answered to that problem G: The irony of the debate is that it's really geared to a very small % of the population. If you have a preference in this election, you'll probably believe your candidate won the debate. I don't believe too many supporters of a candidate can be swayed to the other based on the debate.The "target" in the debate is the undecided voter. I wonder if any of the networks have access to this group as far as who they think "won".
  20. 20. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium20 Conclusion  Technology follows the market structure  Publication company determines the Creation, Format and Usability of online forums in affiliated local newspapers  High tech for Less  Low adoption rate of online public forums  Closed forum on Open network  Low participation High Interactivity  Deliberative discussion among regulars
  21. 21. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium21 Discussion  Articulating methodology for online Journalism research  Need to incorporate study on psychological and social aspect in addition to technological aspect of new communication technology  Need to articulate the process of constructing public opinion  Extending the concept and roles of users  International comparison about the forms and uses
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  28. 28. Apr. 09 2005 Online Journalism Symposium28 . Thank You

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