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Sxsw hispanic 3.15.11
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Avila

  1. 1. Bienvenido a Miami y Más: Immigration Frames in English and Spanish Newspapers During the 2012 Florida Republican Primary A.J. “Alex” Avila PhD Candidate School of Journalism alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  2. 2. Is Catering to Latino Voters a Joke? alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  3. 3. Florida 2000 Election alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  4. 4. Florida’s Changing Latino Demographics alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • 1960 – 1980 – Political Exodus from Cuba • 1980 – present – Economic Exodus • Politics dominated by early political exodus with a strong, anti-Castro, right wing slant
  5. 5. Florida’s Changing Latino Demographics alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • 1960 Florida had 2.2% of all mainland Puerto Ricans • 2000 Florida had 14.4% of all mainland Puerto Ricans • In 2003, Orlando became the 4th largest Puerto Rican city in the mainland (NY, Philadelphia, Chicago)
  6. 6. Florida’s Fluid Latino Vote alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • This new makeup of Florida’s Latino population was hard to predict politically • By 2012, the Cuban vote in Florida no longer defined the overall Hispanic vote
  7. 7. Florida Presidential Primary 2012 alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • Florida GOP moves its primary to Jan. 31 from March 6. • During the primary season, Florida is the fifth state after Iowa, New Hampshire, Nevada and South Carolina. • South Carolina the first state with a major African-American voting population. • Florida the first state with a major Latino voting population.
  8. 8. Issues alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • Politically, S. Florida Cuban Americans leaned Republican – Age Gap • Cuban Exiles • Native Americans • Central Florida Puerto Ricans leaned Democrat • Newspaper’s tend to reflect the local mainstream • Ethnic papers reflect more alternative or minority views.
  9. 9. Why a Framing Study? alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • Words Matter! – Who says what, how? • Illegal or Undocumented? • Framing helps to understand the power dynamics behind who is shaping the media
  10. 10. Research Questions alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • RQ1: What are the identifiable immigration issue frames commonly used in news media? • RQ2: How do English-language news media use issue frames when discussing immigration? • RQ3: How do Spanish-language news media use issue frames when discussing immigration?
  11. 11. Immigration Frames Found alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com Table 4. What Issue Frame is Identified by the Context? Miami Herald El Nuevo Herald Orlando Sentinel El Sentinel 1. Political Issue 19.3% 15.5% 20.0% 30.3% 2. Anti-immigrant 17.8% 27.3% 15.6% 3.0% 3. Policy & Enforcement 14.1% 8.2% 4.4% 12.1% 4. Illegal/Undocumented 11.1% 16.4% 28.9% 6.1% 5. Reform or Stance 21.5% 22.7% 20.0% 33.3% 6. Worker/Laborer 2.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7. Community 5.9% 3.6% 4.4% 3.0% 8. Immigration Status 3.7% 0.9% 4.4% 0.0% 9. Political Advocacy 4.4% 5.5% 2.2% 12.1% Total # of Articles Articles w/ Coded Words Percent Total Coded Words 25 18 72% n=135 20 18 90% n=110 9 6 66.7% n=45 7 7 100% n=33 (RQ1 Answer – Identifiable Immigration Issue Frames)
  12. 12. t-Test English Newspaper Frames Miami Herald Orlando Sentinel 1. Political Issue 19.3% 20.0% 2. Anti-immigrant 17.8% 15.6% 3. Policy & Enforcement 14.1% 4.4% 4. Illegal/Undocumented 11.1% 28.9% 5. Reform or Stance 21.5% 20.0% 6. Worker/Laborer 2.2% 0.0% 7. Community 5.9% 4.4% 8. Immigration Status 3.7% 4.4% 9. Political Advocacy 4.4% 2.2% Total # of Articles Articles w/ Coded Words Percent Total Coded Words 25 18 72% n=135 9 6 66.7% n=45 • There was a significant difference in the scores for Miami Herald (M=15, SD=9.9) and Orlando Sentinel (M=5, SD=4.6); t(16)=2.7443, p=0.019. – With a significance level under the threshold (p<0.05) we reject the Null Hypothesis. alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  13. 13. t-Test Spanish Newspaper Frames El Nuevo Herald El Sentinel 1. Political Issue 15.5% 30.3% 2. Anti-immigrant 27.3% 3.0% 3. Policy & Enforcement 8.2% 12.1% 4. Illegal/Undocumented 16.4% 6.1% 5. Reform or Stance 22.7% 33.3% 6. Worker/Laborer 0.0% 0.0% 7. Community 3.6% 3.0% 8. Immigration Status 0.9% 0.0% 9. Political Advocacy 5.5% 12.1% Total # of Articles Articles w/ Coded Words Percent Total Coded Words 20 18 90% n=110 7 7 100% n=33 • There was a significant difference in the scores for El Heraldo (M=12.2, SD= 10.8) and El Sentinel (M=3.7, SD=4.2); t(16)=2.224, p=0.049. – The low number of samples in Spanish Orlando, however, makes the reliability of this parametric test questionable. alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  14. 14. t-Test English v. Spanish Miami Miami Herald El Nuevo Herald 1. Political Issue 19.3% 15.5% 2. Anti-immigrant 17.8% 27.3% 3. Policy & Enforcement 14.1% 8.2% 4. Illegal/Undocumented 11.1% 16.4% 5. Reform or Stance 21.5% 22.7% 6. Worker/Laborer 2.2% 0.0% 7. Community 5.9% 3.6% 8. Immigration Status 3.7% 0.9% 9. Political Advocacy 4.4% 5.5% Total # of Articles Articles w/ Coded Words Percent Total Coded Words 25 18 72% n=135 20 18 90% n=110 • There was not a statistically significant difference in the scores for the Miami Herald (M=15, SD= 9.9) and El Heraldo de Miami (M=12.2, SD=10.8); t(16)=2.1199, p=0.057. – There were differences but not statistically significant ones at of 0.05 threshold. alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  15. 15. t-Test English v. Spanish Orlando Table 4. What Issue Frame is Identified by the Context? Orlando Sentinel El Sentinel 1. Political Issue 20.0% 30.3% 2. Anti-immigrant 15.6% 3.0% 3. Policy & Enforcement 4.4% 12.1% 4. Illegal/Undocumented 28.9% 6.1% 5. Reform or Stance 20.0% 33.3% 6. Worker/Laborer 0.0% 0.0% 7. Community 4.4% 3.0% 8. Immigration Status 4.4% 0.0% 9. Political Advocacy 2.2% 12.1% Total # of Articles Articles w/ Coded Words Percent Total Coded Words 9 6 66.7% n=45 7 7 100% n=33 (RQ1 Answer – Identifiable Immigration Issue Frames) • There was not a statistically significant difference in the results for the sister publications in Orlando. • The e Orlando Sentinel (M=5, SD= 4.6) and El Sentinel de Orlando (M=3.7, SD=4.2); t(16)=0.6468, p=0.053. – Small sample of Orlando Spanish articles may have skewed parametric calculations. – You don’t need a parametric test to see something is going on here. alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com
  16. 16. What does this mean? alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com • Obviously, different communities frame issues differently. • How the same news organization frames different Language communities remains a question.
  17. 17. alexavila@utexas.edu • http://alexavila.wikispaces.com A.J. “Alex” Avila PhD Candidate School of Journalism

Editor's Notes

  • When I was a producer at NPR’s Latino USA during the 2000 election, one of the stories we reported in the aftermath of the contentious 2000 presidential election was how exit polling was flawed in the state of Florida. And one of the stories that emerged from our reporting was how the voter sample was flawed in Florida due to an oversampling of Cubans in determining the Latino segment of Florida’s vote. If you’ll recall, first Gore was declared the winner in Florida, then Bush was declared the winner. Finally Florida was deemed too close to call. Getting sample right are key to accurate exit polls.
  • For some time we’ve been aware of the changing Latino demographics in Florida. Since the 1980s, the Cuban American community has dominated Latino politics in the Sunshine State.

    Cuban Americans dispersed themselves throughout the state with the largest concentration in the Miami/S. Florida region.
  • Since the 1980s, Florida has seen a remarkable increase in Puerto Rican migration, both from the NY region and the Island.

    While Cuban American’s (especially older ones) leaned to the right politically, Puerto Ricans leaned more to the left.

    By the time of the 2000 Presidential Election the state’s Latino voting patterns had changed dramatically. And pollsters learned this fact the hard way.
  • Moreover this new Latino makeup in Florida was hard to predict. The Hispanic vote favored Bush in the 2004 Presidential General Election and Obama in the 2008 Election. By 2012, Cuban voters no longer represented the mainstream of Hispanic voters in Florida. So any research into this changing and volatile voting subgroup would greatly increase our understanding of what is going on in Florida. And how to target messages here.
  • Sept. 2011 Florida GOP moves its primary to Jan. 31 from March 6 in order to position itself as the fifth state to have a primary.

    Iowa, New Hampshire, Nevada and South Carolina maintained their traditional places as the first states to have Presidential caucuses or primaries.

    During this cycle, South Carolina becomes the first state with a major African-American voting population.
    Florid becomes the first state with a major Latino population to have a Presidential Primary.
  • I decided to focus this examination in two specific locations that represented two distinct Latino communities. The Miami-Dade region has traditionally been dominated by Cuban-exile politics. Which there is a growing generational gap between Cuban exiles and native-born Cuban-Americans, other studies have demonstrated that Cuban exile politics dominate the mainstream. (Anti-Castro; pro-Embargo; pro-conservative, etc.)

    The growing Puerto Rican community around Orlando has taken a greater role in local media.
  • And so I looked at mainstream newspapers in 2 communities – Miami and Orlando. With the understanding that immigration was a hot election topic, I wanted to see how mainstream news in those communities framed immigration and whether there were significant differences in English and Spanish-language newspapers. So during the month of the Republication Presidential Primary of January 2012, I assembled all the articles that talked about the Hispanic vote or the Latino vote in the English and Spanish versions of both newspapers and looked for immigration frames. Specifically, what modifiers could be find when it came to the terms “immigration,” “immigrant,” and other variants. My sample was based on a search of articles dealing with the Latino or Hispanic vote – NOT immigration. Why? Because Framing matters. And clearly, Immigration frames were used in discussing Latino politics.
  • So, bilingual two-coders identified 323 individual cases of immigration frames used in the 4 publications and coded them into 9 areas. Generally speaking these areas represent how these newspapers frame immigration. And the details of the study are in the paper. You are also able in this table how each newspaper individually uses these frames. This looks interesting but, as an academic, we feel a need to do some statistical analysis to test if, indeed, there are significant statistical differences in how frames are used by these newspapers.
  • An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare Miami Herald issue frames (all nine of them) and Orlando Sentinel frames, assuming different variances. There was a significant difference in the scores for Miami Herald (M=15, SD=9.9) and Orlando Sentinel (M=5, SD=4.6); t(16)=2.7443, p=0.019. With a significance level under the threshold (p<0.05) we reject the Null Hypothesis. These results suggest the issue frames found in the English-language newspaper of Miami are significantly different than the issue frames of Orlando’s daily newspaper.
  • An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare Spanish-language El Heraldo de Miami issue frames (all nine of them) and El Sentinel de Orlando frames, assuming different variances. There was a significant difference in the scores for El Heraldo (M=12.2, SD= 10.8) and El Sentinel (M=3.7, SD=4.2); t(16)=2.224, p=0.049. These results suggest that the issue frames used in the Spanish-language daily of Miami were significantly different than those frames used by similar media in Orlando. The low number of samples in Spanish Orlando, however, means seven of the nine cells have values of less than five, including two blank cells, making the reliability of this parametric test questionable.
  • An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare Spanish-language El Heraldo de Miami issue frames (all nine of them) and El Sentinel de Orlando frames, assuming different variances. There was a significant difference in the scores for El Heraldo (M=12.2, SD= 10.8) and El Sentinel (M=3.7, SD=4.2); t(16)=2.224, p=0.049. These results suggest that the issue frames used in the Spanish-language daily of Miami were significantly different than those frames used by similar media in Orlando. The low number of samples in Spanish Orlando, however, means seven of the nine cells have values of less than five, including two blank cells, making the reliability of this parametric test questionable.
  • The sample size is too small to find statistical significance. But clearly something is going on. Especially 1 through 5 there are stark differences. So I label this inconclusive. A bigger n is needed. Either a larger time frame – six months as opposed to one month – or use “immigration” and its variants (not Hispanic vote or Latino vote) for the creation of the sample.
  • There seems to be a prevailing editorial framing approach unique to each mainstream community. It’s early to say this. More work to verify this is needed. But such a statement does not generally run counter to the literature at the moment.
    The same mainstream news organizations appear to tweak their frames somewhat for a different language community but not radically. In other words, not in statistically significant ways. That is a more radical statement and the case for this cannot reliably be made with this study as is. But it raises the question. And so….the question is raised.
    Logically, it makes sense to tailor your editorial approach to your audience. So this second aspect of my study I believe warrants further scrutiny.

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