Ch 9 ppt final


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Ch 9 ppt final

  1. 1. ARF: Acute Renal Failure<br />
  2. 2. What is ARF?<br />Acute renal failure is also known as (acute kidney injury)<br /> this failure means Kidney is not functioning anymore <br /> Main function of kidneys is to remove waste products and help balance water, salt and other minerals in your blood(electrolytes).<br />As a result of this failure these electrolytes build up in your body causing serious life threat.<br />
  3. 3. Three main causes<br />A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys.<br />Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections(Antibiotics, such as gentamicin and streptomycin. Pain medicines, such as aspirin and iboprufen. <br />A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys. Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a blockage.<br />
  4. 4. Symptoms<br />Little or no urine when you urinate.<br />Swelling, especially in your legs and feet. <br />Nausea and vomiting.<br />Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.<br />Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.<br />
  5. 5. UTI(Urinary tract infection)<br />the system that makes urine and carries it out of your body.<br /> has bladder and kidneys and the tubes that connect them. When germs get into this system, they can cause an infection. <br />Most UTI are bladder infection<br />If not treated on time, can cause problems to kidney<br />
  6. 6. Causes and fun-facts<br /> germs get into our system through urethra, the tube that carries urine from your bladder to the outside of your body. <br />The germs that usually cause these infections live in your large intestine and are found in your stool.<br /> If these germs get inside your urethra, they can travel up into your bladder and kidneys and cause an infection.<br />
  7. 7. Continued…fun facts<br />Women tend to get more bladder infections than men<br /> women have shorter urethras, so it is easier for the germs to move up to their bladders. <br />sex can make it easier for germs to get into your urethra.<br />
  8. 8. Symptoms<br />You feel pain or burning when you urinate.<br />You feel like you have to urinate often, but not much urine comes out when you do.<br />Your belly feels tender or heavy.<br />Your urine is cloudy or smells bad.<br />You have pain on one side of your back under your ribs. This is where your kidneys are.<br />You have fever, nausea or vomiting. <br />
  9. 9. BUN(Blood Urea Nitrogen)<br />test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea<br />Test done to see how well your kidneys are working. <br />If kidneys are not able to remove urea from the blood normally, your BUN level rises. <br /> Liver disease or damage can lower your BUN level.<br />
  10. 10. Test Procedure<br />Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.<br />Clean the needle site with alcohol.<br />Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.<br />Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.<br />Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.<br />Put a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.<br />Put pressure to the site and then a bandage.<br />
  11. 11. Normal BUN<br />Normal<br />Normal values may vary from lab to lab.<br />Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Normal: 10-20 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or 3.6-7.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L)<br /> <br />BUN-to-creatinine ratio Over 12 months of age: 10:1 to 20:1<br />Babies less than 12 months of age: Up to 30:1<br />
  12. 12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for kidney stones<br />uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into small pieces that can more easily travel through the Urinary tract and pass from the body. <br />Next is the image of ESWL…<br />
  13. 13. ESWL<br />
  14. 14. Purpose<br />ESWL may be used on people with a kidney stone that is causing pain or blocking the urine flow. <br />Stones that are between 4mm and 2cm in diameter are most likely to be treated with ESWL.<br />After ESWL, stone fragments usually pass in the urine for a few days and cause mild pain. If you have a larger stone, you may need more ESWL or other treatments<br />
  15. 15. RT(Retrograde pyelogram for kidney stones)<br />uses a dye to determine whether a Kidney stone or something else is blocking your urinary tract. <br />Why It Is Don<br />You may have a retrograde pyelogram if: <br />The IVP does not show a reason for your urinary symptoms.<br />The IVP cannot be done because of kidney problems such as Chronic kidney disease.<br />
  16. 16. Results<br />Findings of the retrograde pyelogram may include the following.<br />Normal<br />The kidneys, ureters, and bladder appear normal.<br />Abnormal<br />The flow of the dye (contrast material) is blocked, either by a stone or another urinary problem.<br />