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HYPODERMIC NEEDLEKleanthis Sotiriou
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY Alsoknown as hypodermic -syringe model of communications and referred to as the magic bullet. According to Katz and Lazarfeld (1955), the model is rooted in 1930s behaviourism and is concerned by many to be no longer exist.
KATZ AND LAZARFELD The Phrasing Hypodermic Needle is by giving the image of direct effect (embolism) messages into individuals. Two Step Flow Model (Conceptual Model ) Slide No :4
TWO STEP FLOW MODEL
BULLET THEORY VS HYPODERMIC NEEDLE The message is a bullet, fired from the "media gun" into the viewers "head". The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are injected straight into a passive audience which is immediately influenced by the message.
FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE : Speedy increase of popularized media (Radio and Television). Industries Persuasion by (Advertising and Manipulation of Public opinion) Impact of motion pictures on children (Payne Fund studies 1930s) Hitlers Nazi party ( by the monopolization of the mass media during WWII)
EXPLAINING THE TWO STEP FLOW On the previews diagram (see slide no : 4 )indicates the two step flow. The mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘shooting’ or ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response.
EXPLAINING THE TWO STEP FLOW Source Message Mass Media Opinion Leaders Public The arrow () symbolize the direction of the flow. In both diagrams also see Slide no: 4 and the image above there is a direction flow form the sender to the receiver.
LASSWELL FORMULA Says what?In what channel?To Who? whom? With what effect? The arrow () symbolize the direction of the flow.
FORMULA’S BASIC IDEAS Lasswell was primarily concerned with mass communication and the manipulation of the public opinion. The basic idea of his formula is to show us the direction which we should follow each time in all kinds of research.(control analysis, effects research and so on).
CONCLUSION The signals which are broadcasted from the Media are equal to each recipient. The Effect level differs because each of us response(react) back with different way. A similar theory that it has to be examined by having a full scale idea of these kinds of effectiveness is the rationalization theory in order to understand the previews theories. I believe that is more effective if you catch the audience unprepared.
REFERENCES Lazarsfeld, P.F., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1968). The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press. Croteau, David and William Hoynes Media/Society -- Industries, Images and Audiences London: Pine Forge Press, 1997. DeFleur, Melvin L. Theories of Mass Communication New York: Longman Inc., 1989 Lowery, Shearon and Melvin L. DeFleur Milestones in Mass Communication Research: Media Effects New York: Longman Inc., 1983. Severin, Werner J. and James W. Tankard, Jr. Communication Theories -- Origins, Methods and Uses New York: Hastings House, 1979. Watson, James and Anne Hill A Dictionary of Communication and Media Studies New York: St. Martins Press, Inc., 1997 Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. (1955), Personal Influence, New York: The Free Press. http://www.scribd.com/doc/59728312/The-Lasswell-Formula/access 28.10.11 http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Mass%20Media/Hypode rmic_Needle_Theory.doc/access 30.10.2011 http://knowfourthestate.wordpress.com/2009/02/20/laswell%E2%80%99s-theory-of- communication/access 31.10.2011 http://philipatawura.wordpress.com/2010/03/21/the-effects-of-the-hypodermic-needle- theory-of-the-media/access 31.10.2011