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Theory, text and context


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Theory, text and context

  1. 1. 14.1 Introduction: beyond the sentence 14.2 Cohesion: Repetition; Reference; Substitution; Ellipsis; Conjunction and Lexical CohesionReporter:Villaceran, Ruth Klaribelle C.BSED 3
  2. 2.  the grammatical and lexical relationship within a text or sentence. the links that hold a text together and give it meaning. It is related to the broader concept of coherence. • Coherence in linguistics is what makes a text semantically meaningful. It is especially dealt with in text linguistics. Coherence is achieved through syntactical features such as the use of deictic, anaphoric and cataphoric elements or a logical tense structure, as well as presuppositions and implications connected to general world knowledge.
  3. 3.  Two main types of cohesion: • Grammatical- referring to the structural content • Lexical- referring to the language content of the piece
  4. 4.  Aninstance of using a word, phrase, or clause more than once in a short passage- -dwelling on a point. Used deliberately, repetition can be an effective rhetorical strategy for achieving emphasis.
  5. 5.  Anadiplosis • Repetition of the last word of one line or clause to begin the next.  "My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every tongue brings in a several tale, And every tale condemns me for a villain." (William Shakespeare, Richard III)
  6. 6.  Anaphora • Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.  "I want her to live. I want her to breathe. I want her to aerobicize." (Weird Science, 1985)
  7. 7.  Antistasis • Repetition of a word in a different or contrary sense.  "A kleptomaniac is a person who helps himself because he cant help himself." (Henry Morgan)
  8. 8.  Commoratio • Emphasizing a point by repeating it several times in different words. • "Space is big. You just wont believe how vastly, hugely, mind-bogglingly big it is. I mean, you may think its a long way down the road to the chemists, but thats just peanuts to space." (Douglass Adams, The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, 1979)
  9. 9.  Diacope • Repetition broken up by one or more intervening words.  "A horse is a horse, of course, of course, And no one can talk to a horse of course That is, of course, unless the horse is the famous Mister Ed." (Theme song of 1960s TV program Mr. Ed)
  10. 10.  Epanalepsis • Repetition at the end of a clause or sentence of the word or phrase with which it began.  "Swallow, my sister, O sister swallow, How can thine heart be full of the spring?" (Algernon Charles Swinburne, "Itylus")
  11. 11.  Epimone • Frequent repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point. "And I looked upwards, and there stood a man upon the summit of the rock; and I hid myself among the water-lilies that I might discover the actions of the man. . . .
  12. 12.  Epimone (continuation)  "And the man sat upon the rock, and leaned his head upon his hand, and looked out upon the desolation. . . . And I lay close within shelter of the lilies, and observed the actions of the man. And the man trembled in the solitude;--but the night waned, and he sat upon the rock." (Edgar Allan Poe, "Silence")
  13. 13.  Epiphora • Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses.  "Shes safe, just like I promised. Shes all set to marry Norrington, just like she promised. And you get to die for her, just like you promised." (Jack Sparrow, The Pirates of the Caribbean)
  14. 14.  Epizeuxis • Repetition of a word or phrase for emphasis, usually with no words in between.  "If you think you can win, you can win." (William Hazlitt)
  15. 15.  Gradatio • A sentence construction in which the last word of one clause becomes the first of the next, through three or more clauses (an extended form of anadiplosis).  "To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on creating oneself endlessly." (Henri Bergson)
  16. 16.  Negative-Positive Restatement • A method of achieving emphasis by stating an idea twice, first in negative terms and then in positive terms.  "Color is not a human or personal reality; it is a political reality." (James Baldwin)
  17. 17.  Ploce • Repetition of a word with a new or specified sense, or with pregnant reference to its special significance.  "If it wasnt in Vogue, it wasnt in vogue." (promotional slogan for Vogue magazine)
  18. 18.  Polyptoton • Repetition of words derived from the same root but with different endings.  "I hear the voices, and I read the front page, and I know the speculation. But Im the decider, and I decide what is best." (George W. Bush, April 2006)
  19. 19.  Symploce • Repetition of words or phrases at both the beginning and end of successive clauses or verses: a combination of anaphora and epiphora.
  20. 20.  Symploce (continuation)  "They are not paid for thinking--they are not paid to fret about the worlds concerns. They were not respectable people--they were not worthy people--they were not learned and wise and brilliant people--but in their breasts, all their stupid lives long, resteth a peace that passeth understanding!" (Mark Twain, The Innocents Abroad, 1869)
  21. 21.  Thereare two referential devices that can create cohesion: • Anaphoric reference occurs when the writer refers back to someone or something that has been previously identified, to avoid repetition. Some examples: replacing "the taxi driver" with the pronoun "he" or "two girls" with "they". Another example can be found in formulas such as "as stated previously" or "the aforementioned".
  22. 22.  Themonkey took the banana and ate it. Pam went home because she felt sick.
  23. 23.  What is this? The dog ate the bird and it died. I went home to take a nap because I thought it would make the headache go away.
  24. 24.  Thereare two referential devices that can create cohesion: • Cataphoric reference is the opposite of anaphora: a reference forward as opposed to backward in the discourse. Something is introduced in the abstract before it is identified. For example: "Here he comes, our award-winning host... its John Doe!" Cataphoric references can also be found in written text, for example "see page 10".
  25. 25.  If you want some, heres some parmesan cheese. After he had received his orders, the soldier left the barracks. If you want them, there are cookies in the kitchen. Hes the biggest slob I know. Hes really stupid. Hes so cruel. Hes my boyfriend Nick.
  26. 26.  Thereis one more referential device which cannot create cohesion: • Exophoric reference is used to describe generics or abstracts without ever identifying them: e.g. rather than introduce a concept, the writer refers to it by a generic word such as "everything". The prefix "exo" means "outside", and the persons or events referred to in this manner will never be identified by the writer.
  27. 27. A word is not omitted, as in ellipsis, but is substituted for another, more general word. • Example: • "Which ice-cream would you like?" – "I would like the pink one" where "one" is used instead of repeating "ice-cream."
  28. 28.  Ellipsis is another cohesive device. It happens when, after a more specific mention, words are omitted when the phrase needs to be repeated.
  29. 29. A simple conversational example: • (A) Where are you going? • (B) To town. Thefull form of Bs reply would be: "I am going to town".
  30. 30. A simple written example: • The younger child was very outgoing, the older much more reserved. The omitted words from the second clause are "child" and "was".
  31. 31.  sets up a relationship between two clauses. the most basic but least cohesive is the conjunction and. transitions are conjunctions that add cohesion to text and include then, however, in fact, and consequently. can also be implicit and deduced from correctly interpreting the text.
  32. 32. a linguistic device which helps to create unity of text and discourse. In contrast to grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion “[…] is the cohesive effect achieved by the selection of vocabulary.” (Halliday 1994).
  33. 33.  Repetition- sometimes called reiteration, is the most direct and obvious source of lexical cohesion since it is the mere identical recurrence of a preceding lexical item. Synonymy- refers to “[…] the fact of two or more words or expressions having the same meaning.” In this case, “[…] lexical cohesion results from the choice of a lexical item that is in some sense synonymous with a preceding one […]” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 331).
  34. 34.  (a) with identity of reference: Here, lexical cohesion is established by synonyms in the narrower sense on the one hand and superordinates on the other hand, both types referring back to the same entity. • Example: I heard a sound, but I couldn’t figure out where that noise came from. -> Noise refers back to sound. Both terms have the same level of generality and are therefore synonyms in the narrower sense.
  35. 35. • (b) without identity of reference: In this case, a lexical item that synonymously refers back to a preceding one is not of the same entity. • Example: Why does this little boy have to wriggle all the time? Good boys don’t wriggle.
  36. 36.  Hyponymy: Describes a “specific-general” relationship between lexical items. • Example: Then they began to meet vegetation – prickly cactus-like plants and coarse grass… . -> Plants and grass are specific parts of vegetation and therefore altogether form a cohesive relationship.
  37. 37.  Meronymy: Describes a “part-whole” relationship between lexical items. • Example: She knelt down and looked along the passage into the loveliest garden you ever saw. How she longed to […] wander about among those beds of bright flowers and those cool fountains, […]. -> Flowers and Fountains are typical parts of a garden and therefore altogether form a cohesive relationship.
  38. 38.  3. Antonymy: Describes a relationship between lexical items that have opposite meanings. • Example: He fell asleep. What woke him was a loud crash. -> Asleep and woke are antonyms and therefore form a cohesive relationship
  39. 39.  Collocation-“[…] a natural combination of words; it refers to the way English words are closely associated with each other.” (2005: 4). it is the tendency of at least two lexical items to co-occur frequently in a language. can serve as a source of lexical cohesion since it is “[…] one of the factors on which we build our expectations of what is to come next.” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 333).