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Natural fertilization of human

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fertilization is a complex process of sperm meeting the ova and preparing the embryo which will grow as a baby

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Natural fertilization of human

  1. 1. Deblina Roy M.Sc. Nursing 1st year Student K.G.M.U Institute of Nursing FERTILIZATION
  2. 2. Fertilization refers to the fusion of the egg (ovum) and sperm and usually takes place in the upper third of the fallopian tubes. NATURAL FERTILIZATION NIH, 2009 Visual by www.PDImages.com
  3. 3. NATURAL FERTILIZATION:VIDEO
  4. 4. Once a month, a woman releases an egg during the process of ovulation, which is part of the menstrual cycle. Ovulation is triggered by the release of two hormones by the pituitary gland (a gland of the endocrine/hormonal system) and usually occurs during day 14 of an average 28-day cycle. In humans, the fertile phase, or time during which a woman can become pregnant, occurs during the few days near ovulation.
  5. 5. Once a month, a woman releases an egg during the process of ovulation, which is part of the menstrual cycle. Ovulation is triggered by the release of two hormones by the pituitary gland (a gland of the endocrine/hormonal system) and usually occurs during day 14 of an average 28-day cycle. In humans, the fertile phase, or time during which a woman can become pregnant, occurs during the few days near ovulation. D. Wu, 2007
  6. 6. Following intercourse during this fertile phase, millions of sperm travel from the vagina to the uterus and into the fallopian tubes. Several thousand sperm reach the egg and one will fertilize it. When the sperm fuses with the egg it initiates a series of chemical changes that prevent any other sperm from entering. Mariana Ruiz Villarreal, 2008 Adapted by TutorVista.com from Grey’s Anatomy
  7. 7. As early as 12 hours after fertilization you can see the two bundles of genetic material (two pronuclei), one from each parent. By 18-20 hours after fertilization, these pronuclei fuse, and what starts out as two cells becomes one (called a zygote)
  8. 8. As the zygote travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus, it begins a series of cell divisions: © 2001 Terese Winslow, U.S. Govt. has certain rights
  9. 9. On day 2, the zygote has divided into two identical cells. At this stage it is called a 2-cell embryo.
  10. 10. And then into four identical cells (also on day 2)
  11. 11. By day 3, each of those four cells has divided again, making eight identical cells. This is the early morula (“berry-like” shape).
  12. 12. The morula undergoes several more cell divisions (16, 32, 64-cells) and the individual cells are now indistinct.
  13. 13. On day 5 fluid builds up inside the ball of cells making it hollow. This is the blastocyst. The embryonic stem cells clump together inside the blastocyst. The trophoblast will become the placenta. embryonic stem cells trophoblast
  14. 14. •Between days 6 and 14, implantation (the adhering of the blastocyst to the wall of the uterus) occurs. •The placenta also begins to form. •At this stage, there are no more embryonic stem cells. Wikimedia Commons, 2007
  15. 15. • Between days 14 through 21, neurulation – the beginning of future nervous system – takes place. • By day 24, the beginnings of the future face, neck, mouth, and nose occur. Gray’s Anatomy, 1918 (not the show!) ’
  16. 16. • Organogenesis, or organ formation, occurs during weeks 3 through 8. The primitive heart starts beating at 4 weeks. • By week 8 the developing embryo has become a FETUS (although definitions of this timepoint vary, up to 10 weeks). 5 weeks 7 weeks Images by Ed Uthman, MD
  17. 17. •At 20 weeks, the fetus is roughly 11 inches long and weighs about 1 lb 10 oz. •It can suck its thumb, yawn and stretch. •The mother can now feel it moving (called “quickening”).
  18. 18. A full-term pregnancy lasts 9 months, or 38 weeks. After 22 weeks the fetus is considered viable. This means it could survive outside the uterus if there is a premature birth. BIRTH Thomas Hartwell, 2004
  19. 19. QUESTIONS???
  20. 20. • What is implantation? • How does a morula look like? ASSIGNMENT
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fertilization is a complex process of sperm meeting the ova and preparing the embryo which will grow as a baby

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