Do foreign authors strengthen South
Korea’s national research system?
National and international dynamics in Korea’sTriple...
Contents
 Introduction
 Scientific Advancement through International
Collaboration
 Development of Korean Science Syste...
Introduction
 The globalisation of science (Altbach, 2009)
 Triple Helix perspective of U-I-G relations (Etzkowitz &
Ley...
Scientific Advancement through
international collaboration
 Research collaboration is important for scientific
productivi...
Development of Korean Science System and
the Role of Overseas Actors
 At the early catch-up stage, as other developing co...
Methods
Methods
Data
 The data were collected using the Web of Science
provided by the ISI of Thomson-Reuters.
 The dataset consists of ...
Data
Figure 2: Number of publications by domestic actors with foreign actors in Korea
- As high-quality academic research ...
Results
Figure 3: Mutual information in trilateral domestic TH relations in Korea
-The longitudinal trend shows the reduct...
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
T(uig)inmbitsofinformation
T(uig)
2-year moving average
...
Results
Figure 4: Mutual relations between university, industry, government, and overseas actors
in the domain of articles...
Results
Figure 5: The mutual information in three and four dimensions among Korean articles
- The TH dynamics of UIGF rela...
Conclusions
 The significance of international authors in the national
TH system is growing due to changes in the knowled...
Conclusions
 The Korean government has sought to strengthen the
national research system in order to narrow the wide
gap ...
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Kwon do foreign authors strengthen south korea’s national research

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  • The networked knowledge infrastructure can be measured in terms of a Triple-Helix of University-Industry-Government relations. (e.g. papers, patents, and wed data)
  • In the internationalisation period, the collaboration with foreign co-authors integrated into national research system, which resulted the reduction of uncertainty.
    Therefore, in this period, policy measures considering international science system are needed to be implemented.
    Only u-i-f eroded in this period. This is not due to bilateral relations (UF and IF), but is becuuse synergy no longer exists in these relations at the national level.
    This is different in the 1990s
  • In the following analysis, we will extend the time span to 2009, then we hope to investigate the very recent effect of governmental programmes focusing on international research cooperation and co-authorship.
  • Kwon do foreign authors strengthen south korea’s national research

    1. 1. Do foreign authors strengthen South Korea’s national research system? National and international dynamics in Korea’sTriple Helix of scientific co-authorship relations 22nd October, 2010 Ki-Seok Kwon, Han Woo Park, Min-Ho So, and Loet Leydesdorff The 8th Triple Helix Conference, 20th to 22nd October 2010 in Madrid, Spain
    2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Scientific Advancement through International Collaboration  Development of Korean Science System and the role of Overseas Actors  Data and Methods  Results and Discussions  Conclusions
    3. 3. Introduction  The globalisation of science (Altbach, 2009)  Triple Helix perspective of U-I-G relations (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 2000)  Emerging role of overseas researchers in Japanese national innovation system (Leydesdorff & Sun, 2009)  Rare research on the role of international cooperation in the development of science system experienced rapid catch-up (e.g. Korea and Taiwan), particularly, empirical investigation on international co-authorship  Research question: do foreign authors strengthen South Korea’s national research system?
    4. 4. Scientific Advancement through international collaboration  Research collaboration is important for scientific productivity (Ramsden, 1994, Lee & Bozeman, 2005; Adams et al., 2005).  In particular, many studies shows that international collaboration is a good predictor for academic excellence (Bordons et al., 1996; Van Raan, 1998; Smeby & Try, 2005; Abramo et al., 2009; Shin & Cummings; 2010).  The development of national science system may be related to international research collaboration (particularly, in a country with a rapid catch-up experience such as Korea) (e.g. Albuquerque, 2001).
    5. 5. Development of Korean Science System and the Role of Overseas Actors  At the early catch-up stage, as other developing countries, the main roles of the Korean academic system were limited to education. The US institutions have been the main actors providing highly-qualified researchers until now.  In terms of research activities, due to various government policy efforts, the university system expanded in the 1980s, and academic research was revitalized in the 1990s.  In particular, after economic crisis in 1997 in Korea accelerated the internationalisation . Moreover, participation in international research projects (e.g. HGP) has been started.  Very Recently, the government has strongly encouraged high- quality cooperative research at the international level through WCU (World Class University) and WCI (World Class Institute) programmes inviting prestigious international scholars.
    6. 6. Methods
    7. 7. Methods
    8. 8. Data  The data were collected using the Web of Science provided by the ISI of Thomson-Reuters.  The dataset consists of 189,460 papers with at least one Korean address were published in the ISI databases during 1968–2006. Figure 1: Number of publications by domestic and foreign actors in Korea
    9. 9. Data Figure 2: Number of publications by domestic actors with foreign actors in Korea - As high-quality academic research was encouraged in the late 1990s, the publications with overseas actors increased steadily - After a decrease in the mid-1990s, the share of papers co-authored with overseas actors grew from 21% in 1996 to 26% in 2006
    10. 10. Results Figure 3: Mutual information in trilateral domestic TH relations in Korea -The longitudinal trend shows the reduction of uncertainty among U, I and G in the Korean publication system between 1970 and 1990 - Mutual information among the three actors was relatively stable during the early 1990s, but decreased during the last ten years
    11. 11. -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 T(uig)inmbitsofinformation T(uig) 2-year moving average dictatorship democratizationliberalization globalization The trend line shows that the TH dynamics of UIG relations have varied considerably; this variation generally accords with changes in Korean government research policies (For details, see Park and Leydesdorff, 2009)
    12. 12. Results Figure 4: Mutual relations between university, industry, government, and overseas actors in the domain of articles with Korean addresses -The trend line shows that mutual information in bilateral relations between university and foreign sectors has been in rapidly increasing since 1990 - Government-foreign research collaboration (Tgf) is the second strongest, followed by industry-foreign relations (Tif) in the last decade
    13. 13. Results Figure 5: The mutual information in three and four dimensions among Korean articles - The TH dynamics of UIGF relations varied considerably until the mid-1980s - Tuigf began to increase in 1987, but remained increasingly stable during the 1990s - However, there was some reduction of uncertainty among 4 actors during the mid-1990s - Overall, the system has been stable since 2001
    14. 14. Conclusions  The significance of international authors in the national TH system is growing due to changes in the knowledge environment. The interdependencies of complex technological changes and advances in scientific disciplines are rapidly increasing, and a competitive advantage can be secured through cooperative partnerships.  The findings of this research show that the effectiveness of national research capability can be boosted beyond the three national helices by including international relations into the perspective, and new developments can be driven at the network level.
    15. 15. Conclusions  The Korean government has sought to strengthen the national research system in order to narrow the wide gap separating it from Western countries after the mid- 90s. This encouraged academics to publish internationally.  However, the government has comparatively neglected public interventions in fostering knowledge-based innovation capacities at the international level.  Very recently, a few policy measures in this line can be found in governmental programmes (e.g. WCU and WCI). However, more systematic efforts (e.g. encouragement of international research collaboration attracting foreign authors) are required in order to strengthen the national science system with regard to international system.

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