The networked knowledge infrastructure can be measured in terms of a Triple-Helix of University-Industry-Government relations. (e.g. papers, patents, and wed data)
In the internationalisation period, the collaboration with foreign co-authors integrated into national research system, which resulted the reduction of uncertainty. Therefore, in this period, policy measures considering international science system are needed to be implemented. Only u-i-f eroded in this period. This is not due to bilateral relations (UF and IF), but is becuuse synergy no longer exists in these relations at the national level. This is different in the 1990s
In the following analysis, we will extend the time span to 2009, then we hope to investigate the very recent effect of governmental programmes focusing on international research cooperation and co-authorship.
Kwon do foreign authors strengthen south korea’s national research
Do foreign authors strengthen South
Korea’s national research system?
National and international dynamics in Korea’sTriple Helix of
scientific co-authorship relations
Ki-Seok Kwon, Han Woo Park, Min-Ho So, and Loet Leydesdorff
Triple Helix Conference, 20th to 22nd October 2010 in Madrid, Spain
Scientific Advancement through International
Development of Korean Science System and the role of
Data and Methods
Results and Discussions
The globalisation of science (Altbach, 2009)
Triple Helix perspective of U-I-G relations (Etzkowitz &
Emerging role of overseas researchers in Japanese
national innovation system (Leydesdorff & Sun, 2009)
Rare research on the role of international cooperation in
the development of science system experienced rapid
catch-up (e.g. Korea and Taiwan), particularly, empirical
investigation on international co-authorship
Research question: do foreign authors strengthen South
Korea’s national research system?
Scientific Advancement through
Research collaboration is important for scientific
productivity (Ramsden, 1994, Lee & Bozeman, 2005;
Adams et al., 2005).
In particular, many studies shows that international
collaboration is a good predictor for academic excellence
(Bordons et al., 1996; Van Raan, 1998; Smeby & Try,
2005; Abramo et al., 2009; Shin & Cummings; 2010).
The development of national science system may be
related to international research collaboration
(particularly, in a country with a rapid catch-up
experience such as Korea) (e.g. Albuquerque, 2001).
Development of Korean Science System and
the Role of Overseas Actors
At the early catch-up stage, as other developing countries, the
main roles of the Korean academic system were limited to
education. The US institutions have been the main actors
providing highly-qualified researchers until now.
In terms of research activities, due to various government policy
efforts, the university system expanded in the 1980s, and
academic research was revitalized in the 1990s.
In particular, after economic crisis in 1997 in Korea accelerated
the internationalisation . Moreover, participation in international
research projects (e.g. HGP) has been started.
Very Recently, the government has strongly encouraged high-
quality cooperative research at the international level through
WCU (World Class University) and WCI (World Class
Institute) programmes inviting prestigious international scholars.
The data were collected using the Web of Science
provided by the ISI of Thomson-Reuters.
The dataset consists of 189,460 papers with at least one
Korean address were published in the ISI databases
Figure 1: Number
of publications by
foreign actors in
Figure 2: Number of publications by domestic actors with foreign actors in Korea
- As high-quality academic research was encouraged in the late 1990s, the
publications with overseas actors increased steadily
- After a decrease in the mid-1990s, the share of papers co-authored with
overseas actors grew from 21% in 1996 to 26% in 2006
Figure 3: Mutual information in trilateral domestic TH relations in Korea
-The longitudinal trend shows the reduction of uncertainty among U, I and G in the
Korean publication system between 1970 and 1990
- Mutual information among the three actors was relatively stable during the early
1990s, but decreased during the last ten years
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
2-year moving average
The trend line shows that the TH dynamics of UIG relations have varied
considerably; this variation generally accords with changes in Korean government
research policies (For details, see Park and Leydesdorff, 2009)
Figure 4: Mutual relations between university, industry, government, and overseas actors
in the domain of articles with Korean addresses
-The trend line shows that mutual information in bilateral relations between
university and foreign sectors has been in rapidly increasing since 1990
- Government-foreign research collaboration (Tgf) is the second strongest, followed
by industry-foreign relations (Tif) in the last decade
Figure 5: The mutual information in three and four dimensions among Korean articles
- The TH dynamics of UIGF relations varied considerably until the mid-1980s
- Tuigf began to increase in 1987, but remained increasingly stable during the 1990s
- However, there was some reduction of uncertainty among 4 actors during the mid-1990s
- Overall, the system has been stable since 2001
The significance of international authors in the national
TH system is growing due to changes in the knowledge
environment. The interdependencies of complex
technological changes and advances in scientific disciplines
are rapidly increasing, and a competitive advantage can be
secured through cooperative partnerships.
The findings of this research show that the effectiveness
of national research capability can be boosted beyond the
three national helices by including international relations
into the perspective, and new developments can be
driven at the network level.
The Korean government has sought to strengthen the
national research system in order to narrow the wide
gap separating it from Western countries after the mid-
90s. This encouraged academics to publish
However, the government has comparatively neglected
public interventions in fostering knowledge-based
innovation capacities at the international level.
Very recently, a few policy measures in this line can be
found in governmental programmes (e.g. WCU and
WCI). However, more systematic efforts (e.g.
encouragement of international research collaboration
attracting foreign authors) are required in order to
strengthen the national science system with regard to