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Transmission Media

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Here is a presentation about transmission medias used in Data communication.
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Transmission Media

  1. 1. TRANSMISSION MEDIA
  2. 2. Transmission Media  In communication process Transmission media is a pathway that carries the information from sender to receiver end.  Different types of cables or waves are used to transmit data.  Data is transmitted normally through electrical or electromagnetic signals.
  3. 3. Description  Transmission media are located below the physical layer of the transmission protocol.  Computers use signals to represent data.  Signals are transmitted in form of electromagnetic energy.
  4. 4. Classification
  5. 5. TWISTED PAIR CABLE Advantages Disadvantages  A twisted pair consists of two conductors wrapped together in a double helix.  Basically copper based, with its own plastic insulation, twisted together.  Special CAT5 and CAT6 cables are used in LANs, called Ethernet cable.  This type of cable consists of a special jacket to block external interference. Description Types
  6. 6. Advantages Disadvantages TWISTED PAIR CABLE Types Description  Such cables are cheap and easily available.  Easy to install and maintain.  Physically flexible and low weight.  Easy to connection tools.
  7. 7. Advantages Disadvantages Description Due to high attenuation , it is unable to carry signals for long distance. Low bandwidth makes it unsuitable for broadband applications Data transfer speed can be from 1 Mbps to 10 Mbps. TWISTED PAIR CABLE Types
  8. 8. Advantages Disadvantages Description TWISTED PAIR CABLE Types Unshielded twisted wired cable Shielded twisted wired cable
  9. 9. Types Advantages Description UNSHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (UTP) Disadvantages Connector  Pair of unshielded wires wound around each other.  Used as copper telephone wires.  Telephone subscribers connect to the central telephone office.  Used in DSL lines  LAN – 10Mbps to 100Mbps
  10. 10. Types Advantages Description UNSHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (UTP) Disadvantages Connector
  11. 11. Types Advantages Description UNSHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (UTP) Disadvantages Connector Cat 6 Cat 5e Cat 5 Cat 4 Cat 3 Cat 1 Cat 7 Cat 2 UTP Cat means category according to IEEE standards. 15
  12. 12. Types Advantages Description UNSHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (UTP) Disadvantages  Smaller in size, hence installation is easier.  Less expensive compared to other media.  Thin and flexible .  Used in various networking architecture. Connector
  13. 13. Types Advantages Description UNSHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (UTP) Disadvantages Connector Most susceptible to interference compare to most of the cables. Used to cable segment lengths of about 100meters only. UTP cable follows specifications for number of twists or braids permitted per meter to reduce crosstalk..
  14. 14. Types Advantages Description SHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (STP) Disadvantages Connector  Pair of wires wound around each other placed inside a protective foil wrap  Metal braid or sheath foil that reduces interference  Harder to handle (thick, heavy)  STP is used in IBM token ring networks.  Higher transmission rates over longer distances.
  15. 15. Types Advantages Description SHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (STP) Disadvantages Connector
  16. 16. Types Advantages Description SHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (STP) Disadvantages Connector Foil shield consists of an Aluminum foil that is wrapped around all of the twisted pairs as an "overall foil shield" or it may be used around each individual pair of wires as "each pair shielded". Braid shield commonly refers to a "tinned copper braid" as an overall shield for all of the twisted pairs in the cable.
  17. 17. Types Advantages Description SHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (STP) Disadvantages Connector Shielding reduces chances of crosstalk and provides protection from interference. Better electrical characteristics over unshielded. It can be easily terminated with a modular connector
  18. 18. Types Advantages Description SHEILDED TWISTED PAIR CABLE (STP) Disadvantages Connector  More expensive than UTP  High attenuation rate, they must me grounded properly otherwise they act as antenna and picks unwanted signals.  Thicker and not flexible.  Due to thickness, difficult to install then UTP.
  19. 19. Categories Advantages Description CO-AXIAL CABLE Disadvantages Connectors  Co-axial cable carries signal of higher frequency ranges than twisted pair cable.  Inner conductor is a solid wire  Outer conductor serves as a shield against noise and a second conductor Applications
  20. 20. Categories Advantages Description CO-AXIAL CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications Coaxial cables are categorized by Radio Government (RG) ratings.
  21. 21. Categories Advantages Description CO-AXIAL CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  BNC Connector is used at the end of the cable to a device. Example: TV set conenction  BNC T connector used to Ethernet networks to branch out connection to computer or other devices.  BNC terminator is used at the end of the cable to prevent the reflection of the signal. BNC Connectors – Bayone Neil Concelman
  22. 22. Categories Advantages Description CO-AXIAL CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  Most versatile medium then Twisted pair.  Appropriate for cable television distribution.  Long distance telephone transmission.  Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously.  Used in Local area networks(LANS).
  23. 23. Categories Advantages Description CO-AXIAL CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  Offers higher bandwidths-upto 400 MBPS.  Can be used as shared cable network.  Easy to expand when required.  Moderate to electromagnetic Interference.  Immune to noise due to better shielding.
  24. 24. Categories Advantages Description CO-AXIAL CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  Expensive compared to twisted pair cables.  Difficult to install at distance due to stiffness and thickness.
  25. 25. Cable Advantages Description OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  Optical fiber is the technology associated with data transmission using light pulses traveling along with a long fiber which is usually made of plastic or glass.  Metal wires are preferred for transmission in optical fiber communication as signals travel with fewer damages.  Optical fibers are also unaffected by electromagnetic interference.  The fiber optical cable uses the application of total internal reflection of light.
  26. 26. Cable Advantages Description OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Disadvantages Types Applications
  27. 27. Categories Advantages Description OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Disadvantages Types Applications The types of optical fibers depend on the refractive index, materials used and mode of propagation of light.  Classification based on the refractive index : •Step Index Fibers: It consists of a core surrounded by the cladding which has a single uniform index of refraction. •Graded Index Fibers: The refractive index of the optical fiber decreases as the radial distance from the fiber axis increases.  The classification based on the materials : •Plastic Optical Fibers: The polymethyl methacrylate is used as a core material for the transmission of the light. •Glass Fibers: It consists of extremely fine glass fibers.  The classification based on the mode of propagation of light: •Single Mode Fibers: These fibers are used for long-distance transmission of signals. •Multimode Fibers: These fibers are used for short-distance transmission of signals.
  28. 28. Categories Advantages Description OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Disadvantages Types Applications  Telecommunications  Local Area Networks  Can handle several channels. e.g. Cable TV, graphics, telescope etc.  CCTV  Medical Education
  29. 29. Categories Advantages Description OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  Greater capacity.  Example: Data rates at 100 Gbps  Smaller size & light weight.  Lower attenuation.  Electromagnetic isolation.  More resistance to corrosive materials.  Greater repeater spacing facility. Example: After every 10s of km at least
  30. 30. Categories Advantages Description OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Disadvantages Connectors Applications  Installation and maintenance need expertise.  Only Unidirectional light propagation.  Much more expensive.
  31. 31. Description  An unguided transmission transmits the electromagnetic waves without using any physical medium. Therefore it is also known as wireless transmission.  Air is the media through which the electromagnetic energy can flow easily.  Electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from 3 kHz to 900 THz, used for wireless communication. UNGUIDED/WIRELESS MEDIA Types Propagation Modes
  32. 32. Description UNGUIDED/WIRELESS MEDIA Types Propagation Modes Unguided signals can travel from the source to the destination in several ways: Ground propagation: Radio waves travel through the lowest portion of the atmosphere, hugging the Earth. Spread around and form curvature. Sky propagation :Higher-frequency radio waves radiate upward into the ionosphere where they are reflected back to Earth. Line-of-sight propagation :very high-frequency signals are transmitted in straight lines directly from antenna to antenna.
  33. 33. Description UNGUIDED/WIRELESS MEDIA Types Propagation Modes 1.Radio waves 2.Micro waves 3.Infrared waves
  34. 34. Description RADIO WAVES Advantages Applications  Radio waves are the electromagnetic waves that are transmitted in all the directions of free space.  Radio waves are omnidirectional, i.e., the signals are propagated in all the directions.  The range in frequencies of radio waves is from 3 Khz to 1 GHz.  In the case of radio waves, the sending and receiving antenna are not aligned, i.e., the wave sent by the sending antenna can be received by any receiving antenna.  An example of the radio wave is FM radio. Disadvantages
  35. 35. Description RADIO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages  A Radio wave is useful for multicasting when there is one sender and many receivers.  An FM radio, television, cordless phones are examples of a radio wave.
  36. 36. Description RADIO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages  Radio transmission is mainly used for wide area networks and mobile cellular phones.  Radio waves cover a large area, and they can penetrate the walls.  Radio transmission provides a higher transmission rate.
  37. 37. Description RADIO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages It is a very insecure communication. Propagation is susceptible to weather effects like rains, thunder storms.
  38. 38. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages It is a line of sight transmission i.e. the sending and receiving antennas need to be properly aligned with each other. The distance covered by the signal is directly proportional to the height of the antenna.  Frequency Range:1GHz – 300GHz. Types
  39. 39. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages  These are majorly used for mobile phone communication.  These are also used radio and television signals for long distance communication.  Satellite commination is special type of microwave relay system.  It provides voice, fax, data and video services as well as email, file transfer, WWW internet applications. Types
  40. 40. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages It is cheaper than cables and hardware required to establish connections. Offers freedom from land acquisition rights, repairing cables. Offers ease of communication over different terrain. It has ability to communicate over oceans. Used for long distance telephone communication Carries 1000's of voice channels at the same time Types
  41. 41. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages Types Cost of design, implementation, and maintenance of microwave are high. Insecure communication. Signals may scatter to different path then receiver. Microwave signals are susceptible to weather effect like rains, thunder storms etc. Bandwidth allocation is extremely limited.
  42. 42. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages Types There are 2 types of Microwave Transmission : 1.Terrestrial Microwave 2.Satellite Microwave
  43. 43. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages Types Terrestrial Microwave:  Terrestrial microwave transmission are sent between two microwave stations on earth.  It is the most common form of long distance communication.  For increasing the distance served by terrestrial microwave, repeaters can be installed with each antenna . It is an example of telephone systems all over the world
  44. 44. Description MICRO WAVES Advantages Applications Disadvantages Types Satellite Microwave:  A communication satellite is a microwave relay station.  Used to link two or more ground stations, consist of satellite dish which acts as an antenna and communication equipment to transmit and receive data from satellite passing overhead.  Large area is covered moreover intercontinental.
  45. 45. Description INFRA RED Advantages Applications Disadvantages Infrared transmission refers to energy in the region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum at wavelength longer than those of visible light, but shorter than radio and micro waves. Wavelength is given in microns(µ,1µ=10-6 meter)
  46. 46. Description INFRA RED Advantages Applications Disadvantages  Used in various wireless communications, monitoring and controlling applications.  Home entertainment remote control boxes, wireless LANs, cordless devices, Intrusion detectors, motion detectors.  Medical diagnostic equipment.  Missile guidance system, geological monitoring systems etc.
  47. 47. Description INFRA RED Advantages Applications Disadvantages Provides secure communication due to line-of-sight are point t point mode communication. Battery used for long duration due to less power consumption. Faster response time.
  48. 48. Description INFRA RED Advantages Applications Disadvantages Work well in room but can’t penetrate walls. Has high power can damage eyes. In monitoring and controlling can control one device at a time and requires line of sight between transmitter and receiver. It supports lower data transmission over wired transmission.
  49. 49. Other Unguided Media Laser Transmission Bluetooth  The laser transmission requires laser transmitter and a photo-sensitive receiver at each end.  Requires direct line-of-sigth , typically used between two buildings.  It is unidirectional like microwave, but has much higher speed.  Affected by weather conditions.
  50. 50. Other Unguided Media Laser Transmission Bluetooth  Bluetooth is a type of wireless communication used to transmit voice and data at high speeds using radio waves.  Every dive needs a small microchip that can send both voice and data signals.  Electronic devices like mobile phones, computers, entertainments systems, pagers etc. can be connected under 10 meters range, data transfer rate in 2 Mbps.  This technology is named after king of Denmark “ Harold Bluetooth” who identified signals of 2,5GHz frequency band.

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