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- 1. CONTENT Introduction Principle Basic Gates Integrated circuit logic chips Conclusion Bibliography
- 2. (d) THE NAND GATE is a combination of the digital logic AND gate with that of an inverter or NOT gate connected together in series. The NAND gate has two inputs and one output. The logic gate of NAND gate with A and B input and Y as its output is shown below:
- 3. Integrated circuit logic chips These chips are from the 74xxx series .These chips come in a package known as DIP (Dual In-line Package) because the plastic container has two parallel rows of pins to connect the inner circuits to a circuit board. Inside the package are networks of transistors designed to perform a wide variety of functions. Each chip is labeled with a number which indicates what the function of the chip is. Pin 1 is marked by a small circular indent or U-shaped indents at one end of the chip, the remaining pins are numberedcounterclockwise around the chip. The 7400 chip, for example, contains four 2-input NAND gates, but chips are available with all types of logic gates. They are still in use today in electronic devices where the power of a complete microprocessor is not needed.
- 4. The 74xxx series of chips use bipolar transistors in a type of circuit known as Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). While MOS and CMOS technologies are more compact and energy efficient than TTL, they are easily damagedby static electricity. TTL circuits operate with 9 Volts DC power. Each chip must have the common or negative connected to the Ground (GND) pin, and +9 volts connected to the pin marked Vcc (Common Collector Voltage). The IC used here is the logic gates 7400 chip which contains four 2-input NAND gates.
- 5. AIM: To design and simulate the OR, NAND, AND gate circuits. COMPONENTS: Integrated circuits of the required gates, led, resistance, wire, bread board. THEORY AND CONSTRUCTION: A gate can be realized by the electronic circuit, making use of the integrated circuits. 1. To protect the IC, the voltage was limited to 9 volts. A Voltage Regulator chip (7805) in the breadboard was installed. A red lead (+) from the battery clip to pin 1 and the black lead (-) to pin 2 were connected. A wire from pin 3 on the regulator was connected to the positive rail on the breadboard, and the other from pin 2 to the negative (or ground) rail. 2. The required IC was plugged into the board so that it straddles the centre divider.
- 6. 3. Two wires were inserted so that pin 7 is connected to the negative rail, and pin 14 is connected to the positive rail. 4. A 220 ohm resistor was connected from pin 6 on the 7400 chip to the anode of the LED. The cathode of the LED must be connected to ground to complete the circuit. 5. Pin 4 and pin 5 were grounded. 6. Now, the electric current through a battery or through a bridge rectifier was supplied to check the logic gates.
- 7. THE OR GATE: The following interferencecan be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit is: a) If switch A & B are open lamp do not glow (A=0, B=0), hence Y=0. b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1. c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0) Lamp glow, hence Y=1. d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1. TRUTH TABLE: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
- 8. THE AND GATE The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0, B=0) then lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. c) If switch A open & B closed (A=0, B=1) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. d) If switch A & B both closed (A=1, B=1) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1. TRUTH TABLE: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
- 9. THE NOR GATE: The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: a) If Switch A & B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1. b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. c) If Switch A open& B close (A=0, B=1) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. TRUTH TABLE: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
- 10. THE NAND GATE: The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: a) If Switch A& B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1. b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1. c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0) Lamp glow, hence Y=1. d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0. TRUTH TABLE: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0
- 11. Conclusion: Hence the logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR were verified.
- 12. Bibliography: www.icbse.com PHYSICS NCERT textbook SUMITRA ARORA C++ Google Wikipedia

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