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Renaissance City - Florence

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Florence, capital of Italy’s Tuscany region, is home to many masterpieces of Renaissance art and architecture. One of its most iconic sights is the Duomo, a cathedral with a terracotta-tiled dome engineered by Brunelleschi and a bell tower by Giotto.

This presentation discusses the timeline and evolution of Florence, both culturally and in terms of the size of the city.

Published in: Education
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Renaissance City - Florence

  1. 1. Florence A Renaissance City Arthi Deivanai RM | Kirthi Balakrishnan
  2. 2. “The activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world, is called Renaissance.” According dictiorary.com
  3. 3. Cities of the Italian Renaissance Milan The earliest settlement on the site of Milan was founded by the Gauls about 600 BC, and in ensuing centuries it became the capital of a Celtic tribe known as the Insubres. The emperor Charles V in 1540 invested his son—the future Philip II of Spain—with the duchy of Milan. Under Spanish rule—which was to last until 1706—the political and artistic elite of Milan rapidly succumbed. The dramatic period of dynastic struggle, which was also a period of economic growth, was replaced by a long period of economic stagnation and political decline associated with unimaginative foreign rule. In 1630 the city was struck by the plague. In September 1706 Prince Eugene of Savoy entered Milan as its first Austrian governor, and the city passed thus from Spanish to Austrian rule.
  4. 4. Venice Uniquely among Italy’s chief cities, Venice came into being after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West. The Lombard hordes, whose incursions into northern Italy began in AD 568, drove great numbers of mainlanders onto the islands of the lagoon, previously the homes of itinerant fishermen and salt workers. By the beginning of the 14th century the republic was swept into struggles on the mainland of Italy and in the Adriatic and Mediterranean seas. When the Scaligeri came to power in Verona, the republic made alliance with the Carraresi of Padua, with the Florentines, and with the Visconti of Milan, who feared the rise of a strong territorial lordship in the heart of northern Italy. The end of the republic came after the outbreak of the French Revolution. Napoleon, determined to destroy the Venetian oligarchy, claimed as a pretext that Venice was hostile to him and a menace to his line of retreat during his Austrian campaign of 1797.
  5. 5. And lastly, Florence
  6. 6. Timeline of Florence 1st Century CE Catholic Diocese of Florence established 1078 CE City walls built 1115 - 16 CE Republic of Florence established. 1138 CE City divided into six wards. 1269 CE Flood 1282 CE Florence adopts a new system of government by members of a guild 1289 CE Slavery abolished. Event of Fire. 1321 CE University of Florence founded 1348 CE Black Death plague 1377 CE Medici in power. 1529 CE Siege of Florence (1529–30) begins.
  7. 7. Florence - The Origin FLORENCE, SINCE THE REBUILDING OF THE CENTRAL PORTION (Centro shaded.) FLORENCE ABOUT 1795, FROM L. BARDI The chief streets which seem to have preserved Roman lines are marked in black.
  8. 8. Birth of Florentina The foundation of Florence dates back to Roman times, despite evidence existing to show that Florence was already occupied in prehistoric times. The oldest part of the city bears the imprint of these Roman origins as it originated as one of Caesar's colonies. For the sake of defense, the city was set at the confluence of two streams, the Arno and the Mugnone, where the oldest populations had previously been located. Rectangular in plan, it was enclosed in a wall about 1800 meters long. The built-up area, like all the cities founded by the Romans, was characterized by straight roads which crossed at right angles. The two main roads led to four towered gates and converged on a central square, the forum urbis, now Piazza della Repubblica, where the Curia and the Temple dedicated to the Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva) were later to rise.
  9. 9. Pre-Renaissance In the latter part of the 13th century Florence reached the zenith of its economic and demographic development. This was the period when great things were done in the fields of architecture and town planning, made possible by the formidable accumulations of capital that resulted from the expanding commercial and financial activities. The population had continued to increase and so new city walls were needed and in 1282 a belt 8,500 meters long was planned, enclosing an area of 430 hectares, five times that of the precedent urban area. During the 14th century, internal strife and wars were aggravated by famine and epidemics, particularly the deadly plague of 1348, which aggravated a situation that was already precarious. The 14th century was therefore a century of political and economic crisis, it was a period of decisive juncture common to all Western economies. The crisis was also reflected in the city's architectural activity which continued at a much slower pace than before. The growth of Florence from 1300 to 1500
  10. 10. City Walls In the 2nd Century A.D. Florence counted around 10,000 inhabitants, and was surrounded by a first wall; after the fall of the Western Roman empire the city suffered a deep crisis, so that in 6th Century it counted a mere 1000 inhabitants: a second wall was then built, protecting a smaller area than the Roman one. Florence flourished then again, and at the beginning of 10th Century the city was surrounded by a wider third wall which for the first time extended itself to the river Arno. The building of the fourth wall was begun in 1078: Florence was a 20,000 inhabitants city and the Duke of Tuscany had moved his capital from Lucca to Florence. The new city walls surrounded also Piazza del Duomo, but the quarters of Oltrarno remained still unprotected.
  11. 11. City Walls In the years 1173-1175 the city government decided the building of the fifth wall: for the first time a defence wall was built also in Oltrarno, due to the increasing importance of the dwellings around the churches of San Felice, San Jacopo in Soprarno and Santa Felicita. Three city gates were built in Oltrarno (near today's Piazza San Felice, Costa de' Magnoli and Piazza Frescobaldi), but a real stone wall was not built: the protection consisted of palisades connecting the gates and houses whose outer façades were built without windows in order to offer more protection. A sixth wall was planned since 1284 (possibly under direction of Arnolfo di Cambio). These walls enclosed a very wide area and should protect the whole city with all its newer and outer dwellings. The gates were 35 meters tall, and were decorated with religious frescoes (the Madonna and Saints); originally, on the square in front of each gate was also a statue of a famous Florentine writer or poet. The building of the walls was completed in 1333 - and finally the quarters of Oltrarno received a complete protection.
  12. 12. Socio-Economic Factors The surge in artistic, literary, and scientific investigation that occurred in Florence in the 14th-16th centuries was facilitated by Florentines' strong economy, based on money, banking, trade, and with the display of wealth and leisure. In parallel with leisure evolving from a strong economy, the crises of the Catholic church (especially the controversy over the French Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism) along with the catastrophic effects of the Black Death led to a re-evaluation of medieval values, resulting in the development of a humanist culture, stimulated by the works of Petrarch and Boccaccio. This prompted a revisitation and study of the classical antiquity, leading to the Renaissance. This renaissance thrived locally from about 1434 to 1534. It halted amid social. moral, and political upheaval. By then, the inspiration it had created had set the rest of Western Europe ablaze with new ideas. Florence benefited materially and culturally from this sea-change in social consciousness. In the arts, the creations of Florentine artists, architects, and musicians were influential in many parts of Europe. The culmination of certain speculations into the nature of ancient Greek drama by humanist scholars led to the birth of opera in the 1590s.
  13. 13. The Renaissance in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi; between 1420 and 1446 created a group of works which were to represent one of the most important moments in the history of Florentine architecture and town-planning. It is then thanks first of all to Brunelleschi and secondly to the other exponents of the architectural culture of the early 15th century that Florence was to present itself from then on as the "Renaissance city" idealized by the humanists. An incredible number of artistic personalities determined the image of the Renaissance city of whom Donatello, Masaccio, Filippo Lippi, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Sandro Botticelli, Beato Angelico, Michelozzo, Giuliano da Sangallo and Benedetto da Maiano are but a few. During the years in which the merchant oligarchy governed Florence and in the early period of Medici rule, the increasingly frequent contacts with examples of Greek and Roman antiquity gave rise to a new spirit and the city became the center in which Humanism was forged. Man considered himself the ultimate end, eager for rational knowledge and bent on affirming his dominion over the nature which surrounded him and the history which preceded him. Literary culture, the sciences, arts and human activities come to the forefront and it was a golden period in European intellect and culture.
  14. 14. Modern and Contemporary Age The extinction of the Medici line and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen , duke of Lorraine , led to Tuscany's inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown . Austrian rule was to end in defeat at the hands of France and the Kingdom of Sardinia -Piedmont in 1859, and Tuscany became a province of the united kingdom of Italy in 1861. Florence replaced Turin as Italy's capital in 1865 and, in an effort to modernise the city, the old market in the Piazza del Mercato Vecchio and many medieval houses were pulled down and replaced by a more formal street plan with newer houses. This development was unpopular and was prevented from continuing by the efforts of several British and American people living in the city. The country's second capital city was superseded by Rome six years later after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible.
  15. 15. 19th & 20th Century In the 19th century, the population of Florence doubled to over 230,000, and in the 20th century reached over 450,000 at one point with the growth of tourism, trade, financial services and the industry. A foreign community came to represent one-quarter of the population in the second half of the 19th century and of this period and writers such as James Irving and the pre-Raphaelite artists captured a romantic vision of the city in their works. During World War II, the city experienced a year-long German occupation (1943–1944). On September 25, 1943, Allied bombers targeted central Florence, destroying many buildings and killing 215 civilians. During the German retreat, Florence was declared an "open city", thereby avoiding major war damage. Later between 1966 & 1993 , there were events of flood and fire which destroyed & damaged a lot of collections , museums, art treasures , some rare books , etc. In the end of 20th century , restoring & rebuilding of the damaged bridges , museums , etc took place.
  16. 16. Florence Today As of 31 October 2010, the population of the city proper is 370,702, while Eurostat estimates that 696,767 people live in the urban area of Florence. The Metropolitan Area of Florence, Prato and Pistoia, constituted in 2000 over an area of roughly 4,800 square kilometres (1,853 sq mi), is home to 1.5 million people. Economy: Tourism is, by far, the most important of all industries and most of the Florentine economy relies on the money generated by international arrivals and students studying in the city. The value tourism to the city totalled some €62.5 billion in 2015 and the number of visitors had increased by 5.5% from the previous year. In 2013, Florence was listed as the second best world city by Condé Nast Traveler.
  17. 17. Climate: Florence has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), tending to Mediterranean (Csa). It has hot summers with moderate or light rainfall and cool, damp winters. As Florence lacks a prevailing wind, summer temperatures are higher than along the coast. Rainfall in summer is convectional, while relief rainfall dominates in the winter. Snow flurries happen almost every year, but often result in no accumulation. The highest officially recorded temperature was 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) on 26 July 1983 and the lowest was −23.2 °C (−9.8 ° F) on 12 January 1985. Streets & Squares: Florence contains numerous major squares (piazze) and streets. The Piazza della Repubblica is a square in the city centre, location of the cultural cafés and bourgeois palaces. Among the square's cafés, the Giubbe Rosse café has long been a meeting place for artists and writers, notably those of Futurism. The Piazza Santa Croce is another; dominated by the Basilica of Santa Croce, it is a rectangular square in the centre of the city where the Calcio Fiorentino is played every year. Furthermore, there is the Piazza Santa Trinita, a square near the Arno that mark the end of the Via de' Tornabuoni street. Florence also contains various parks and gardens. Such include the Boboli Gardens, the Parco delle Cascine, the Giardino Bardini and the Giardino dei Semplici, amongst others.
  18. 18. Morphology of Florence Over Time 1493 1835 1907
  19. 19. Florence An ever-evolving city Since it’s inception two millennia ago, Florence has been resilient and alive for centuries, in spite of the various power struggles, natural disasters, and other forms of adversity. The grid-like form of ancient Florence served as a guide for the further development of the city, and continues to do so today. It is only natural that a city that was the birthplace of modern man & his thirst for knowledge is well planned, being the home to several notable intellectuals in history. The art & architecture of the renaissance period shaped Florence into what it is today, an immortal city that represents not only the achievements of the age of enlightenment, but the ability of humanity to adapt & overcome.

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