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PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH & AWARENESS SOCIETY IN EGYPT
‫وعي‬‫وعي‬
p.h.a.s.e
‫الجمعية‬‫المصرية‬‫للتوعية‬‫والصحة‬‫النفسية‬
MISSION & PROGRAMS
POST-REVOLUTION
EGYPT’S PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING
Photo: Reuters
Egyptian Society
First Major Example of Mental Healthcare as a Major
Priority
for a Society
in History
 First Known Psychiatric Text -2000 Years BC-
 First Known Mental Hospital  -Saqqara-
 Temple of Imhotep at Memphis -29...
Sleep Therapy
About P.H.A.S.E…
• Egyptian Non-Profit Civil Society Organization
• 2006
• Maadi Cairo, Egypt
• Professionals
• 70 Active ...
P.H.A.S.E… The Mission
TO IMPROVE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS IN THE COMMUNITY
• Increase Awareness
• Improve Healthcare Servic...
INTER-RELATEDNESS OF P.H.A.S.E PSYCHOSOCIAL AREAS OF INTEREST
Substance Abuse, Violence, Coping with
chronic illnesses : P...
Improving Psychological WELLNESS iN the commu
nity
Through
1. Improving quality of psychological health care : by
Improvin...
Funding Agencies:
 Italian Cooperation in Egypt
 Drosos Foundation & Family Health International
 Al Fanar Foundation
N...
P.H.A.S.E… The Partners…
• Public Services: Giza Primary & Preparatory Schools
South Cairo Primary & Preparatory Schools
•...
P.H.A.S.E… The Networks…
Professional Associations:
 World Association for Social Psychiatry
 World Psychiatric Associat...
P.H.A.S.E… The Networks
• Child Trauma Network: European Union Project
P.H.A.S.E THE INITIATIVE…
 Psychological Health: important component of Social Wellbeing
Total number of human resources...
Social Violence & Mental Health
Structural Violence (one of the 3 aspects of social violence with cultural & symbolic
viol...
P.H.A.S.E activities & Programs
5 MAIN
ACTIVITIES
P.H.A.S.E… The Activities
1. COUNSELING & TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
 Addiction
 Psychological traumas (abuse,...
SUBSTANCE ABUSE & VIOLENCE: PSYCHOSOCIAL ILLNESSES…
• 1,119,373 drug abusers in Egypt: Extrapolated Prevalence Rate of
Dru...
PROGRAMS...
1. Prevention Program Against Substance Abuse in Schools 2007
(National Council for Childhood & Motherhood, UN...
B) Coping with chronic illness: HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS Prevention for Drug Addicts 2008-2012 (FHI & Drosos foundations)
• Numbe...
C) Violence: Psychosocial Illness…
Examples
Observatoire National des Droits de l’Enfant (Maroc(
Photo: Women of the Egypt...
Examples of Social Violence: Violence Against
Women
 47 % of ever-married women experienced physical violence since
the a...
Violence: Psychosocial Illness…In Egypt: 63.4% of married women victims
of violence (Us AID Violence Against Women Report ...
Lack of national data on child abuse & neglect ,Difficult to measure extent of
problem
High levels of corporal punishmen...
C) VIOLENCE
VIOLENCE INTERVENTION PROGRAMS :VIP
1. Domestic Violence: Mawadda offers appropriate Health care &
Support ser...
P.H.A.S.E LEVELS
OF
INTERVENTION
IN VIOLENCE
AWARENESS
PROGRAMS
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
‫الواردة‬ ‫الحالت‬ ‫مجموع‬
ORPHANAGES PSYCHOLOGICAL
WELL-BEING PROMOTION
• Start 8 orphanages in Cairo
• In Cooperation with
 Ministry of Solidarity
 IBM
 Al Binaa Foundation
 Masr El Kheir
...
‫أولدي‬ ‫جمعية‬
‫عدد‬375
‫عليجي‬ ‫تدخل‬ ‫تحتاج‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الحال ت‬ ‫عدد‬11‫بنا ت‬
6(‫ال(ن‬ ‫)إلى‬ ‫بنين‬
‫تعديل‬
‫سلوك‬
‫أخر...
WHAT HAPPENED
PSYCHOLOGICALLY TO EGYPTIANS
SINCE
2011 REVOLUTION?
Psychological Effects of Violence, Chronic Conflict & Political Unrest
 Increased stress and anxiety
 Stress : hindered ...
 Stressors: varying degrees
 Trauma: Extreme stressor threatening their physical integrity (Flannery, 1999)
( violence o...
SIGNIFICANT TRAUMATIC EVENTS
DURING REVOLUTION
• 18-day uprisings between January 25 and February 11, 2011
• Violent clash...
MENTAL HEALTH DATA
AFTER 2011 REVOLUTION
• 313 people interviewed (Cairo and Giza)
• 60% met the criteria of Post-Traumati...
Photo: El Pais
THANK YOU
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P.H.A.S.E monthly conference, May 6th, 2015, on the subject of the psychological impact of the Jan 25th, 2011 revolution on Egyptians.

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P.H.A.S.E presentation held by Dr. Heba Habib at the monthly conference, May 6th, 2015, on the subject of the psychological impact of the Jan 25th, 2011 revolution on Egyptians and on the increase in violence suffered and/or perceived.
P.H.A.S.E (Psychological Health Awareness Society in Egypt,) is a registered Non Profit Organisation (Registration number 6692/2006), with more than 70 active members. PHASE was founded to offer psychological treatment to help abused and traumatized women/children and men who would otherwise be unable to pay for their much needed treatment.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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P.H.A.S.E monthly conference, May 6th, 2015, on the subject of the psychological impact of the Jan 25th, 2011 revolution on Egyptians.

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH & AWARENESS SOCIETY IN EGYPT ‫وعي‬‫وعي‬ p.h.a.s.e ‫الجمعية‬‫المصرية‬‫للتوعية‬‫والصحة‬‫النفسية‬
  2. 2. MISSION & PROGRAMS
  3. 3. POST-REVOLUTION EGYPT’S PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING Photo: Reuters
  4. 4. Egyptian Society First Major Example of Mental Healthcare as a Major Priority for a Society in History
  5. 5.  First Known Psychiatric Text -2000 Years BC-  First Known Mental Hospital  -Saqqara-  Temple of Imhotep at Memphis -2900 Years BC- popular center for mental illness treatment  Methods of Treatment: • opium   • rituals or prayers • "sleep therapy“ as dream interpretations
  6. 6. Sleep Therapy
  7. 7. About P.H.A.S.E… • Egyptian Non-Profit Civil Society Organization • 2006 • Maadi Cairo, Egypt • Professionals • 70 Active Members
  8. 8. P.H.A.S.E… The Mission TO IMPROVE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS IN THE COMMUNITY • Increase Awareness • Improve Healthcare Services • Address Social Component for Psychological & Psychiatric conditions
  9. 9. INTER-RELATEDNESS OF P.H.A.S.E PSYCHOSOCIAL AREAS OF INTEREST Substance Abuse, Violence, Coping with chronic illnesses : Psychosocial Illnesses…
  10. 10. Improving Psychological WELLNESS iN the commu nity Through 1. Improving quality of psychological health care : by Improving efficiency of experts in specific areas  Addiction  Violence  Exposure to traumatic events (life threatening or chronic diseases) P.H.A.S.E….Objectives: 2. Increasing public awareness:  Complications of addiction: (HIV, STD, Psychiatric conditions, Psychosocial & Economic drawbacks etc.) & means of prevention  Psychosocial impact of violence & EXPOSURE to traumatic events : on individuals, families, surroundings & society
  11. 11. Funding Agencies:  Italian Cooperation in Egypt  Drosos Foundation & Family Health International  Al Fanar Foundation National & International Organizations:  National Council for Childhood & Motherhoood  European Union (Child Trauma Network) Educational Institutions:  Kasr El Aini Medical School Egypt  Faculty of Medicine Temple University-USA  Faculte de Medecine Universite Pierre et Marie Curie -Paris- France  Universitad Complutense de Madrid-Spain  Laval University, Canada P.H.A.S.E… The Partners
  12. 12. P.H.A.S.E… The Partners… • Public Services: Giza Primary & Preparatory Schools South Cairo Primary & Preparatory Schools • Public and Private Business Companies Te data Masreyyoun Dedd El 3ounf National Awareness Campaign Against Violence Ministry of Solidarity • Association of Diplomats spouses in Egypt  Arabs  Asians • UNITED NATIONS AGENCIES UN-Women; UNICEF; UNODC
  13. 13. P.H.A.S.E… The Networks… Professional Associations:  World Association for Social Psychiatry  World Psychiatric Association  Egyptian Psychiatric Association  Arab Psychiatric Association Civil society institutions:  Egyptian NGOs working with vulnerable population  refugees (Catholic Relief Services, Médecins Sans Frontières)  women & children victims of domestic violence ( around 15 NGOs)  street children (SAMU Social, Banaty Foundation, Establ Antar)  patients with chronic illness (HIV/AIDS; Hepatitis C; Cancer; Diabetes)  Women’s Associations
  14. 14. P.H.A.S.E… The Networks • Child Trauma Network: European Union Project
  15. 15. P.H.A.S.E THE INITIATIVE…  Psychological Health: important component of Social Wellbeing Total number of human resources working in mental health facilities in Egypt 4.98 per 100,000 population: Psychiatrists: 1.44 /100,000 nurses : 2.6 /100,000, psychologists : 0.11 /100,000 social workers : 0.27/ 100,000 62 outpatient mental health facilities (only 2 for children & adolescent) •Users of these facilities (2004) 254/100000 •34% females •12% children or adolescents.( Children under 15 years are 34% of Egypt population) 2% of health care expenditures by government health department for mental health • 59% for mental hospitals •Lack of Community Mental Health Structure Creation of PHASE WHO report on mental health system in Egypt 2006
  16. 16. Social Violence & Mental Health Structural Violence (one of the 3 aspects of social violence with cultural & symbolic violence) is accused of being directly responsible for psychological human suffering (Farmer, 1996) Present Sociopolitical Factors  Overpopulation: Cairo 20 millions people(Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, 2010)  Massive unstructured urbanization (United Nations Development Program (Egypt), 2003 )  + 50 % of houses economically supported by women (Radwan et Reiffers, 2006) Photo: www.sawtalniswa.com Aspects of psychological suffering
  17. 17. P.H.A.S.E activities & Programs
  18. 18. 5 MAIN ACTIVITIES
  19. 19. P.H.A.S.E… The Activities 1. COUNSELING & TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS  Addiction  Psychological traumas (abuse, domestic violence, natural disasters, life- threatening diseases…)  General Psychiatric conditions 2. PREVENTION & COMMUNITY AWARENESS PROGRAMS 3. TRAINING for psychosocial teams, for education schooling personnel 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (e.g., instruments adapted to Egyptian population, international conference ICSPE..) 5. REHABILITATION from addiction & trauma (yoga, meditation, empowerment)
  20. 20. SUBSTANCE ABUSE & VIOLENCE: PSYCHOSOCIAL ILLNESSES… • 1,119,373 drug abusers in Egypt: Extrapolated Prevalence Rate of Drug abuse in Egypt, i.e., population of people who are managing Drug abuse at any given time (US Census Bureau, International Data Base, 2004) • Addicts spend more than 16 billion Egyptian pounds a year on drugs • Multi-country Study in 2004 (Chile, Egypt, Philippines & India) identified regular alcohol consumption by husband or partner as a risk factor for any lifetime physical intimate partner violence across all four study countries • 80 percent of child abuse associated with alcohol and other drugs use
  21. 21. PROGRAMS... 1. Prevention Program Against Substance Abuse in Schools 2007 (National Council for Childhood & Motherhood, UNODC & Italian Embassy 2. HIV/AIDS Prevention for Drug Addicts 2008-2012 (FHI & Drosos foundations) 3. Smoking Prevention Program  2010 (PHASE resources) A) Substance Abuse 
  22. 22. B) Coping with chronic illness: HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Prevention for Drug Addicts 2008-2012 (FHI & Drosos foundations) • Number of people living with HIV in Egypt is estimated to be 11,000 in 2009 according to UNAIDS, among which are 2,400 women. • HIV infection is a chronic life threatening condition. • To be diagnosed with HIV is a traumatic experience which induces psychological distress that can develop into serious psychological and psychiatric condition jeopardizing the HIV carrier quality of life and productivity. • Psychological distress due to being HIV carriers has particular characteristics linked to social stigma associated to “shameful” HIV transmission (sexual and intravenous drug-related transmission) (Gore-Felton et al., 2006; Leserman, 2008; Vaughan & Kinnier, 1996).
  23. 23. C) Violence: Psychosocial Illness… Examples Observatoire National des Droits de l’Enfant (Maroc( Photo: Women of the Egyptian Revolution www.sawtalniswa.com
  24. 24. Examples of Social Violence: Violence Against Women  47 % of ever-married women experienced physical violence since the age of 15 (Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005)  36 % of sample of 5,613 experienced marital violence (emotional, physical, and/or sexual) (Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005; US AID , 2009)  Some statistics show that domestic violence is due to o Husbands (72%) o Fathers (43%) o Brothers (37%) (Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, 2005 )  Violence against women • Widespread and commonly accepted phenomenon in Egypt • No accurate & up-to-date statistics on the levels of violence against women ( 98 percent of rape and sexual assault cases are not reported to authorities) • Difficult to assess nature and degree of such violence in Egypt
  25. 25. Violence: Psychosocial Illness…In Egypt: 63.4% of married women victims of violence (Us AID Violence Against Women Report in Egypt 2009) Most of sources of violence were combined but here are the statistics for the most prevalent type according to the victim
  26. 26. Lack of national data on child abuse & neglect ,Difficult to measure extent of problem High levels of corporal punishment & verbal abuse Home 81%, 90% School 91%, 70% Work 27% (UNICEF ,2010) 70% of mothers have hit or slapped their children on the body 40% have hit or slapped children on the face 2005 EDHS (Egypt Demographic and Health Survey ) on domestic violence 10,000 STREET CHILDREN In The Four Largest Governorates National Council of Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM) Examples of Social Violence: Violence Against Children
  27. 27. C) VIOLENCE VIOLENCE INTERVENTION PROGRAMS :VIP 1. Domestic Violence: Mawadda offers appropriate Health care & Support services to victims of Interpersonal Violence 2. Outreach & Prevention in Community: School-based Violence prevention and early intervention programs 3. Community-based Violence Prevention and Early Intervention Programs  in Cooperation with TEdata Masreyyoun dedd el 3ounf
  28. 28. P.H.A.S.E LEVELS OF INTERVENTION IN VIOLENCE AWARENESS PROGRAMS
  29. 29. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
  30. 30. ‫الواردة‬ ‫الحالت‬ ‫مجموع‬
  31. 31. ORPHANAGES PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING PROMOTION
  32. 32. • Start 8 orphanages in Cairo • In Cooperation with  Ministry of Solidarity  IBM  Al Binaa Foundation  Masr El Kheir  Bank El Shefa  Ajial Foundation  Homat El Mostakbal Foundation • Pilot project to be extended to more orphanages
  33. 33. ‫أولدي‬ ‫جمعية‬ ‫عدد‬375 ‫عليجي‬ ‫تدخل‬ ‫تحتاج‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الحال ت‬ ‫عدد‬11‫بنا ت‬ 6(‫ال(ن‬ ‫)إلى‬ ‫بنين‬ ‫تعديل‬ ‫سلوك‬ ‫أخر‬ ‫دراسى‬ ‫يصعب‬ ‫التعامل‬ ‫معها‬ ‫انطوائية‬ ‫سرقة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تبول‬ ‫ارادى‬ ‫السلوك‬ 6 4 3 3 3 3 ‫العدد‬
  34. 34. WHAT HAPPENED PSYCHOLOGICALLY TO EGYPTIANS SINCE 2011 REVOLUTION?
  35. 35. Psychological Effects of Violence, Chronic Conflict & Political Unrest  Increased stress and anxiety  Stress : hindered ability to meet life’s demands due to real or perceived challenges beyond the range of available coping resources (Gunnar & Quevedo, 2007).  Stress disorder: • Stress response negatively affects a person’s daily functioning (occupational or social obligations) (Olfson et. al., 1997) • Stress disorders: debilitating nature  loss of energy (depression, poorer quality of life) (Liverant, Suvak, Pineles, & Resick, 2012)  anxiety (Barlow, 1988)
  36. 36.  Stressors: varying degrees  Trauma: Extreme stressor threatening their physical integrity (Flannery, 1999) ( violence or violence inflicted on others) (Breslau, 2009))  PTSD: • re-lives the traumatic event, • avoids items or settings event, • heightened sensitivity for stimuli (Flannery, 1999).  PTSD : • stress & anxiety • must follow a traumatic event (Breslau, 2009). • comorbid disorder: depression or drug abuse to cope with trauma (Breslau, 2009). • Men: more likely to experience traumatic events • Women are more frequently diagnosed with PTSD (Breslau, 2009).
  37. 37. SIGNIFICANT TRAUMATIC EVENTS DURING REVOLUTION • 18-day uprisings between January 25 and February 11, 2011 • Violent clashes:  Imbaba in May 2011,  Maspero in October 2011,  Mohamed Mahmoud in November 2011,  Port Said in February 2012, and  Abbaseya Square in May 2012,  Ettehadeyya December 2012 • Proliferation of guns on the streets • Rate of armed robberies increased by almost 83% in May 2011 compared to the rate before January 25 of that year • Rate of murder was up 75% as well (Hendawi, 2011b). In 2011, 2,774 murders were reported in Egypt (Fleishman & Hassan, 2012)
  38. 38. MENTAL HEALTH DATA AFTER 2011 REVOLUTION • 313 people interviewed (Cairo and Giza) • 60% met the criteria of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, which was much higher than they expected • Females : significantly higher trauma levels compared to males (t = 2.23, p < .05). • 60.1% of the participants agreed that services offering help for people facing violence, injury, or stress after the uprisings was important • Most of the people were traumatized by violence they saw on the television (61%)  seeing someone being injured on the streets (47%)  knowing someone who got injured (19.8%)  being personally injured (8%) (Abdelmonem et al 2013)
  39. 39. Photo: El Pais THANK YOU

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