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Natural and Mechanical Cooling- Kirk Edit 021715

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Natural and Mechanical Cooling- Kirk Edit 021715

  1. 1. Natural and Mechanical Cooling Methods for Farm and Homestead Storage Chris Chaisson Kirk Jones
  2. 2. Cooling Systems – Natural to Mechanical • Ground temperature • Spring water • Ice • Outside Air • Passive venting air exchange • Active venting air exchange • Commercial refrigeration • Controllers • Freeaire controller – active air/commercial refrigeration • Coolbot controller – controlled window AC • Callahan’s Farm Hack system • myDTC – DIY active air • myWebController – DIY active system • Co gen/tri-gen – using heat to cool • Future Systems/Future needs
  3. 3. Why Natural or Mechanical? Seasonal Storage (cool seasons) • Vents • Fans • Freeaire Polar Package Year Round Storage Ice Compressor walk-ins Coolbot Mix: Freeaire/conventional vents and coolbots Co/Trigeneration absorption refrigeration
  4. 4. Which one is better? For whom? • Wine- Cellar- mechanically controlled • Cheese- Cellar- mechanically controlled • Homestead – Small root cellar/Ice • Farmstead – large root cellar/Ice • Farm/CSA/Institution- Root Cellar/Walkin • Small markets- Free aire/Compressor/Cellar
  5. 5. Important Post-Harvest Care • Produce should be harvested when cold • Harvest as late in season • Naturally seasoned vegetables store longer and better • Brix content will be higher • Remove field heat – Hydro cooling – Use mechanical systems
  6. 6. Field heat
  7. 7. Traditional In-Ground Storage Citrus fruit storage cave in Cappadocia,Turkey Women culling lemons and repackaging for shipment
  8. 8. Spring House for Cold Storage Denning, Ulster County, New York
  9. 9. Community ice harvests
  10. 10. Ice in Colonial America
  11. 11. Thompson's Ice House South Bristol, Maine
  12. 12. Ice Options now •Cutting and hauling • Forming in place •Storage Designs • Below or above ground • Sawdust or wood shavings • Vents and drains • Gravel/permeable floor • Thermal mass stone/concrete walls
  13. 13. Rainbow Heritage
  14. 14. The cave construction 1
  15. 15. Cave construction 2
  16. 16. Cave construction 3
  17. 17. Cave Construction 4
  18. 18. Ice in Harvest • Tapered plastic tubs • -20F is ideal
  19. 19. Ice in the Carrot Cave
  20. 20. Ice thermal values •Thermal Conductivity, 2.2 W/m-K •Heat capacity, 2.1 kJ/kg-K •Heat of Fusion, 333.55 kJ/kg
  21. 21. Passive venting a root cellar •4-6” PVC S+D •Warm air escape at ceiling •Cold air entry 6” above floor •Vent through existing window w/ insulation and plywood •Hardware cloth and screen against insects and rodents •Close in Winter
  22. 22. Adamah Adam
  23. 23. Venting details
  24. 24. 120 CFM Simple in-line fan and damper Active Venting
  25. 25. Dampers and duct fans Spring loaded 4” backdraft dampers, $20 each 4” In-line duct fan, $29 ea
  26. 26. Adamah Retreat Center
  27. 27. Mechanical cooling – refrigeration • Compressor • Absorption refrigeration • Biogas, wood cogen (furnace, kiln), solar – solar during day and propane at night • Modify and mix • Coolbot - Cheaper situation that uses an air conditioner • Freeaire
  28. 28. FreeAire System
  29. 29. FreeAire components
  30. 30. Web Interface
  31. 31. FreeAire Benefits • Cooler Controller Capabilities – Year Round Savings – Controls Compressor run time: Reduces energy consumption & wear and tear. – Controls Evaporator Fan run time: Reduces energy consumption, reduces heat introduced into cooled spaces & wear and tear. – Defrost Cycle Management (both air and electric defrost cycle): Reduces energy consumption, reduces heat introduced into cooled spaces. – Data Logger: Keeps a downloadable record of system component runtime and energy consumption & savings. • Cooler Controller Capabilities – Year Round Savings with Optional Features – Monitors & Manages Door Heater Operation: Reduces energy consumption, reduces heat introduced into cooled spaces. – Humidity Monitoring: Monitors and controls humidity levels in cooled spaces and ensures that humidity levels stay within a user selected range. – CO2 Monitoring: Monitors CO2 levels and can cycle fresh outside air into a cooled space (with Polar Power package). • Cooler Controller Capabilities – Maximum Savings with Polar Power (In Winter) – Uses outside air for cooling when conditions allow (in conjunction with Polar Power package): Turns off conventional mechanical refrigeration system components, reduces heat introduced into cooled spaces, system wear and tear & dramatically reduces energy consumption.
  32. 32. Chris Callahan (UVM AgExt) Outside Air Hack
  33. 33. Set the Temperature between 35 and 40F
  34. 34. Drumlin Farm Service Barn (MassAudubon) Root cellar below, seed and squash storage above Renovating main floor into classroom addition Insulating South wall, with newer windows
  35. 35. Root Cellar Cold and Moist Chambers
  36. 36. Squash Room and Seed Storage
  37. 37. Drumlin Cellar Venting
  38. 38. Drumlin Cellar Electrical
  39. 39. Drumlin Attic Venting
  40. 40. Drumlin Attic Electrical
  41. 41. myDTC8
  42. 42. Powisset Barn Crop Storage
  43. 43. Powisset Crop Storage – Design Phase I
  44. 44. Powisset Barn – Trustees of Reservations
  45. 45. Powisset – Design Phase II
  46. 46. myWebController.com WebRelay-10
  47. 47. Coolbots • More efficient above 35F if well insulated and doors stay closed
  48. 48. Cogeneration – Combined Heat and Power
  49. 49. Trigen systems
  50. 50. Absorption chillers • Very Compact • Few mechanical parts • Low maintenance • Runs on waste heat • Reduces overall fuel use and electricity consumption
  51. 51. Traditional RV Schematic
  52. 52. Promising Technology “Small-scale trigeneration system offers hope for refrigeration in developing world” Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Magazine, 2014 “All-in-one energy system offers greener power for off-grid homes, farms and businesses” Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, 2014
  53. 53. Thank You!! Contact us: Chris@WholeFarmServices.com 802-777-3537 KirkJ@WholeFarmServices.com 510-697-7790

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