Present Status, Export potential and Challenges of Fisheries Industry in India
Fisheries Industry in
By: Abhishek Kumar Sinha
Employs around 1.5 crore people of the country.
Indian Fishing Industry got a major boost after the declaration of EEZ
(Exclusive Economic Zone) in 1977.
Global Share of India is 4.2%, while China has 69% share in
Major products are Shrimps, frozen fish, cuttlefish, squid and dried
• Marine product exports has steadily grown over the years; from a
mere Rs.3.92 crore in 1961-62 to Rs. 11,130.52 crore in 2010-11.
Products were Dried Shrimps and Dried Fish
Market was neighboring countries.
From 1960 – 1977
Products were Frozen Shrimps
Major market beside neighboring countries were USA, Japan.
USA emerged as single largest buyer.
From 1977 – 2001
Japan Emerged as single largest buyer followed by Western
• 2001 – 2004
USA again topped the charts as Single largest importer of
Indian Marine Products.
• 2005 – till date
European union became largest importer importing 33%
USA 16.12 %
South East Asia 7%
Middle East Asia is New emerging Market.
The product preference is shifting from Frozen Shrimps to
Processed Products and other marine products.
THE UNTAPPED POTENTIAL
Meager utilization of natural gift.
Potential – 15 Million Tonnes
Production – 2.5 Million Tonnes
Fresh waters and Ponds
Total Available – 2.4 Million Hectares.
Utilized – 1.5 Million Hectares.
Production Per Hectare (Pond Culture)
Potential – 5 Tonnes per Hec.
Production – 2 Tonnes per Hec.
Production Per Hectare (Reservoirs and Tanks)
Potential – 600 Kg per Hec.
Production – 100 Kg per Hec.
(SOURCE: THE HINDU – SURVEY OF INDIAN INDUSTRY 2007)
Top Aquaculture producers(2010)
Country Production(million tonnes)
Export of marine Products(2012-13)
By quantity By value
Indian Fisheries at a Glance(2011-12)
• Global position: 2nd (1st in inland)
• Contribution of Fisheries to GDP(%):0.79
• Contribution of Fisheries to Agril. GDP(%): 4.15
• Per capita fish availability(kg): 9.8
• Annual Export earning(Rs. In crore): 16,597.23
• Growth of fisheries sector during 11th Five yr
plan: 3.6 p.a.
Indian Aquaculture and Fisheries
• Coastline:- 8118 kms
• Rivers and Canals: 197,024 kms.
• Reservoirs: 3.15 mha
• Ponds & Tanks: 2.35 mha
• Brackish waters: 1.24 mha
• Estuaries: 0.29 mha
National Fisheries Development Board 2006
State Production 2011-12 (in 000
Andhra Pradesh 1603.17
West Bengal 1472.05
Fisheries production(in million tonnes)
2.81 2.99 2.78 3 2.97
2000-01 2002-03 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11
MARINE INLAND TOTAL
Source: Compiled from various reports
Fish exports from India
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
in Rs. Lakh
National Fisheries Development Board
National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) was established
by the Government in 2006 as a special purpose vehicle for
accelerated development of the fisheries and aquaculture in a
sustainable manner through upgradation of production
technologies, management and utilization of
resources, establishment of infrastructure for post-harvest
operations and markets.
NFDB has during the Eleventh Plan Period invested nearly
Rs.400 crore for various developmental activities. It is proposed
to merge all Centrally Sponsored Schemes aimed at growth and
enhancement of production and productivity in NFDB during
Twelfth Plan to provide greater focus and an integrated approach
to the development of fisheries and aquaculture in the country.
• Shortage of quality and healthy fish seeds and
other critical inputs.
• Lack of resource-specific fishing vessels.
• Inadequate awareness about nutritional and
economic benefits of fish.
• Inadequate extension staff for fisheries and
training for fishers and fisheries personnel.
• Low utilization and productivity of water
• Impose of Anti-dumping duty by US in 2004.
• Japan and EU imposed strict quality control
standards on Indian Marine Products.
• Indian Exports are Single Product (Shrimp) and
Single Market (USA and Japan) oriented Industry.
• Diesel accounts for 75% of Input cost, escalating
diesel prices i.e. from Rs 5 in 1991 to Rs. 55
present is major challenge to overcome.
• To insulate Indian exports from the decline in demand from
developed countries, focus on diversification of Indian exports
to other markets, specially those located in Latin
America, Africa, parts of Asia and Ocenia.
• 26 new countries have been included within the ambit of Focus
• The incentives provided under Focus Market Scheme have been
increased from 2.5% to 3%.
• There has been a significant increase in the outlay under
‘Market Linked Focus Product Scheme’ by inclusion of more
markets and products. This ensures support for exports to all
countries in Africa and Latin America.
Strengths of Indian Fisheries
• Vast Fisheries resources in India
• Second largest fish producer in the world
• Ranks second in aquaculture Production
• 3.41% of marine and 9.42 % of inland world fish production
• Source of livelihood for 14.48 million
• Contribution of nearly 0.8% of GDP and 4.4% of
• Potential Source of Food and nutritional Security.
• Tool for Poverty alleviation and women empowerment.
• About 11 fold increase in fish production (0.752 mt in
1950-51 to 8.67 mt in 2011-12)
• Seafood exports reached a record high of Rs.18,856 crore
($3.5 billion) in fiscal year 2012-13.
• Contributing about 17% of national agriculture export.
• Yield gap in fisheries resources particularly in
reservoir fisheries. Average yields reduced to
1,000 kg/ ha where as potential is 3-4
thousand kgs / hectare
• Fish stocks in India's territorial deep-sea
waters also remain untapped owing to the
dearth of suitable fishing vessels
• Post harvest losses are estimated worth over
Rs.15,000 Crores (both Marine and Inland) which is
about 25% of the total Indian marine and Inland
Industry which is worth of over Rs.61,000Crore
• Low value addition and fish Processing. There are no
organized and coherent efforts in the country to
formulate and implement policies for the processed
fish/fishery products for domestic markets.
• The potential yield of the Indian Exclusive Economic
Zone (EEZ) has been revalidated as 4.41 million tonnes
• Fisheries and aqua-culture provide for diversification as
well as value addition in farming practices. Due to value
addition, fish farmers and fishermen across the country
will receive remunerative prices for their produce.
• In case of aqua-culture, scope exists for bringing more
fish species with a focus on food fish, ornamental species
and those with potentials for sport and tourism.
• Growing demand for domestic fresh water fish. About
35% of Indian population is fish eaters and the per capita
consumption is 9.8 kg whereas the recommended intake
is 13 kg.
• Fish production can be enhanced in rain fed water bodies
by 2 to 4 times –(MGNREGS)
• Over 250 million economically strong potential
consumers of food and the domestic demand for the fish
and processed fish food is increasing very rapidly. The
prices are more than doubled in the decade.
• The marine fish catch is stagnating due to
uncontrolled fishing and over exploitation of coastal
• Climate change and other factors are leading to
decrease in marine fish catches and the climate
change is also having impact on inland fisheries
• The Indian retail departmental stores is already
having ready to eat imported processed fishery
products such as canned Tuna, Salmon etc. If India is
not geared to meet the international competition there
is increased threat from such products flooding the
• Unsustainable capture inland fishery activities in the past led to
habitat degradation, multiple use of inland water bodies with least
priority to fishery wealth.
• Non compliance of FAO –CCRF principles
• Quality of the fish seed is the most important problem and there is
no organised brood stock production activity
• No indigenously commercial fish feed mills
• Lack of infrastructure and skilled man power in disease diagnostic
labs in the States.
• Annual report 2012-13, Department Of Animal
Husbandry, Dairying & FisheriesMinistry of
Agriculture, Government of India
• Annual Report 2007-08, National Fisheries
Development Board, Hyderabad
(accessed on 04/11/13)
• Fisheries and Aquaculture report, FAO report 2010
• Handbook of fisheries statistics 2008, Department of
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of
Agriculture, Government of india