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Food for Thought – The Potential for Food Patenting

This document discusses the potential for patenting food innovations and compares patent protection to trade secret protection. It outlines key aspects of patents such as requirements, duration of protection, and exclusivity of rights. Trade secrets are also described and their overlap with patents. The document analyzes factors to consider for pursuing patent versus trade secret protection such as commercial life of products, ability to keep information secret, and economic costs. Recent lawsuits related to food patents are summarized that demonstrate active patenting in the food industry.

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Food for Thought –
The Potential for Food Patenting
Kirby B. Drake
Topics
• Comparison of Patent and Trade Secret Protection
• Pros and Cons of Patent Protection
• Weighing the Factors
• Recent Lawsuits Relating to Food Patenting
Intellectual Property
• Products that come from the creative mind
• Includes patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade
secrets
• Property that needs to be protected from theft or
misuse
Patents v. Trade Secrets
• Patent – provides an exclusive right to make, use,
import, sell and offer for sale invention for up to 20
years
• Trade secret – information kept secret to give an
advantage over competitors
Parts of a Patent
• Background
• Figures/Drawings
• Specification (description of invention)
• Claims (metes and bounds; define the scope of the
invention)
Trade Secret
• No formal written requirements like a patent
• Information must be used continuously in business
• Must take reasonable precautions to ensure
information remains secret

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Food for Thought – The Potential for Food Patenting

  • 1. Food for Thought – The Potential for Food Patenting Kirby B. Drake
  • 2. Topics • Comparison of Patent and Trade Secret Protection • Pros and Cons of Patent Protection • Weighing the Factors • Recent Lawsuits Relating to Food Patenting
  • 3. Intellectual Property • Products that come from the creative mind • Includes patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets • Property that needs to be protected from theft or misuse
  • 4. Patents v. Trade Secrets • Patent – provides an exclusive right to make, use, import, sell and offer for sale invention for up to 20 years • Trade secret – information kept secret to give an advantage over competitors
  • 5. Parts of a Patent • Background • Figures/Drawings • Specification (description of invention) • Claims (metes and bounds; define the scope of the invention)
  • 6. Trade Secret • No formal written requirements like a patent • Information must be used continuously in business • Must take reasonable precautions to ensure information remains secret
  • 7. What Do You Patent? • Computer software • Methods of doing business • Food and processes for making or manufacturing • Chemical formulae
  • 8. What Do You Keep as a Trade Secret? • Manufacturing processes • Ideas • Food and methods for making or manufacturing • Chemical formulae and processes
  • 9. The Overlap – Patents and Trade Secrets • New innovations often can be protected with patents or trade secrets • Cannot usually protect same innovation as both a patent and a trade secret Patent? Trade Secret? Both? Neither?
  • 10. Disclosure of Invention • U.S. patent applications publish after 18 months • If patent application publishes, no longer can keep invention as trade secret • If likelihood of patentability is low, may choose to keep as trade secret
  • 11. Duration of Protection Uncertainty of time period for protection may make valuation of trade secret more unpredictable. Patent Trade Secret Definite Term No Definite Term Limited in Time As Long as it Remains a Secret
  • 12. Exclusivity of Rights • Patents – exclusive rights • Cannot independently develop but freely use invention protected by a patent; innocent infringement not a defense • Trade Secrets – non-exclusive rights • Can independently develop and not violate a trade secret • Trade secret only violated with a breach of a non- disclosure obligation or by obtaining trade secret via improper means
  • 13. Patents v. Trade Secrets – Commercial Life of Product • Short commercial life (e.g., novelty food items) – patent may not issue until after market life expires • Longer shelf life (e.g., Starbucks disposable beverage cup lid design) – may be good candidates for patent protection
  • 14. Patents v. Trade Secrets – Tipping Off Competitors • Patents require significant disclosure – public’s right to knowledge in exchange for exclusivity • May give competitors information to design around invention • BUT also may stimulate innovation – give competitors ideas to move the technology forward
  • 15. Patents v. Trade Secrets – Type of Subject Matter/Industry • More patent activity in certain technology areas • Polymer industry – high level of patent activity (more than 6,000 patents/year classified as “synthetic resin” patents) • Industry change may be slow; patents likely to be used by industry • Food industry – more likely to keep as trade secrets (e.g., processes to make food/beverages) but some patenting also is common (e.g., General Mills; Kraft)
  • 16. Patents v. Trade Secrets – Ease of Keeping Subject Matter a Secret • Where the trade secret is kept (i.e., locked away in a secured place or kept out on manufacturing floor) • Documentation associated with trade secret (i.e., need a single recipe to produce versus recipe is made in parts) • People who need to know trade secret (i.e., whole company needs to know to perform business or a few key personnel under confidentiality agreements)
  • 17. Patents v. Trade Secrets – Time Needed to Obtain Patent (2007 Stats) • 760,924 patent applications awaiting action by Examiner (all fields) • 1,112,517 pending patent applications (all fields) • First examination by PTO of a food-related patent application likely will not occur until 26.1 months after filing • Food-related patent application likely will take approximately 34.4 months to issue
  • 18. Patents v. Trade Secrets – Economic Considerations • Patents may give a signal that invention was created • Good for future investments, competitive positioning • However, absence of patents does not mean invention was not created • Less upfront investment to maintain invention as trade secret • However, loss of trade secret may be financially devastating to company
  • 19. Food Technology Patents •Decaffeinated coffee and tea •General Foods Corp. – patent for a carbon dioxide decaffeination process (U.S. Patent 4,820,537 •Chocolat Suchard Societe Anonyme – patent for process for decaffeinating raw coffee (U.S. Patent 5,208,056) •Uhde GmbH – patent for decaffeinating coffee and tea (U.S. Patent 5,153,015)
  • 20. Food Technology Patents • Numerous Kraft patents related to processed cheese including: • Methods for manufacture of processed cheese • Methods and systems for processing cheese • Method and apparatus for producing a wrapped food material in single slice form
  • 21. McIlhenny Company – Tabasco sauce • Secured a patent in 1870 for unique formula for processing peppers into a fiery red sauce • Process and sauce are still highly regarded even though no longer protected by patent
  • 22. Coca-Cola Company – Patents and Trade Secrets • The Coca-Cola Company owns a patent on a method of making “barrier coated plastic containers” • Also have trade secrets – formula for Coke is most famous trade secret
  • 23. Coca-Cola Company – Patents and Trade Secrets • Formula for Coca-Cola • Known only to a few people who have signed non- disclosure agreements • Kept in the vault of a bank in Atlanta, GA • Well-respected trade secret – even by competitors
  • 24. Patents – Not Only for Big Companies • Class 099 –Food and Beverages: Apparatus • Most patents issued from 2002-2006 were to individuals • Class 426 – Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products • Most patents issued from 2002-2006 were to individuals - 410 patents Nestec, S.A. – 145 patents Kraft Foods Holdings, Inc. – 94 patents Procter + Gamble Company – 67 patents General Mills, Inc. – 61 patents
  • 25. Monsanto – Seed Patents • Monsanto invests over $2.6M each day in R&D; mission to enforce patents to ensure level playing field for Monsanto customers • 138 lawsuits against farmers for seed piracy as of July 2009; successful in 9 suits that have gone to trial • Monsanto battling lawsuit against duPont related to corn and soybean products; involves patent infringement as well as antitrust claims • Monsanto has agreed to keep patented product on market after patent expires instead of forcing farmers to buy more expensive patented product
  • 26. Martek Biosciences v. Nutrinova • Patents at issue in 2007 case related to DHA, an essential omega-3 fatty acid; case between competitors • Trial resulted in invalidation of Martek DHA patent but Nutrinova found to infringe 2 other patents • Appealed decision and Federal Circuit found in favor of Martek (patent not invalid) • Not only case Martek has had related to DHA recently – settled another case against Capsugel France in 2009; will jointly develop product and Capsugel agrees to buy algal DHA from Martek
  • 27. Kemin v. OmniActive • Lutein patent case – nutrient found in green leafy vegetables and egg yolk; expected to be $124.5M market by 2013 • Kemin patent directed to process for isolation, purification and recrystallization of lutein from saponified marigold oleoresin and uses • OmniActive claimed that its product was covered by is own patent while Kemin’s product was covered by its patent
  • 28. Kemin v. OmniActive • Key Court Rulings: • Agreed with Kemin that “lutein” meant all isomers of lutein, not just trans-lutein • Lutein purity - have to consider percentage of lutein against percentage of other carotenoids • Make purified lutein with readily available testing method not necessarily best available
  • 29. Kemin v. OmniActive • Lawsuit concluded in November 2009 with settlement • OmniActive agreed that Kemin’s patent claims were valid and enforceable • No admission of liability • OmniActive can sell its original formulation outside U.S. • OmniActive will convert to new formulation to sell in U.S.
  • 30. Food for Thought – Is Patenting For You? • Patents • Trade Secrets • Published Papers • Other Collaborative Activity No single way of conveying innovation is perfect for all situations.
  • 31. For more information, please contact: Kirby B. Drake KLEMCHUK KUBASTA LLP 214-367-6000 kirby.@kk-llp.com www.kk-llp.com Thank You!