Harman and kiran ghag

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Harman and kiran ghag

  1. 1. A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard . It leads to financial,environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on thevulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also calledtheir resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation:"disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability." Thus a naturalhazard will not result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability,e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural hasconsequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards ordisasters without human involvement. A concrete example of the divisionbetween a natural hazard and a natural disaster is that the 1906 SanFrancisco earthquake was a disaster, whereas earthquakes are a hazard.This article gives an introduction to notable natural disasters, refer tothe list of natural disasters for a comprehensive listing.
  2. 2. Types of Natural DisastersEarthquakesLandslideFloodsDroughtCycloneTsunamis
  3. 3. An avalanche is a sudden rapid flow of snow down a slope, occurring when either natural triggers, such as loading from new snow or rain, or artificialtriggers, such as explosives or backcountry skiers, punctuate the equilibrium of the snowpack . Typically occurring in mountainous terrain, an avalanche can mix air and water with the descending snow. Powerful avalanches have the capability to entrain ice, rocks, trees, and other material on the slope. Avalanches are primarily composed of flowing snow, and are distinct from mudslides, rock slides, and collapses on an icefall. In contrast to other natural events which can cause disasters, avalanches are not rare or random events and are endemic to any mountain range that accumulates a standing snowpack. In mountainous terrain avalanches are among the most serious objective hazards to life and property.
  4. 4. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release ofenergy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earths surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimesdisplacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in magnitude. Earthquakes are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires,tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning.
  5. 5. Effects of EarthquakeEarthquake brings physical damage to the placeincluding destruction of building intelecommunicationWater and electric supply.Due to loss of houses and distruption of dailyroutine, health and hygiene of living being arealso adversely affected.
  6. 6. Causes of Earthquakes Geologically the earth is made up of 7 long plates. These plates are called tectonic plates. These plates move ranging from faint motion to a violent shifting. When there is faint very slow movement of these plates it goes unnoticed. Earthquake are caused when the tension is released from inside the crust. This happens because plates do not move smoothly sometimes they get stuck. When this happen a great deal of pressure build up. Eventually this pressure is released and an earthquake tends to be occur.
  7. 7. Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and consequent disasterthrough several ways. The effects include the volcanic eruption itself thatmay cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock. Second, lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano. As it leaves the volcano, the lava destroys many buildings and plants it encounters. Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will harm humans if inhaled.
  8. 8. A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: , lit. "harbor wave"; is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calving, meteorite impactsand other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.
  9. 9. Effect of Tsunami Loss of life:- Tsunami leads to violent backward flow of water on the coasts. When the wave recede. In this back wash many lives are lost especially people living in coastal areas. Aquatic animal:- Animals living in sea are also badly affected.
  10. 10. Effect of TsunamiPhysical damage:- Thousand of village get damaged by the effect of Tsunami wave. Telecommunication lines, water electric wires poles, sea resorts, hotels, port facilities are destrupted.Plants:- May also get uprooted due to Tsunami wave.
  11. 11. Cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. The deadliest hurricane ever was the 1970 Bhola cyclone; the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780 which devastated Martinique, St. Eustatius and Barbados. Another notable hurricane is Hurricane Katrina whichdevastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005.
  12. 12. CAUSES OF CYCLONECause :- When moisture evaporates from ocean in hot wheather it goes up condenses andFrom clouds. Air rushes inwards to airThere it forms a swirt circular motionAround a center.
  13. 13. Effect of cyclone Crops:- Sometimes cyclone are followed by terrific wind and rains then it become more hazards. Cyclone damage standing crops and flood grains. Health:- Cyclone may bring disease causing carriers with them which affect human health negatively.
  14. 14. Drought occurs when rainfall is insufficient to maintain river flow and ground-water levels fall to such an extent that waterbecomes unavailable or almost unavailable to support life. The formal definition of drought varies from area to area.
  15. 15. Drought do not Effect of Droughtcause any structuraldamage but it affectproduction of crop,fishery productionunemployment, lossof biodiversity ,ground water.
  16. 16. A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is incontact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloudor, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referredto as a twister or a cyclone,[ although the word cyclone is used inmeteorology in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressurecirculation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but aretypically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrowend touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris anddust.
  17. 17. A limnic eruption occurs when a gas, usually CO2, suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife,livestock and humans. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such an eruption. To date, onlytwo limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded: In 1984, in Cameroon, a limnic eruption inLake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents. At nearby Lake Nyos in 1986 a much larger eruption killed between 1,700 and 1,800 people by asphyxiation.
  18. 18. An epidemic is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads at a rapid rate through ahuman population. A pandemic is an epidemicwhose spread is global. There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as BlackDeath. In epidemiology, an epidemic meaning"people"), occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceedwhat is expected based on recent experience. Epidemiologists often consider the term outbreak to be synonymous to epidemic, but the general public typically perceives outbreaks to be more local and less serious than epidemics.
  19. 19. Blizzards are severe winter storms characterized by low temperature, strong winds, and heavy snow. The differencebetween a blizzard and a snow storm is the strength of the wind. To be a considered a blizzard, the storm must have winds in excess of 35 miles per hour, it should reduce the visibility to 1/4 miles, and must last for a prolonged period of 3 hours ormore. Ground blizzards require high winds to stir up snow that has already fallen,rather than fresh snowfall. Blizzards have a negative impact on local economics andcan terminate the visibility in regions where snowfall is rare.
  20. 20. LandslideLandslide is slidingor movement of rockdown slope due toits own weight.Sliding may occurgradually orsuddenly withoutwarning
  21. 21. Effect of LandslideDestruction of housesLoss of human lifeFloodInjuriesDistruption of traffic
  22. 22. Shipping:- Tropical cyclone may to ships, fairies, boats which are anchored. It may cause an accident also.Landslide:- Usually landslide occur due to highvelocity of wind which again brings loss of houses, property and human lives.
  23. 23. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake,which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. While the size of a lake or other body ofwater will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it isnot a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area.
  24. 24. Effect of FloodDisease:- Usually floodwater mixes up with waste. So it cause many types of disease.Soil erosion:- Many plant are uprooted due to speed and pressure of floodwater. It result in soil erosion.Loss of lives:- In flood many people and cattle put their life in danger. Sometimes they meet with some injuries also.
  25. 25. Effect of FloodDisease:- Usually floodwater mixes up with waste. So it cause many types of disease.Soil erosion:- Many plant are uprooted due to speed and pressure of floodwater. It result in soil erosion.Loss of lives:- In flood many people and cattle put their life in danger. Sometimes they meet with some injuries also.
  26. 26. Conclusion Though developing countries in region vulnerable to disaster receives many development initiates andinvestment the increase and frequency and magnitude of natural catastrophes associated with economic loss and human suffering have consider only hindered those initiates. It can be seen in the chapter that human development and income level of a country are crucial determinates for deciding upon how to effectively implement risk management approaches and post disaster management initiates.

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