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Baf -module_1_-_updated_q32010

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Baf -module_1_-_updated_q32010

  1. 1. Foundations of Business Analysis Module 1 - Introduction 1
  2. 2. Certificate in Business Analysis  Foundations of Business Analysis – High level introduction to the disciples and practices of Business Analysis  Leadership in Business Analysis – Focuses on practicing the soft skills associated with Business Analysis such as: conflict management, communications, leading and facilitation  Tools and Techniques in Business Analysis – Focuses on practicing the hard skills associated with Business Analysis such as: charting, data analysis, process modeling2 2
  3. 3. A Walk through the course outline3 3
  4. 4. Welcome  Introductions  Outline of the Course Content – Week 1 – Introduction to Business Analysis – Week 2 - BA – Underlying Competencies – Week 3 – BA – Strategic / Fact Finding / Information Knowledge Techniques – Week 4 – BA – Process Knowledge / Solution Knowledge Techniques – Week 5 – Enterprise Analysis – Week 6 – Mid Term Examination4 4
  5. 5. Welcome  Outline of the Course Content (cont’d) – Week 7 – BA Planning & Monitoring – Week 8 - Requirements Elicitation – Week 9 – Requirements Analysis – Week 10 – Requirements Mgmt.& Communication – Week 11– Solution Assessment & Validation – Week 12 - Final Examination5 5
  6. 6. Case Study Work Due Week 6  Teams of 5-6  Select a study area: – Strategic / Fact Finding / Information Knowledge / Process Knowledge / Solution Knowledge  Research this area and produce a synopsis report with examples or case studies showing how these techniques are employed.6 6
  7. 7. BA Tools & Techniques  Focus Groups  Document Analysis  Interviews  Business Rules  Observation  Functional Decomposition  Requirement Workshops  Interface Analysis  Root Cause Analysis  Process Modeling  Structured Walkthrough  Scenarios & Use Cases  Surveys/Questionnaires  Sequence & State Diagrams  User Stories Strategic Information Process Solution Fact Finding Analysis Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Benchmarking  Acceptance Criteria Brainstorming  Data Dictionary/Glossary  Data Flow Diagram  Estimating Decision Analysis  Lessons Learned Process SWOT Analysis  Data Modeling  Organization Modeling  Metrics & KPIs  Non-functional Requirements  Problem Tracking  Prototyping  Risk Analysis  Scope Modeling  Vendor Assessment7 7
  8. 8. Case Study Work due Week 11  Teams of 5-6 (Different team composition)  Identify a project (An idea for improving an existing process) and develop a proposal identifying how you would use Business Analysis practices to solve the problem. – Enterprise Analysis, Business Requirements Elicitation, Requirements Analysis and Proposed Solution8 8
  9. 9. Introduction to Business Analysis Learning Outcomes: 1. What is a Business Analysis? 2. The Business Analyst’s responsibilities 3. How does the BA relate to the PM?9 9
  10. 10. Business Analysts – Why are they growing in importance?  Delivery of business solutions in an orderly, cost effective manner NEEDS trained Business Analysts to succeed – Cost overruns, poor performance of business solutions are usually caused by poorly understood and loosely managed requirements – With outsourcing there is a greater need to effectively document requirements that are universally understood – The formation of the BABOK is proof that the profession has come into its own10 10
  11. 11. What is a Business Analyst?  BA’s come with many titles…. Systems Analyst Requirements Engineer Business Systems Analyst Business Architect Process Analyst Enterprise Product Mgr. Analyst11 11
  12. 12. Where do they fit?  BA’s act as a bridge between the business and the delivery team to ensure usability of the product Quality Assurance Domain SME’s Project Business Manager Analyst Testing Group Information Architect12 12
  13. 13. What does a BA do?  Works within the business domain (the business area undergoing analysis) to produce solutions (create capability for the business) from business requirements within the constraints of time, cost and regulations  The goals of the Organization are sometimes documented in a Business Case – The BA must transform those goals into detailed requirements Wait a minute doesn’t that sound like what a project management does?13 13
  14. 14. The Big Picture Risk Schedule Budget Quality Resources Scope / Requirements14 14
  15. 15. What does a BA do? The Big Difference:  The Business Analyst elicits, analyzes, validates and documents requirements  The Business Analyst focuses on the solution (Product or Service) to ensure that it meets the needs of the organization15 15
  16. 16. What is Business Analysis? The set of tasks, knowledge, & techniques required to identify business needs & determine solutions to business problems. Solutions often include a systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement or organizational change.16 Source: Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® 16
  17. 17. How does the BA relate to the PM?  Throughout the life cycle of a project the Business Analyst and the Project Manager will work closely to deliver the project under the constraints of time and cost. The Project Manager will rely heavily on the Business Analyst in relation to the scope (Requirements) of the project since the Business Analyst must ensure that the stakeholders of the solution are satisfied17 17
  18. 18. Comparison of Certifications Project Manager Business Analyst  PMI – Proj. Mgmt. Inst.  IIBA – Intl. Inst. of Business  PMP + CAPM Analysis designation  CBAP designation  Thousands of PMP’s  Hundreds of CBAP’s  PMBoK version 4  BABoK version 2  Experience Req’d  Experience Req’d  Professional Dev. Req’d Professional Dev. Req’d  Certification Exam  Certification Exam  Maintain standing Maintain standing18 18
  19. 19. Comparison of Knowledge Topics Project Manager Business Analyst  Integration Mgmt  BA Planning + Monitoring  Scope Mgmt  Elicitation  Time Mgmt  Req. Mgmt. + Comm.  Cost Mgmt  Enterprise Analysis  Quality Mgmt  Requirements Analysis  Human Res. Mgmt  Solution Assessment +  Communications Mgmt Validation  Risk Mgmt  Underlying Competencies  Procurement Mgmt Techniques19 19
  20. 20. PM/BA Interactions – Integration Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Develop the Project  Involved in Strategy Charter  Involved in Business Case  Develop PM Plan  Involved in Feasibility  Direct/Manage Exec.  Activities are usually on the  Monitor/Control Work critical path  Perform Change  Evaluates the impact of Control change requests –  Close Project recommends alternatives Involved with lessons learned20 20
  21. 21. PM/BA Interactions – Scope Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Collect Requirements  Elicits Requirements  Define Scope  Manages Requirements  Create WBS  Analyzes Requirements  Verify Scope  Involved in Def’n of Scope  Control Scope  Involved in trade-off analysis for change requests Develop WBS for BA activities21 21
  22. 22. PM/BA Interactions – Time Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Define Activities  Develops the BA Approach  Sequence Activities  Defines BA Activities  Est. Activity Resources  Sequences BA Activities  Est. Activity Durations  Estimates BA Activities  Develop Schedule  Reports status of BA  Control Schedule Activities  Identifies time impacts of change requests22 22
  23. 23. PM/BA Interactions – Cost Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Estimate Costs  Involved in initial  Determine Budget cost/benefit analysis  Control Costs  Provides BA costs  Involved in costs impacts of change requests 23 23
  24. 24. PM/BA Interactions – Quality Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Plan Quality  Establishes performance  Perform Quality criteria (user advocate) Assurance  Establishes acceptance  Perform Quality Control criteria  Monitors product/service adherence to criteria throughout the project Identifies impact of change requests  Leads testing activities24 24
  25. 25. PM/BA Interactions – HR Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Develop HR Plan  Identify key resources  Acquire Project Team (Stakeholders, SME’s)  Develop Project Team  Ensure that project  Manage Project Team performance and acceptance criteria is understood  Lead information sessions regarding interactions with other business processes25 25
  26. 26. PM/BA Interactions - Communications Project Manager Business Analyst  Identify Stakeholders  First to deal with  Plan Communications Stakeholders  Distribute Information  Prepares and  Manage Stakeholder communicates requirements Expectations Addresses Stakeholder  Report Performance concerns and requests  Develops product/service performance reports for PM26 26
  27. 27. PM/BA Interactions – Risk Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Plan Risk Mgmt.  Identifies internal and  Identify Risks external risks  Perform Qualitative Participates in Qualitative Risk Analysis and Quantitative Risk  Perform Quantitative Analysis Risk Analysis Identifies alternative Risk  Plan Risk Responses mitigation scenarios  Participates in Risk  Monitor + Control Risks monitoring27 27
  28. 28. PM/BA Interactions – Procurement Mgmt. Project Manager Business Analyst  Plan Procurements  Identifies Procurement  Conduct Procurements requirements  Administer  Evaluates alternative Procurements sources  Close Procurements  Evaluates performance of product/service vs acceptance criteria28 28
  29. 29. PM/BA Attributes and Abilities Project Manager Business Analyst  Organized  Analytical Thinking  Problem Solving  Problem Solving  Leadership  Behavioral Understanding  Decision Making  Business Acumen  Open Communicator  Trusted Advisor  Thorough  Methodical Analyzer  Methodical  Walk the Talk29 29
  30. 30. BA Techniques – Tools of the Trade Acceptance and Evaluation Criteria Definition Brainstorming Benchmarking Structured Walkthrough Business Rule Analysis Data Dictionary and Glossary SWOT Analysis Data Flow Diagrams Scope Modeling Sequence Diagrams Decision Analysis Document Analysis Estimation Data Modeling Focus Groups Functional Decomposition State Diagrams Vendor Assessment Interface Analysis Lessons Learned Process Interviews Metrics + Key Performance Indicators Process Modeling PrototypingNon-functional Requirements Analysis Risk Analysis Observation Problem Tracking Requirements WorkshopsOrganizational Modeling User Stories Root Cause Analysis Scenarios and Use Cases Survey/Questionnaire30 30
  31. 31. BA – Techniques  Acceptance and Evaluation Criteria Definition: – To define the requirements that must be met in order for a solution to be considered acceptable to key stakeholders.  Benchmarking – Benchmark studies are performed to compare the strengths and weaknesses of an organization against peers and competitors  Brainstorming – Brainstorming is an excellent way to foster creative thinking about a problem. The aim of brainstorming is to produce numerous new ideas, and to derive from them themes for further analysis.  Business Rules Analysis – To define the rules that govern decisions in an organization and that define, constrain or enable organizational operations.  Data Dictionary and Glossary – A data dictionary or glossary defines key terms and data relevant to a business domain.31 31
  32. 32. BA - Techniques  Data Flow Diagrams – To show how information is input, processed, stored, and output from a system.  Data Modeling – The purpose of a data model is to describe the concepts relevant to a domain, the relationships between those concepts, and information associated to them.  Decision Analysis – To support decision-making when dealing with complex, difficult, or uncertain situations  Document Analysis – Document analysis is a means to elicit requirements by studying available documentation on existing and comparable solutions and identifying relevant information.  Estimation – Estimating techniques forecast the cost and effort involved in pursuing a course of action32 32
  33. 33. BA - Techniques  Focus Groups – A focus group is a means to elicit ideas and attitudes about a specific product, service or opportunity in an interactive group environment. The participants share their impressions, preferences and needs, guided by a moderator.  Functional Decomposition – To decompose processes, functional areas, or deliverables into their component parts and allow each part to be analyzed independently.  Interface Analysis – To identify interfaces between solutions and/or solution components and define requirements that describe how they will interact.  Interviews – An interview is a systematic approach designed to elicit information from a person or group of people in an informal or formal setting by talking to an interviewee, asking relevant questions and documenting the responses.  Lessons Learned Process – The purpose of the lessons learned process is to compile and document successes, opportunities for improvement, failures, and recommendations for improving the performance of future projects or project phases33 33
  34. 34. BA - Techniques  Metrics and Key Performance Indicators – The purpose of metrics and key performance indicators are to measure the performance of solutions, solution components, and other matters of interest to stakeholders.  Non-functional Requirements Analysis – The purpose of non-functional requirements is to describe the required qualities of a system, such as its usability and performance characteristics. These supplement the documentation of functional requirements, which describe the behavior of the system.  Observation – Observation is a means of eliciting requirements by conducting an assessment of the stakeholder’s work environment. This technique is appropriate when documenting details about current processes or if the project in intended to enhance or change a current process.  Organizational Modeling – Organizational Modeling is used to describe the roles, responsibilities, and reporting structures that exist within an organization and to align those structures with the organization’s goals.  Problem Tracking – Problem tracking provides an organized approach to tracking, management, and resolution of defects, issues, problems, and risks throughout business analysis activities. Management of issues is important so they can be resolved in a timely manner to ensure success.34 34
  35. 35. BA - Techniques  Process Modeling – To understand how work that involves multiple roles and departments is performed  Prototyping – Prototyping details user interfaces requirements and integrates them with other requirements such as use cases, scenarios, data and business rules. Stakeholders often find prototyping to be a concrete means of identifying, describing and validating their interface needs.  Requirements Workshops – A requirements workshop is a structured way to capture requirements. A workshop may be used to scope, discover, define, prioritize and reach closure on requirements for the target system. Well-run workshops are considered one of the most effective ways to deliver high quality requirements quickly. They promote trust, mutual understanding, and strong communications among the project stakeholders and project team and produce deliverables that structure and guide future analysis  Risk Analysis – To identify and manage areas of uncertainty that can impact an initiative, solution, or organization  Root Cause Analysis – The purpose of root cause analysis is to determine the underlying source of a problem.35 35
  36. 36. BA - Techniques  Scenarios and Use Cases – Scenarios and use cases are written to describe how an actor interacts with a solution to accomplish one or more of the actor’s goals, or to respond to an event.  Scope Modeling – Scope models are used to describe the scope of analysis or the scope of the solution.  Sequence Diagrams – Sequence diagrams are used to model the logic of usage scenarios, by showing the information passed between objects in the system through the execution of the scenario.  State Diagrams – A state diagram shows how the behavior of a concept, entity, or object changes in response to events.  Structured Walkthrough – Structured walkthroughs are performed to communicate, verify and validate requirements.36 36
  37. 37. BA - Techniques  Survey/Questionnaires – A survey is a means of eliciting information from many people, sometimes anonymously, in a relatively short period of time. A survey can collect information about customers, products, work practices and attitudes. A survey may also be referred to as a questionnaire.  SWOT Analysis – A SWOT analysis is valuable tool to quickly analyze various aspects of the current state of the business process undergoing change.  User Stories – User Stories are a brief description of functionality that users need from a solution to meet a business objective.  Vendor Assessment – To assess the ability of a potential vendor to meet commitments regarding a product or service.37 37
  38. 38. What is a requirement? Definition: “ A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective” (Source IIBA BABOK)38 38
  39. 39. Who do BA’s Support?  The BA works with a number of different stakeholders: BA Customer Domain End SME’s UserImplementation SME’s Supplier Regulator Developers,Systems Arch.Change Agents, Project Tester Sponsor Trainers, ManagerUsability Pros39 39
  40. 40. Definitions and Roles  The Requirements describe WHAT needs to be delivered (Provided by the BA) – The Requirements are then handed over to a technical delivery group in order for them to develop technical specifications  The Specifications describe HOW it will be delivered (Provided by the Technical Solution Team)  The BA must then confirm that all of the requirements have been included in the Specifications (This is called Allocation) (This is the first step in Requirements Traceability)40 40
  41. 41. What is a requirement?  Requirements come in many forms: – Business Requirement – a higher-level statements of goals, objectives or needs of the organization – Stakeholder Requirement – statements of needs for particular stakeholders or classes of stakeholders – Solution Requirements – describes the characteristics of a solution that meets business and stakeholder requirements.  Functional – describes the behavior and information that the solution must manage  Non-Functional – describes the environmental conditions under which the solution must remain effective and qualities that the systems must have – Transitional Requirements – describes the capabilities needed to get from the current state of the enterprise to the future state that will not be needed once the transition is complete41 41
  42. 42. The BA’s Role (Master of Requirements)  To act as the intermediary between the business unit(s) (clients), stakeholders and the solution delivery team  Solutions usually are focused on: – Improving efficiency – Addressing customer expectations – Delivering necessary capability42 42
  43. 43. The BA’s Responsibilities - Needs  Understands the business capability that the organization needs to develop in order to achieve its goals (what is needed) (Enterprise Analysis)  Understands the stakeholders who need to participate in the development of this capability  Participates in Business Case Development  Gathers, analyzes, documents requirements and presents them in a meaningful form to all stakeholders to ensure completeness (Elicitation, Analysis)  Prepares the formal Business Requirements Document  Tailor the documents so they are understood by the resources who are charged with developing and delivering the solution43 43
  44. 44. The BA’s Responsibilities - Delivery  Determines the Solution approach to be followed (Requirements Mgmt.)  Facilitates the development of the solution with the solution delivery team  Ensures that the solution remains consistent with the formal Business Requirements Document (Traceability)  Participates actively in solution risk assessment, prototyping, testing and change management  Monitors the solution to ensure that it achieves the desired performance characteristics (Validation)44 44
  45. 45. The BA’s Responsibilities - Deliverables  Business Case development  Sourcing Activities – RFP’s  BA’s Activity planning - Estimating  Requirements documents - BRD  Modeling – Data Flow  Charting – Process Flow (As is, To Be)  Ensure Requirements are satisfied thru testing  Acceptance of the solution45 45
  46. 46. Requirements Management Disciplines  Composed of 8 Activities: – Enterprise Analysis Week 5 – Requirements Planning Week 7 – Requirements Elicitation Week 8 – Requirements Analysis Week 9 – Requirements Documentation Week 10 – Requirements Communication Week 10 – Requirements Implementation Week 11 – Requirements Management Week 1146 46
  47. 47. Enterprise Analysis  Look at the Big Picture  Analyze what the business needs to satisfy its goals  Look into potential options and evaluate them for profitability and do-ability  Provide the initial scope statement to direct future activities47 47
  48. 48. Requirements Planning  Stipulate the deliverables that the BA will be responsible to produce  Identifies the time and cost elements for the project plan  Outlines how the requirements will be tracked and managed after the initial scope has been approved48 48
  49. 49. Requirements Elicitation  Identifies the types of elicitation activities to be performed  Gathers requirements by executing against the elicitation plan  May require many repeat activities to ensure that all stakeholders are interviewed49 49
  50. 50. Requirements Analysis  Review the requirements to ensure that they are complete and comprehensive  Ensure that any conflicting requirements are resolved between the stakeholders  Organize the requirements into logical groupings and prioritize the requirements into acceptable phases for delivery50 50
  51. 51. Requirements Documentation  Produce understandable requirements in formats relevant to each type of stakeholder  Breakdown a large topic into building blocks showing relationships and dependencies  Produce diagrams and charts where necessary to convey complex information – Process models, Activity diagrams, Use cases, – Data Flow Diagrams, Entity Relationship Diagrams…51 51
  52. 52. Requirements Communication  Inform the stakeholders using demonstrations, presentations and any other means necessary to ensure that they each commonly understand the requirements  Ensure that sign-off is achieved prior to commencing the next stage of work52 52
  53. 53. Requirements Implementation  Ensure that outsourced functionality is verified  Ensure that adequate testing is performed  Ensure that risk assessment is performed  Provide support for data conversion and other transition activities53 53
  54. 54. Requirements Management  Conduct traceability activities to ensure that the all requirements are delivered throughout the project phases – Ensure that no extra functionality is allowed to be included in the scope without going through the change management process  Engage in Trade-off assessment when multiple options for delivery of a solution are available54 54
  55. 55. Recap:  What is a BA  How the BA’s role is compared to the PM role  What knowledge a PM is required to possess  Where the BA fits in the project environment55 55

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