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### Research ppt

1. 1. Stratified Sampling <ul><li>First we divide the pop by certain characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Gender, age, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>based on key independent variables </li></ul><ul><li>each sub-population is called stratum </li></ul><ul><li>Each stratum is mutually exclusive set of elements </li></ul>
2. 2. Cont’d <ul><li>finally using SRS or SS, we sample from each stratum </li></ul><ul><li>Used to examine the r/ship b/n independent (criteria for stratification) and dependent variable; </li></ul><ul><li>To make comparisons among sub-pop </li></ul><ul><li>And used to reduce sampling error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* prior information about the pop is required </li></ul></ul>
3. 3. Cont’d <ul><li>Disproportionate Stratified Sampling- equal sample size from each stratum </li></ul><ul><li>Proportionate Stratified Sampling - proportional sample size from each stratum </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Use SS only if there is significant difference across the strata </li></ul>
4. 4. Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling <ul><li>For population without exhaustive list (SF) </li></ul><ul><li>Or when it is impossible to compile a complete list of the elements (SF) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves sampling of natural clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Schools, kebeles, industries, etc </li></ul></ul>
5. 5. Cont’d <ul><li>Followed by selection of elements from the clusters using SRS or SS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Addis Ababa households’ mode of transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involves listing and sampling at d/t stage </li></ul><ul><li>It involves two or more sampling error </li></ul>
6. 6. Stratified Multi-stage Cluster Sampling <ul><li>Involves grouping of clusters with similar characteristics; </li></ul><ul><li>Then selecting clusters from each group of similar clusters; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Lideta Sub-city poverty study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratification can take place at each stage of sampling </li></ul>
7. 7. Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) Sampling <ul><li>In most cluster sampling small clusters tend to disproportionately represented </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid this we give equal chance of selection </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving each cluster chance of selection proportionate to its size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then selecting equal sample size from each cluster </li></ul></ul>
8. 8. Cont’d <ul><li>Illustration: suppose we want to sample 1/10 th of 5 clusters, in which the clusters have 50,100, 200, 300 and 400 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will give a proportion of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PPS is used to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit selection of more clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure representation of large clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal chance of being selection to the pop </li></ul></ul>
9. 9. Cont’d <ul><li>PPS is applied under 3 conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When dealing with unevenly distributed clusters; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With large sample size w/c can be broken into clusters; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we have data on the proportion of each cluster. </li></ul></ul>
10. 10. Sample Size <ul><li>Sample size depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogeneity of the pop, strata or cluster; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>size of the sub-group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>precision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEM=sd/√n </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The larger the sample size the the lower the sampling error </li></ul></ul></ul>
11. 11. Non-probability sampling <ul><li>Purposive or judgmental sampling: Sample selected because of their unique position in the pop understudy; </li></ul><ul><li>Quota Sampling : selected to represent a certain characteristics or group in a pop. </li></ul>
12. 12. Measurement and Meaning <ul><li>Concept : is a mental image that summarize similar observations, idea, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Poverty, slum, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Definition : specification of the meaning of each concept in a research to enable measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Slum is ‘a heavily populated urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>area characterized by substandard housing and squalor’. </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. Cont’d <ul><li>Operational Definition: a definition by which we make the concept measurable, using indicators. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Slum- • inadequate access to safe water; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• poor structural quality of housing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• overcrowding; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• insecure residential status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
14. 14. Level of Measurement <ul><li>There are 4 levels to measure variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Variable : mutually exclusive categories. With no ordering. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Sex, marital status, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ordinal Variable : categories ordered or ranked in sequential manner. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Class rank, social class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interval-Ratio Variable: logical, ordered and defined in terms of a standard unit of </li></ul><ul><li>measurement. </li></ul>
15. 15. Cont’d <ul><li>Usually have a zero point- i.e. absence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Age, land area, distance from city-center etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete variable- integer number of values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Age, family size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Variable- assume a decimal number of values. Eg. Distance, area, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: the statistical analysis that we apply differs to each level of measurement and to the two types of variables. </li></ul></ul>
16. 16. Instrument Design <ul><li>Questionnaires are set of questions or statements which we used to gather data in survey research. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended- respondent gives his own answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. What is your attitude towards Addis trans? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close-ended- respondents selects from the choices provided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. How do you grade urban trans in Addis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Fair Bad </li></ul></ul>
17. 17. Guide to Question Construction <ul><li>Respondents must be competent to answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. What kind of planning technique should AACA apply? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use vocabulary that respondents can understand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg . What issues should be considered in urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development strategy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make items clear- avoid ambiguous questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Do you live near Mekato? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you visit a doctor? </li></ul></ul></ul>
18. 18. Cont’d <ul><li>Avoid Negative Items- respondents might agree with the –ve one while they mean +ve one. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Should not the AACA invest on infrastructure development? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid Double Barreled Questions- two questions in one question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. What is your opinion about the urban policy and its implementation in Ethiopia? </li></ul></ul>
19. 19. Cont’d <ul><li>Format questions in a sequential order and bring together similar questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. SD, Mig. History, family condition, living condition and finally empl’t condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid biased items or labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Fascist, racist, fundamentalist, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contingent questions should be asked to the relevant respondents. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Are you married? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> If yes, does your spouse have a job? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> How old are you? </li></ul></ul>
20. 20. Cont’d <ul><li>The purpose of the research should have to be clearly indicated in the beginning of the questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>General and specific instruction of the questionnaire should have to be clearly indicated </li></ul>
21. 21. Cont’d <ul><li>There are two types of questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Self-administered – filled by the respondent him/herself; </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerator administered- filled by an interviewer. </li></ul>
22. 22. Other methods of data collection <ul><li>Sample survey enables us to collect data from large amount of respondents using a representative sample </li></ul><ul><li>But its broad coverage make to gather shallow data. </li></ul><ul><li>When we want to collect in-depth information we use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth interview; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group Discussion; and other methods </li></ul></ul>
23. 23. In-depth Interview <ul><li>Used to collect detailed information using semi-structured interview guide </li></ul><ul><li>The guide is set of generic open ended questions and probing questions </li></ul><ul><li>The guide only lead the flow of the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Probing is basic tool in this method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. What do you know about low cost housing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCH vis-à-vis affordability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCH vis-à-vis efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCH vis-à-vis quality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
24. 24. Cont’d <ul><ul><li>Interviewee is given freedom of expression in his own words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable to collect depth information on our research topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually used with experts, officials, knowledgeable community members, etc </li></ul></ul>
25. 25. Cont’d <ul><li>Taking note and recording the interview is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by the interviewer skill; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to compare responses in a rigorous way. </li></ul></ul>
26. 26. Focus Group Discussion <ul><li>Used to gather information from a discussion of a group by giving them a topic of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Group interaction b/n respondents will stimulate richer responses </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewer can observe the discussion and understand their feeling, behaviors, attitudes, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Usually have 6-12 members and a moderator, but a group size of 8 is preferable </li></ul><ul><li>The moderator is expected only to raise topic of discussion and facilitate the discussion </li></ul>
27. 27. Cont’d <ul><li>The group should be a homogeneous group and it is better if they are acquainted </li></ul><ul><li>If the FGD is handled by a skilled moderator it enables to generate detailed and valid data </li></ul><ul><li>The moderator should control the flow of the discussion using a checklist </li></ul><ul><li>In FGD also probing is important </li></ul><ul><li>And the moderator has to take note and use a tape recorder </li></ul>
28. 28. The Research Paper <ul><li>Finding and narrowing the Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the general topic or issue of research (from the literature or from our experience); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the evidence or literature review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the knowledge gap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>then we make the research problem precise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>every research report should have to clearly state the research problem in the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research problem is the k’ge gap to be filled by the research not social problem </li></ul></ul>
29. 29. 2. Formulating Research Questions <ul><li>This are question that the research is going to address </li></ul><ul><li>After clearly setting the RP, we will split the RP into specific answerable research questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. RP- the K. 10 housing condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is the structural conditions of the houses in the kebele? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What services and amenities does the residents receive? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is the provision of basic infrastructure in the kebele? </li></ul></ul></ul>
30. 30. 3. Composing the Paper <ul><li>Academic research report should have to be organized in a manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction-literature review-methods-result-conclusion-recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction - describes related research and explains what your work contributes and why it is important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It sketches out the objectives, research questions, hypothesis, scope and organization of the report. </li></ul></ul>
31. 31. Cont’d <ul><li>b) Literature Review - presents the summary of theoretical and empirical findings related with the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>c) Methods - this section describes each steps that the study applied in collecting and analyzing the data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it presents the methodology used, the survey design, the sampling technique applied, the sample size, the composition of the sample and methods of data analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, the characteristics of the population is described. </li></ul></ul>
32. 32. Cont’d <ul><li>Result - should summarize the data and the inferences drawn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should have to answer the research questions raised in the introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should include tables and figures to explain the variables understudy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result section should be sub-divided into sub-topics and arranged in an organized manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result should critically analyzed using other evidences and theories </li></ul></ul>
33. 33. Cont’d <ul><ul><li>Draw the conclusion from your findings and discuss the possible significance of your findings (recommendation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And indicate areas of further research </li></ul></ul>
34. 34. Editing <ul><li>The research report should be readable, therefore we should have to make proper editing work before submitting the report. </li></ul><ul><li>Word Choice - avoid undefined adjectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Deep, wonderful, near, many, little </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical connection with sentences - there should be a logical flow of sentences in a paragraph. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- There should have to be coherence b/n sentences. </li></ul></ul>
35. 35. Cont’d <ul><li>Avoid to be & passive voice - verb to be (is, was, were, will be) and passive voice makes our description static. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid informal language - conveying our finding in an informal language makes to seem thoughtless. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Really was not upset, didn’t, ain’t, all of a sudden etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep your summary, paraphrase and quotation as short as possible and harmonize the quote into your paper </li></ul>
36. 36. Documentation <ul><li>Every works quoted or paraphrased from other sources should be properly cited. </li></ul><ul><li>We use in-text citation (the new MLA) method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Modern urban planning has arisen in response to social and econ problems (Neil 56) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Neil …(56) </li></ul></ul>
37. 37. Cont’d <ul><li>We can also use Author-Date system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Modern urban … (Neil, 2004:56) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to Neil … (2004:56) </li></ul></ul></ul>
38. 38. Referencing <ul><li>You should have to enlist every material you used in the bibliography section. </li></ul><ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neil, William J.V. (2004) Urban planning and Cultural Identity. London: Routledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Books with editor </li></ul><ul><li>Journal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morello, Jorge (2000)’Urbanization and Ecology’ . In Third World Planning Review , Vol. 22 No. 4, 2000, pp 119-132 </li></ul></ul>