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Team building


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Team building

  1. 1. What do you do with football skills and stamina?Team Building { The Road to Success Copyright: Rinus Michels, Netherlands
  2. 2. General Introduction  Types of Team Building  Complexity of Football  Limits of Team Building  External Factors on the Psychological Team Building Process  Levels of Development  Steps in the Development Process  Performance Level  Value of the Team Building
  3. 3. General IntroductionLeonard Bernstein, conductor, orchestra leader:”Individually you are very accomplished, but as an orchestra youwill have to travel a long and difficult road. You think you haveachieved the ultimate level, but the perfection of the orchestra can betaken from 95 to 100 % Not enough that you play your own instrument correctly, you must also be harmonic with the orchestra Football coach must think how he/she can create a team that can produce the best possible outcome in difficult (constantly pressurized) situation No note book The quality of the players The quality of the coach
  4. 4. General IntroductionAnticipation and Decision Making Constantly changing situation Hundreds of Millions of possibilities during the match Split-second decision making Take into account your team-mates and the opponents Team efficiency vs showing off The aim of the match Outside pressure Money Perfect match? Pro level, amateur level –any difference in the pressure to succeed?
  5. 5. General IntroductionPressure to Succeed Ever higher demands for the peformance level of the team Striving to perfection Team defensive preformance Result: higher demands on attacking and building up -qualities Individual and team level Structural learning process Academies Awareness of the team tactical effectivity Cohesiveness of the team Match analyses as the key
  6. 6. General IntroductionTypes of Team BuildingTeamwork is as old as the game itself.  Increasing demands and pressure put on the coaches and players  Structural means which help the players perform  More speed & higher difficulty level -> players have to perform at a higher level  Individually and within the team  Players had much more time in the earlier days!  PSYCHOLOGICAL team building process  TEAM TACTICAL team building process
  7. 7. General Introduction Psychological Team Building Process Obvious approach Better mentality – better environment for the team tactical team building process Players’ willingness to work – MOTIVATION! Willingness to win What works today. Is not guaranteed to work tomorrow -> remain alert Changes in the tension level – which factors affect?-> the coach must stay alert in each training session and feel the atmosphere & ACTACCORDING TO THE MENTAL ATTITUDE OF THE PLAYERS Before the game During the game: positive and negative developments  Tact, harshness, continuous improvement  Consistent, clear and honest behaviour from the coach!
  8. 8. General IntroductionThe Team Tactical Team Building Process At least as imortant as mental team building Team tactics a structural process Based on a developed playing style Reguires strucutral training work using clear team tactical guidelines  Organizational team building  Strategical team building  Tactical team building
  9. 9. General Introduction Organizational team building  Concerns the guidelines of team organization, team structure and the organizational form (4-4-2, 4-3-3 and so on)  Traffic lights – prevent chaos  Every player has a role and function within the team organization  Conduct through experience  Action is taken fast and ”automatically”  Too stiff approach? Strategical team building A series of guidelines how a team or a line or a group defend, build up, or attack Continuous positioning in relation to each other
  10. 10. General Introduction Tactical team building Football is complex How to prepare team tactically to  Connection between the complexity the match next Saturday? of the game and the quality of the players Which variations do I use?  The best players are very clever (~ Based upon specific resistances the up 5 % of the people) from a match  Space and time –dimensions in a match – quick reflection to upcoming situations  In comparison to the business world, space and time –dimensions are different
  11. 11. General IntroductionComplexity Factors of Team Building Team tactically the most Size of the team Unpredictability demanding sport Roles of the individuals; versatility is expected  Continuous action Most decisicive demands placed on individual qualities of players  Technically  Physically (incl. psychologically) Players are  Tactically (insight) directors  Intelligence, fast reaction to altering situations  All players are ”quarterbacks” Players’ sport Played by feet discipline Contact sport Adequate training, team spirit Playing time, tempo -> physical
  12. 12. General IntroductionThe Complexity of football is determined by The size of the team Individual qualities combined with versatility Unpredictability: the players have to make quick TEAM EFFICIENT decisions out of several options in ever changing situations The ball is played with feet Physical contact sport The duration of the match The measurements of the field Players’ game team tactically Constant action Team tactical guidelines a Tempo necessity
  13. 13. General IntroductionLimitations of Succeeding in the Team Building Every coach attempts to improve his team’s performance by helping to develop an extra team tactical dimension in every player = team efficiency/ by each member of the team  Scoring chances can be created by good team play, but the team needs a player with the ability to score in order to succeed  The same goes with other roles ~ duels
  14. 14. General Introduction Limitations in Succeeding in the Team Building  Quality of the players (most important factor)  Physics, technics, mentality, tacticsLIMITING FACTORS:  Balance  Between defending, building up and attacking  One of the most difficult tasks of the coach  Success  Powerful weapon in team building process  Opponent  The countermeasures  What worked in the last game won’t necessarily work in the next one  Unpredictability  WC 1978 Luck  CL Final 1999
  15. 15. General IntroductionPsychological Team Building ProcessExternal FactorsPerformance level is never a constant factorTension between self-interest and the interest of the team  Power struggle  Between board members, coach and bms, coach and assistant coach…  Self-interest vs the best of the team  Statements  Board member, a coach, a player,…  The coach must always be on the look-out & focus on TBP!  Only the coach is able to build a team and a team efficient style of play -> the coach must have credibility and clear football vision  Self-confidence  Not the big picture, but the details are what matter
  16. 16. General IntroductionLevels of DevelopmentAll levels  Challenges of coaches at all levels  Make players perform better  Reach the limits of the performance level of the team  Big difference in the potential of all players in the talent pool -> difference in quality  Coach must possess an adequate technical level (exceptions?)  Theoretical knowledge of the game  Theoretical knowledge of the team building process  Ability to communicate  No more street football – compensation  Whoever wins is correct??  Youth football: keeping the players busy vs teaching the game  Organizing the training sessions efficiently  Training football realistic situations
  17. 17. General IntroductionWorld Class Level of Development  Relationship betw. Team Building and Performance Level  Brazil 1994  In 1970, Brazil used 4-2-4, in 1980s 4-4-2  Also Parreira used 4-4-2 from the preparation on  Everyone must take a part in defence, even Romario  Few touches during the build up - midfielders  Team spirit vs the stars – dream of all the Brazilians  Unity and Team Spirit No money talk in the team – ”WC bigger than money”  No press, family members, agents, fríends to the training camp The team members could only communicate with each other in the training camp  Scrimmages especially helpful  Not the result but the execution what counted
  18. 18. General IntroductionWorld Class Level of Development  Relationship betw. Team Building and Performance Level Why was Parreira’s 4-4-2 different?  Full backs helped in build up  Centre backs covered the positionsof full backs  The role of defending midfielders in defence and attack  Attackers had to move a lot and go deep  Not allowedto play close to each other durin the build up  Had to be able to receive the ball in the flanks and behind the defensive line  Shifts according to the state of possession were practiced over and over -> by varying the line-up this became familiar TEAM EFFICIENCY was the key word -> UNITY was clear  Compare with Barca of Guardiola
  19. 19. General Introduction Steps in the Development ProcessA rapid development of team tactics in the modern football since 2000- the necessity to win has grown (places in big competitions a.s.o)  When the ball is lost it has to be taken back, everyone is responsible – there are no hiding places  Lightning fast transition from a team function to another, and MOST IMPORTANT is to act in the most team efficient manner in each situation -> UNITY, no false running -> efficiency - Compare with Barca of Guardiola, or Athletic of Bielsa - Individual qualities of the players: physical, mental, tactical  Good coaching is a must  Team tactical coaching; break the match down and analyze  Not enough to rely on experiences as a player  Video analyses take hours (Guardiola a.o.)  Still, each player can increase his value to the team by improving his insight  The hardest part: planning and executing the training sessions to serve the team tactical development – most coaches don’t make it  Simulate the match situtations in exercises
  20. 20. General Introduction Steps in the Development Process (cont.) Practise team tactical positional games in a real high tempo Team efficient speed of action  Quality of the individuals  Positioning of the teammates Glue of the team spirit Problem: lack of professionalism of the leading players -> resist the exercises A good coach demands high tempo and accuracy (game mentality) -> team spirit If you succeed, t he players will make the exercises as their own Success: when team building process (tactically, psychoogically) is mastered to the minutest detail A new face as a coach is usually needed after few years, otherwise the players must be changed periodically (crediblity) Cataloque = frame of reference when regularly working on improving the perfrormance level
  21. 21. General Introduction Performance LevelThe building blocks of the most reachable performance level The most negative influences on this: The individual qualities of the - lack of key players - Lack of success players - Negative audience - As much as possible in - Too many changes in trainers compliance with the team - Lack of flexibility in relation to a realistic structure and style of play style of play - Sufficient´ly balanced in game - Negative internal and external factors in mentality/qualities relation to the team building process - Excellent training qualities - Budget problems at the club - Well developed team building - Wrong coach in a wrong place qualities (mental and team - Lack of challenges tactical) - Youth education does not have a center stage - Overestimating and underestimating the opponent
  22. 22. The Evolution of Football Introduction Top Coaches  Mario Zagallo (att. style of play)  Helenio Herrera (def. style of play)  Sir Alf Ramsey (the demise of the wing forwards)  Rinus Michels (total and pressure football)  Franz Beckenbauer (5-3-2)  Johan Cruijff (3-4-3)  Louis van Gaal (further development of 3-4-3)  Sir Alex Ferguson  Marcelo Bielsa (argentinian developer of the 4-3-3 -play  Jose Mourinho (players coach)  Josip ”Pep” Guardiola (dev. total and pressure football)
  23. 23. The Evolution of Football IntroductionToday’s pressure football- demands team tactical maturity from all players- Total soccer was introduced in the early 70s – now the most applied team tactical strategy- Pressure football is carried out by 11 players, each player has his own task (c.)- The aim is to play in the opposite’s side: press and disturb and prevent build-up as early as possible - Force them to deliver an inaccurate pass or rotate from backwords again to gain time to get organised - Or get the possession on the opponents’s half and make a quick transition Especially well developed in Spain and earlier in England
  24. 24. The Evolution of Football IntroductionCombination play/high quality positional play- ”A must”- Individual qualities- Positioning and timing- Passing and timing- Decision-making- Ball-control: give up the ball soon enough - Crucial in the build-up The best team efficient solutions Individual qualities of the players have developed /average level  Higher demands all the time - Team tactical aspects and skills must be taught as early as possible - High quality coaches - Youth educational system - As a whole
  25. 25. The Evolution of Football Introduction More speed, higher tempo, more pressure in the opposite’s side, less time - Each coach has to be able to develop a personal style of play - Correct balance is required - Ready made style of play - Tactical changes, variations – developed and practiced beforehand - Entails a lot of training work and tactical talk - Only a skilled coach can do - Theoretically and practically  Incredible difference between the games of the 60’s and 70’s compared to today’s  Especially in the transition and pressing  Speed of play - Individual qualities determine the level of performance - High quality coaches - Modern team building mechanism - Difference between friendly matches and competitive matches
  26. 26. Top-Notch Coaches”The evolution can be attributed in the influence of a few coaches(and players), who have innovated new dimensios in the game” Mario ZagalloAttacking style of play- Evolution from the 50’s- WC 1970: 4-2-4- Main focus ín building up and attacking functions- Defensively covering of space instead of opponent - Each player must participate - Pelé, Tostao, Rivelino, Jairzinho Imitated and developed in Holland, and later in Barcelona, and in the teams of Bielsa Risky style – demands high quality players in every line  Players must have been brought up in this style  Lack of Culture  Courage from the coaches – FREEDOM (?!)  A style of lay must be realistic -> success AT THE TOP  Not a product of idealism!
  27. 27. Top-Notch Coaches Sir Alf Ramsey – the developer of 4-4-2- Replaced the classical wing attackers with midfield wingers who had also an attacking task Franz Beckenbauer : 5-3-2- Defencive version 5-3-2- Attacking version 3-5-2- Two man-to-man markers in the center- A sweeper who played defensively behind them and offensively in front of them- Defenders in the wings who have duties in the build-up- Must cover the whole field from end line to end line- Cautious style of play- Several possible variations in the build-up and attacking strategies
  28. 28. Top-Notch CoachesRinus Michels: total- and pressure football – 4-3-3 Total football (Ajax of the 70’s) - Required actions during the build-up and attack to break through the enforced defenses - The surprise effect continuous changes in positions within and between the three lines - All players may and must take part in the build-up and attack as long as they look after their defensive tasks - Very demanding style of play individually and team tactically - Each player must participatePressure football (Team Holland in the 70’s and ’88) ”The Hunt”- Hunt for the ball, regaining the possession asap- All three lines push up and play close to each other – familiar?- Lots of free space in the own half – vulnerability- Quick transitions when the ball is lost and won- Demands years of team building and choosing players- Demands very much practice of small details – movements and tasks- Positive mentality of each player a PREREQUISITE
  29. 29. The Evolution of Football IntroductionMore speed, higher tempo, more pressure in the opposite’s side, less time- Each coach has to be able to develop a personal style of play- Correct balance is required- Ready made style of play- Tactical changes, variations – developed and practiced beforehand - Entails a lot of training work and tactical talk - Only a skilled coach can do - Theoretically and practically Incredible difference between the games of the 60’s and 70’s compared to today’s  Especially in the transition and pressing  Speed of play - Individual qualities determine the level of performance - High quality coaches - Modern team building mechanism - Difference between friendly matches and competitive matches
  30. 30. The Ground Rules of The TeamTactical TeamBuilding -Process  Organizational guidelines  Strategical Team Tactical Guidelines  Personal Choice  Strategical Guidelines Per Team Function  Strategic Team Tactical Guidelines
  31. 31. Team Tactical Team Building Organizational Guidelines  Organizational forms  Basic Tasks within the Organizational Form  The Balance  The Defensive Team Function as The Starting Point
  32. 32. Team Tactical Team Building Strategic Team Tactical Guidelines  Guidelines for the Play-Making Strategy  Guidelines for the Counter Attack Strategy
  33. 33. Team Tactical Team Building Strategic Guidelines per Team Function  Defensive Strategies as the Basis  Build Up -Strategies  Attacking Strategies
  34. 34. The Ground Rules of the PsychologicalTeamBuilding Process Harmony  The Credibility of the Rules of Conduct – On and Off Coach the Field  Consult Situation Team Hierarchy  Communication Kingdoms  Training Camps Clear Objectives  Atmosphere Common Enemy  Success Culture of the Club  Summarizing Strategy of Confrontation
  35. 35. Summarizing  The Corporate World  The Dream  Structural Process  Communication  Dynamics  Credibility  Team Spirit  Guidelines  Leadership
  36. 36. The Soccer Learning Process  Guidelines to Each Age Category  5 y old  6-8 y old  10-12 y old  12-14 y old  14-16 y old  16-18 y old  18-21 years old (Final Phase)  Structured Training Sessions  Organization  Gifted and Non-Gifted
  37. 37. Translation to the Training Pitch  General Criteria  Organization  Most Common Mistakes Made in Team Tactical Training  Activities That Focus on Team Tactical Assignments  Team Tactical Exercises
  38. 38. Team Tactical Exercises  Defensive Cohesiveness in the Defensive Line While Under Attacking Pressure  The Cogwheels of the Team Tactical Training Mechanism  Destrctive TeamTactical Abilities as an Example of a Tactical Training Activity in Defense  Build Up Team Function
  39. 39. Perceiving the Value of the TeamBuilding Activities Value added acts Non-value added acts the Style of Play  Arguments between members of The Formation of the Team the team Activities That Focus on Team  External factors Tactical Assignments  Selfishness Make Each Player Fully  Activities Lacking the Team Understand his/her role in the Building Function squad  Team Tactical Exercises Team Tactical Exercises  a Coach Just Exposing Himself