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RBM and LFA

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Course material on Project Management

RBM and LFA

  1. 1. 1 Results-Based Management (RBM): Logical Framework Approach (LFA) for the project idea development Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  2. 2. RBM and Logical Framework Approach (LFA) The LFA is an RBM tool used for systematic planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating projects/programs. It is applicable in different levels: from local/micro project level to the large global development programs 2 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  3. 3. Logical framework 3 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  4. 4. The Logical Framework Approach (i) 4 Features of LFA : • stakeholder involvement • needs-based approach • logical intervention approach • framework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainability Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  5. 5. 5 The Logical Framework Approach (ii) Features of LFA : • results-oriented – not activity driven • logically sets objectives and their causal relationships • shows whether objectives have been achieved: Indicators • describes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  6. 6. 6 Main steps: • Stakeholder Analysis • SWOT Analysis • Problem Tree Analysis • Objective Tree Analysis • Logical Framework Matrix • Monitoring and evaluation LFA Key Features Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  7. 7. 7 The Logframe Matrix • The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix. • The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, outputs and activities in a systematic and logical way. • The basic Logframe matrix contains 16 cells organized into 4 columns and 4 rows, as indicated in the next slide: Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  8. 8. 8 The Logical Framework Matrix Objectives & activities Purpose/ (Outcome) Goal (Impact) Outputs Activities Means Indicators Means of verification Assumptions What needs to be fulfilled before activities can start Pre-conditions Cost Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  9. 9. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology 9
  10. 10. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholder is any individuals, group or organization, community, with an interest in the outcome of a programme/project. 10 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  11. 11. Stakeholder Analysis Purpose: To identify • The needs and interest of stakeholders • The organizations, groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the project; • Potential risks that could put at risk programme; • Opportunities in implementing a programme; 11 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  12. 12. SWOT ANALYSIS 12 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  13. 13. SWOT Analysis (i) Purpose: • To assess the performance and capacity of the participating units, divisions of organization. • Each participating unit has to undertake SWOT analysis. 13 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  14. 14. SWOT Analysis (ii) • SWOT analysis is a tool for institutional appraisal and a brainstorming exercise in which the representatives of the organization participate fully. 14 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  15. 15. 15 SWOT Analysis (iii) SWOT stands for: • Strengths - the positive internal attributes of the organisation • Weaknesses - the negative internal attributes of the organisation • Opportunities - external factors which could improve the organisation’s prospects • Threats - external factors which could undermine the organisation’s prospects Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  16. 16. PROBLEM TREE ANALYSIS 16 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  17. 17. 17 Purpose: - to identify major problems and their main causal relationships. Output: problem tree with cause and effects Problem Tree Analysis Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  18. 18. Steps in Undertaking Problem Tree 1. Identify the major problems that the project will address. State problems in negative manner. 2. Group problems by similarity of concerns. 3. Develop the problem tree: a) Select a focal problem from the list and relate other problems to the focal problem. b) If the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problem c) If the problem is an effect of the focal problem is goes above 18 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  19. 19. 19 Problem Tree Scheme CAUSE EFFECT Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  20. 20. OBJECTIVE TREE 20 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  21. 21. Analysis of Objectives • Transforming the problem tree into an objectives tree by restating the problems as objectives. • Problem statement converted in to positive statements • Top of the tree is the end that is desired • Lower levels are the means to achieving the end. 21 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  22. 22. 22 Objectives Tree Ends Means * Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  23. 23. The relationship between the problems tree and the objective tree PROBLEM TREE OBJECTIVE TREE • Focal problem Project Purpose • Effects Overall Objectives • Causes Results 23 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  24. 24. STRATEGY ANALYSIS 24 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  25. 25. Strategy Analysis (i) • The aim of strategy analysis is division of the objectives tree into more consistent smaller sub- units that may, compose the core for a project. • Each of the sub-units of the objective tree can represent an alternative strategy for the future project. • The project objectives set the framework for the strategy of the project. 25 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  26. 26. Strategy Analysis (ii) Criteria for selection of the project strategy: 1. RELEVANCE: the strategy corresponds to the needs of the stakeholders. 2. EFFECTIVENESS: the lower level objectives of the strategy will contribute to achievement of the project purpose 3. EFFICIENCY: cost-effectiveness of the strategy in transforming the means into results. 4. CONSISTENT with development policies 5. SUSTAINABILITY of the project 6. ASSUMPTIONS and RISKS 26 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  27. 27. 27 Assumptions (i) • Describe necessary internal and external conditions in order to ensure that the activities will produce results • Assumptions are risks, which can jeopardize the success of the project • Are worded positively, i.e. they describe circumstances required to achieve certain objectives Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  28. 28. 28 Assumptions (ii) • Should be relevant and probable • If an assumption is not important or almost certain: Do not include • If an assumption is unlikely to occur: Killer assumption – abandon project Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  29. 29. 29 Assumptions (iii) • Example of Assumptions for the Goal and Purpose: – Political – stability of NSO and government staff – Economic – sustainable economy – Etc. Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  30. 30. 30 Assumptions (iv) • Example of Assumptions: – Adequate funds materials. – Skilled people – training needs. – Approvals & contracts – legal, administrative. – Participation of stakeholders. Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  31. 31. 31 The logical framework Outcome Impact Outputs Activities Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  32. 32. 32 Indicators (i) • Indicators measure to verify to what extant the results are achieved. • Specify how the achievement of an objective can be verified or demonstrated • Provide a basis for Monitoring and Evaluation • 3 Dimensions of Indicators – Quantity – Quality – Time Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  33. 33. 33 Indicators (ii) Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  34. 34. Means of Verification • Tools or means to obtain the information required by the indicators • Include: • project documents • field verification • ad-hoc studies 34 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  35. 35. 35 Results Chain & Logical Framework Matrix RBM Result Result Result Goal/Impact Result Purpose/ Outcome Output Activities LFA Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  36. 36. MONITORING 36 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  37. 37. Monitoring and Evaluation • Based on the logical framework • Strengthens accountability and transparency • Provides information for effective management • Helps determine what works well and what requires improvement • Builds knowledge 37 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  38. 38. 38 Purpose of Monitoring and Evaluation It is the continuous process of collecting, processing and assessing information about the: – Project implementation – Project progress – Project impact and effects – Project environment Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  39. 39. 39 Monitoring (i) Continuous function that aims to provide early indications of progress or lack thereof in the achievement of results Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  40. 40. 40 Monitoring (ii) • Assumes the validity of the existing plan • Takes place at project level • Is the responsibility of the project management • Is based on the indicators defined in the logical framework Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  41. 41. 41 Monitoring Responsibility • Project Management – Activities – Output indicators – Early outcome indicators • Project Target Group – Outcome indicators – Impact indicators Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  42. 42. EVALUATION 42 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  43. 43. 43 Evaluation • Time-bound exercise to assess the relevance, performance and success of on-going or completed projects • Questions the validity of existing planning • Is related to the impact of a project • Opens the mind for strategic adjustments Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  44. 44. Evaluation plan frame 44 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  45. 45. 45 Evaluation Quality Criteria • Relevance (overall) • Efficiency (activities, outputs) • Effectiveness (outputs, outcome) • Impact (outcome, impact) • Sustainability (outcome, impact) Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology
  46. 46. TASK 2 START PHASES (1) 1- List environmental protection problems which you think to be related to the each other 2 -Select Fiscal (Main problem) 3 – Think the listed problems, which of them are causes or effects of the fiscal problem…if any 4 – Develop your problem tree Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology 46
  47. 47. TASK 2 START PHASES (2) 1- Turn your problem tree into objectives tree 2 – Start to develop Logical Framework Matrix Your should return the task result in LF matrix form into the Moodle drop box by 4.4.2013 You will tell the main points of your work to the group on Friday 5.4.2013 Anne-Marie Tuomala, MUAS Energy and Environmental Technology 47

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