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Kimmo K Mäkelä, VTT: 3D-tulostus: metallit ja muovit.


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Tohtori Kimmo K Mäkelän esitys 3D-tulostuksen mahdollisuuksista ja tilanteesta kansainvälisesti. Seminaariaineistoa 16.6.2014

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Kimmo K Mäkelä, VTT: 3D-tulostus: metallit ja muovit.

  1. 1. 19.12.2012 3D printing ; from design to production Kimmo Mäkelä, Jari Mäkelä and Ahti Haapalainen Oulu 26.05.2014 VTT
  2. 2. 29.12.2012 Definition - What does Additive Manufacturing mean? Additive manufacturing is a manufacturing process through which three-dimensional solid objects are created. It enables the creation of physical 3-D models of objects using a series of additive or layered development framework, where layers are laid down in succession to create a complete, 3-D object. The technology was formerly known as 3D printing. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is now the standardized expression, due to that it gives the wider perspective and real meaning of the technology used. (picture; The Great Foodini, a food 3D printer)
  3. 3. 39.12.2012 3D printing at the Horizon 2020-program FoF.NMP.2014-1 Manufacturing processes for complex structures and geometries with efficient use of material – RTD, TRL 4-5, small Automated manufacturing of complex geometries can be related to issues such as 3D structured, multi-layered and hybrid materials or the joint-free realisation of complex shapes. FoF.NMP.2014-2 Manufacturing of custom made parts for personalised products – RTD, TRL 4-6, SME-targeted Development and integration of advanced design and manufacturing technologies able to transform such new product-service data descriptions and protocols into manufacturing operations and processes exploiting. FoF.NMP.2014-6 Innovative product-service design using manufacturing intelligence – RTD, TRL 4-5, Small Today's ever faster product lifecycles and ever higher quality requirements necessitate manufacturing engineering capability that is able to exploit to the maximum the concurrency of product and service engineering with immediate, cross-disciplinary feedback loops to relevant shop floor knowledge. Collaborative management of engineering knowledge and its multi-directional exchange between product design, service design and manufacturing, enabled by rapid search for design functionality and reusability. - Tools and methodologies to effectively involve customers and suppliers across the value chain. - Multi-disciplinary search, simulation and optimisation of designs.
  4. 4. 49.12.2012 FoF.NMP.2015-3 New product functionalities through surface manufacturing processes for mass production, RTD, TRL 4-5, Small Scope: New products with improved performances through functionalization of their surfaces and new approaches are needed to deliver high functionality and high-value products in Europe. The use of physical processing techniques (additive manufacturing, laser, jet technologies, 3D printing, micromachining, microforming, photon based technologies, PVD, etc) or chemical processing (CVD, sol-gel, wet chemistry, electro-chemical, etc) And others like NMP 7 - 2015: Additive Manufacturing for tabletop nanofactories NMP 18 - 2014: Materials solutions for use in the creative industry sector NMP 20 - 2014: Widening model applications in materials modelling NMP 36 - 2014: Business models with new supply chains for sustainable customer-driven small series production FoF 1 - 2014: Process optimisation of manufacturing assets: CPS-based process optimisation FoF 2 - 2014: Manufacturing processes for complex structures and geometries with efficient use of material FoF 10 - 2015: Manufacturing of custom made parts for personalised products (picture; Dudley the Duck that has 3D printed leg)
  5. 5. 59.12.2012 “In two decades, 3-D printing has grown from a niche manufacturing process to a $2.7-billion industry, responsible for the fabrication of all sorts of things: toys, wristwatches, airplane parts, food. Now scientists are working to apply similar 3-D–printing technology to the field of medicine, accelerating an equally dramatic change.” — Popular Science “3D printing could well rewrite the rules of manufacturing in much the same way as the PC trashed the traditional world of computing” — The Economist “3D Printing helps you make the product from the core up so you have less waste The tool is cheaper, the time is faster. If all thought 3D printing could do was shoes, I wouldn’t be talking about it.” — Jeffrey Immelt, CEO, General Electric (picture ; 14 carat gold jewelry printed by Shapeways)
  6. 6. 69.12.2012 Fig. 1. The use of AM for the production of parts 2003–2012. The use of AM for the production of parts for final products continues to grow, as shown in the graph. In ten years, it has gone from almost nothing to 28.3% of the total product and service revenues from additive manufacturing worldwide. Estimate for 2013 is more than 30%
  7. 7. 712/06/2014 AM Applications [Morris Technologies]
  8. 8. 812/06/2014 AM Applications Automotive
  9. 9. 912.6.2014 Designing Conventional designing methods can be used Possibilities to structures that can not be manufacturing by milling, turning, injection moulding, etc. - flow chanels inside parts - honeycomb and cell parts - sharp inside edges - moving parts in one part - very difficult structures Allways machinable afterwards A jet nozzle where 22 different parts were combined and manufactured as one part
  10. 10. 1012.6.2014 Facilities available at VTT: 3D printer 3D – PRINTER OBJET EDEN 270 V (2010) 3D-printer based on UV-curable inkjettable polymer “Plastic and rubber” with various densities and colors Maximum part size 260 x 260 x 200 mm Accuracy: X-axis 42 m, Y-axis 42 m, Z-axis 16 m Wall thickness > 0.6 mm Layer thickness 16 m or 30 m Making inner geometries is possible Supported file types STL (and SLC) Accuracy on manutacttured parts now ±0,03 mm
  11. 11. 1112.6.2014 Facilities available att VTT: Metalsintering - picture on left; a bike frame by Renishaw - right; NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory has printed copy´s of rocks found at Mars
  12. 12. 129.12.2012 On the optomechanical designing of AM parts, some samples This was the start point • Optics was design on the almost ready state • Around the optics mechanics and a housing was designed • Then the electronics is added Main goal was to get to test fully functional assembly as soon as possible
  13. 13. 139.12.2012 Optical housings • We deliver the customer fully functional apparatus • To design and manufacture mechanics takes time • Optical structures are DEMANDING • The space is all ways very limited • Very strict tolerances • Solutions is at precision mechanics Prototyping eludes expensive mistakes !
  14. 14. 149.12.2012 Final structure is Optical frame • A very cost effective way to make difficult assemblies • Delivered on timetable = designing and manufacturing on 3 days • Flushing goes circular around optics • Hight 30 mm • Diameter 40mm
  15. 15. 159.12.2012 Issues on AM designing • Errors on 3d drawingsand especially stl files • “Just push the button and the AM machines makes it. Simple”. (A BIG mistake) • When designing think supports • Why everyone talks about what happens at the machine, when the problems are before and after the machine ? Machine all ways does what you ask it to do. The before and after are more difficult issues.
  16. 16. 1612/06/2014 Internal Structures (Most narrow curved channel 1x1mm)
  17. 17. 1712/06/2014 Thin Wall Ring with Printed Threads (0,4-0,8mm)
  18. 18. 1812/06/2014 Case: Valve Holder (nicknamed Terttu) First Idea Final Version
  19. 19. 1912/06/2014
  20. 20. 209.12.2012 Fames and housings
  21. 21. 2112/06/2014 Experiments 3D-Printed Test setup 3D-printing on substrate 3D-printed optics Laser cut test CNC-milled surface Silver coated surface
  22. 22. 2212.6.2014 Finishing - Machining - Threads - Painting - Polishing - Inserts - etc
  23. 23. 2312.6.2014 In the future Ready consumer products Optics (lenses, mirrors) Electronics and jigs for it (can take the heat of drying process) Medical componets for real use (can stand heat and clening fluids) Moulds Mould inserts for injection moulding What next ? The development is currently almost exponential.
  24. 24. 2412.6.2014 Some possiblities Look alike models and toys is yesterday. Now real parts and assemblys Silicon mould masters Prototypes Moulds Jigs Small parts, small series Manufacturing plants allready exixts, especially on car manufactures, aeroplanes and medical sector. Jewellery industry comes fast Parts that are impossible to manufacture with conventional methods
  25. 25. 2512.6.2014 Some perspectives The ultimate aim of 3D bioprinting is to replicate live 3-dimensional tissue cultures which may be used for a number of purposes. Dr Wendy Kneissl, IDTechEx - The global market for 3D printing is set to reach $7 billion by 2025, as forecasted by IDTechEx.
  26. 26. 269.12.2012 Issues • Materials and their fast development • Porousness, especially on softer materials • Supports and removing them • Parts almost all ways need some kind of after treatment • The constant need of more accuracy • The more designers et al lear about AM, the more difficult the parts are coming. Yes ; there is a limit ! • The ”old school”. You are toy makers. • Who teaches AM design ? • Still some disbelief in industry (picture; a dress (?) by Shapeways to Victoria's Secret Fashion Show )
  27. 27. 2712.6.2014 Benefits Cheap and fast ! Flexible Manufacturing costs in general Accuracy Versatile A lot of possibilities after part has been made Complex, difficult and almost impossible features and structures Unmanned production Freedom to design ! (picture from Taiwan; On the front of the trike is a shredder, which turns the plastic cup into a sort of plastic powder, which in turn is placed into a filament extrusion device and then into a 3D printer where their plastic cup is transformed before their very eyes. Though the trike is pedal powered the RepRap and recycling)
  28. 28. 2812/06/2014 More
  29. 29. 2912/06/2014 VTT creates business from AM-technology