Kimmo K Mäkelä, VTT: 3D-tulostus: metallit ja muovit.
3D printing ; from design to production
Kimmo Mäkelä, Jari Mäkelä and Ahti Haapalainen
Definition - What does Additive Manufacturing mean?
Additive manufacturing is a manufacturing process through which three-dimensional solid
objects are created. It enables the creation of physical 3-D models of objects using a series of
additive or layered development framework, where layers are laid down in succession to create
a complete, 3-D object.
The technology was formerly known as 3D printing.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is now the
standardized expression, due to that it gives the
wider perspective and real meaning of the
(picture; The Great Foodini, a food 3D printer)
3D printing at the Horizon 2020-program
FoF.NMP.2014-1 Manufacturing processes for complex structures and geometries with efficient use of material – RTD, TRL 4-5, small
Automated manufacturing of complex geometries can be related to issues such as 3D structured, multi-layered and hybrid materials or the
joint-free realisation of complex shapes.
FoF.NMP.2014-2 Manufacturing of custom made parts for personalised products – RTD, TRL 4-6, SME-targeted
Development and integration of advanced design and manufacturing technologies able to transform such new product-service data descriptions
and protocols into manufacturing operations and processes exploiting.
FoF.NMP.2014-6 Innovative product-service design using manufacturing intelligence – RTD, TRL 4-5, Small
Today's ever faster product lifecycles and ever higher quality requirements necessitate manufacturing engineering capability that is able to
exploit to the maximum the concurrency of product and service engineering with immediate, cross-disciplinary feedback loops to relevant shop
Collaborative management of engineering knowledge and its multi-directional exchange between product design, service design and
manufacturing, enabled by rapid search for design functionality and reusability.
- Tools and methodologies to effectively involve customers and suppliers across the value chain.
- Multi-disciplinary search, simulation and optimisation of designs.
FoF.NMP.2015-3 New product functionalities through surface manufacturing processes for mass production, RTD, TRL 4-5, Small
New products with improved performances through functionalization of their surfaces and new approaches are needed to deliver
high functionality and high-value products in Europe.
The use of physical processing techniques (additive manufacturing, laser, jet technologies, 3D printing, micromachining, microforming, photon
based technologies, PVD, etc) or chemical processing (CVD, sol-gel, wet chemistry, electro-chemical, etc)
And others like
NMP 7 - 2015: Additive Manufacturing for tabletop nanofactories
NMP 18 - 2014: Materials solutions for use in the creative industry sector
NMP 20 - 2014: Widening model applications in materials modelling
NMP 36 - 2014: Business models with new supply chains for sustainable
customer-driven small series production
FoF 1 - 2014: Process optimisation of manufacturing assets: CPS-based process
FoF 2 - 2014: Manufacturing processes for complex structures and geometries
with efficient use of material
FoF 10 - 2015: Manufacturing of custom made parts for personalised products
(picture; Dudley the Duck that has 3D printed leg)
“In two decades, 3-D printing has grown from a niche manufacturing process to a $2.7-billion
industry, responsible for the fabrication of all sorts of things: toys, wristwatches, airplane parts,
food. Now scientists are working to apply similar 3-D–printing technology to the field of
medicine, accelerating an equally dramatic change.” — Popular Science
“3D printing could well rewrite the rules of
manufacturing in much the same way as the PC
trashed the traditional world of computing” — The Economist
“3D Printing helps you make the product from the core up so
you have less waste The tool is cheaper, the time is faster.
If all thought 3D printing could do was shoes, I wouldn’t be
talking about it.” — Jeffrey Immelt, CEO, General Electric
(picture ; 14 carat gold jewelry printed by Shapeways)
Fig. 1. The use of AM for the production of parts 2003–2012. The use of AM for the production of parts for final
products continues to grow, as shown in the graph. In ten years, it has gone from almost nothing to 28.3% of the total
product and service revenues from additive manufacturing worldwide. Estimate for 2013 is more than 30%
Conventional designing methods can be used
Possibilities to structures that can not be
manufacturing by milling, turning, injection
- flow chanels inside parts
- honeycomb and cell parts
- sharp inside edges
- moving parts in one part
- very difficult structures
Allways machinable afterwards
A jet nozzle where 22 different
parts were combined and
manufactured as one part
Facilities available at VTT: 3D printer
3D – PRINTER OBJET EDEN 270 V (2010)
3D-printer based on UV-curable inkjettable polymer
“Plastic and rubber” with various densities and colors
Maximum part size 260 x 260 x 200 mm
Accuracy: X-axis 42 m, Y-axis 42 m, Z-axis 16 m
Wall thickness > 0.6 mm
Layer thickness 16 m or 30 m
Making inner geometries is possible
Supported file types STL (and SLC)
Accuracy on manutacttured
parts now ±0,03 mm
Facilities available att VTT: Metalsintering
- picture on left; a bike frame by Renishaw
- right; NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
has printed copy´s of rocks found at Mars
On the optomechanical designing of AM parts, some samples
This was the start point
• Optics was design on the
almost ready state
• Around the optics mechanics
and a housing was designed
• Then the electronics is added
Main goal was to get to test fully
functional assembly as soon as
• We deliver the customer fully functional
• To design and manufacture mechanics
• Optical structures are DEMANDING
• The space is all ways very limited
• Very strict tolerances
• Solutions is at precision mechanics
Prototyping eludes expensive mistakes !
Final structure is Optical frame
• A very cost effective way to make
• Delivered on timetable = designing
and manufacturing on 3 days
• Flushing goes circular around
• Hight 30 mm
• Diameter 40mm
Issues on AM designing
• Errors on 3d drawingsand especially
• “Just push the button and the AM
machines makes it. Simple”. (A
• When designing think supports
• Why everyone talks about what
happens at the machine, when the
problems are before and after the
machine ? Machine all ways does
what you ask it to do. The before
and after are more difficult issues.
In the future
Ready consumer products
Optics (lenses, mirrors)
Electronics and jigs for it (can take the heat of
Medical componets for real use (can stand heat
and clening fluids)
Mould inserts for injection moulding
What next ? The development is currently almost
Look alike models and toys is yesterday. Now real
parts and assemblys
Silicon mould masters
Small parts, small series
Manufacturing plants allready exixts, especially on car
manufactures, aeroplanes and medical sector.
Jewellery industry comes fast
Parts that are impossible to manufacture with
The ultimate aim of 3D bioprinting is to replicate live 3-dimensional
tissue cultures which may be used for a number of purposes.
Dr Wendy Kneissl, IDTechEx
- The global market for 3D printing is set to reach $7 billion by 2025, as
forecasted by IDTechEx.
• Materials and their fast development
• Porousness, especially on softer materials
• Supports and removing them
• Parts almost all ways need some kind of after treatment
• The constant need of more accuracy
• The more designers et al lear about AM, the more difficult the
parts are coming. Yes ; there is a limit !
• The ”old school”. You are toy makers.
• Who teaches AM design ?
• Still some disbelief in industry
(picture; a dress (?) by Shapeways to Victoria's Secret Fashion
Cheap and fast !
Manufacturing costs in general
A lot of possibilities after part has been made
Complex, difficult and almost impossible features and structures
Freedom to design !
(picture from Taiwan; On the front of the trike is a shredder, which turns the plastic cup into a sort
of plastic powder, which in turn is placed into a filament extrusion device and then into a 3D printer
where their plastic cup is transformed before their very eyes. Though the trike is pedal powered
the RepRap and recycling)