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ATP_ppt.pptx

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ATP_ppt.pptx

  1. 1. • H.B.3.A.1 Develop and use models to explain how chemical reactions among ATP, ADP, and inorganic phosphate act to transfer chemical energy within cells. • B-3.3 Recognize the overall structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)---namely, adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups ---and summarize its function including the ATP-ADP [adenosine diphosphate] cycle
  2. 2. ATP: The Cell’s Currency  Life processes require a constant supply of energy.  Cells use energy that is stored in the bonds of certain organic molecules.  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes.
  3. 3. ATP: Structure  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most important biological molecule that supplies energy to the cell.  A molecule of ATP is composed of three parts bonded together by “high energy” bonds: 1. A nitrogenous base (adenine) 2. • A sugar (ribose) 3. • Three phosphate groups (triphosphate)
  4. 4. ATP Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups 5
  5. 5. Where does ATP come from?  ATP comes indirectly from the food that we eat.  Molecules of carbohydrates (glucose) and lipids are broken down through the process of cellular respiration to produce ATP.
  6. 6. ATP-ADP Cycle  The energy stored in ATP is released when a phosphate group is removed from the molecule.  ATP has three phosphate groups, but the bond holding the third phosphate groups is very easily broken.  When the phosphate is removed, ATP becomes ADP— adenosine diphosphate  A phosphate is released into the cytoplasm and energy is released.  ADP is a lower energy molecule than ATP, but can be converted to ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.  ATP → ADP + phosphate + energy available for cell processes
  7. 7. Steps in the ADP-ATP Cycle  To supply cells with energy, a “high energy” bond in ATP is broken. ADP is formed and a phosphate is released back into the cytoplasm. ATP ADP + phosphate + energy
  8. 8. Steps in the ADP-ATP Cycle  As the cell requires more energy, ADP becomes ATP when a free phosphate attaches to the ADP molecule. Then energy needed to create an ATP molecule is much less than the amount of energy produced when the bond is broken. ADP + phosphate + energy ATP
  9. 9. How do you “recharge” the battery?  ADP is continually converted to ATP by the addition of a phosphate during the process of cellular respiration.  ATP carries much more energy than ADP.  As the cell requires more energy, it uses energy from the breakdown of food molecules to attach a free phosphate group to an ADP molecule in order to make ATP. ADP + phosphate + energy from breakdown of food molecules→ ATP
  10. 10. When is ATP used?  ATP is consumed in the cell by energy-requiring processes and can be generated by energy-releasing processes.  In this way ATP transfers energy between separate biochemical reactions in the cell.  ATP is the main energy source for the majority of cellular functions.  This includes the production of organic molecules, including DNA and, and proteins.  ATP also plays a critical role in the transport of organic molecules across cell membranes, for example during exocytosis and endocytosis
  11. 11. Types of Reactions  Exergonic(energy-yielding)  Produces ATP  Ex. Cellular respiration  Endergonic (energy-requiring) reactions  Requires ATP  Ex. Photosynthesis
  12. 12. ATP VS ADP ATP ADP Main energy source for the cell Contains Less energy Contains 3 phosphate groups (triphosphate) Contains 2 phosphate groups (diphosphate)

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