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10intermolecularforcesofattraction2-170909132616 (1).pptx

  1. 1. Intermolecular Forces of Attraction Prepared by: Jerome A. Bigael, Leyte Progressive High School
  2. 2. Intermolecular forces: This force holds the molecules together which can be attractive or repulsive.
  3. 3. Inter-Ionic Forces On the other hand, inter- ionic forces are forces that hold ions together.
  4. 4. These intermolecular forces are accountable for the properties of substances. Moreover, intermolecular forces also explain why substances exist as solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature.
  5. 5. Intermolecular and Inter-ionic Forces of Attraction Type of Interaction Interacting Particles Dispersi on All molecules (especially nonpolar molecules Dipole- dipole Polar molecules Ion- dipole Ions and polar molecules Ion- ion Ions (cations and anions) Hydrogen bond N, O, or F bonded with H atom
  6. 6. 4 Types of Intermolecular Forces (involving covalent molecules) 1. Dipole-dipole 2. Ion-dipole 3. Dispersion forces 4. Hydrogen bond The first three types are known as “Van der Waals forces”. On the other hand, hydrogen bond is a special type of dipole-dipole interaction.
  7. 7. Johannes Diderik van Der Waals was born on November 23, 1837 in Leyden, The Netherlands.  In his 1873 thesis, van der Waals noted the non- ideality of real gases and attributed it to the existence of intermolecular interactions.
  8. 8. Dipole-dipole forces Dipole-dipole forces are attractive forces existing between polar molecules (molecules that exhibit dipole moment), such as HCl.
  9. 9. Because there is unequal sharing of electron between H and Cl atoms, partial positive and partial negative poles exist and are referred to as a dipole.
  10. 10. The more electronegative atom becomes partially negative and has most electron density, whereas the least electronegative becomes partially positive and has a lesser electron density.
  11. 11. Because poles of opposite charges attract, the partial negative end (i.e.,Cl atom) will be attracted to the partial positive end (i.e., H atom) of another HCl molecule. This force is weaker than ionic and hydrogen bonds.
  12. 12. Sum Up! All polar molecules have a partial negative end and partial positive end which are attracted to each other. The resulting forces are called dipole- dipole forces. Dipole-dipole forces are much weaker than ionic or covalent bond.
  13. 13. Ion-Dipole Forces Exist in the attraction between a charged particle called ion (which can be a positively charged cation or a negatively charged anion) and a polar. This exhibited in hydration, or the interaction of water molecules with the cations and anions of ionic compounds dissolved in water.
  14. 14. When NaCl is dissolved in water (H2O), NaCl will dissociate into sodium cations (Na+) and chlorine anions (Cl-). Because water is a polar molecule and has a partial negative and partial positive poles, the Na+ will form an ion-dipole interaction with the partial negative part of water molecule (O), while Cl- will form an ion-dipole
  15. 15. Sum Up! The ion force exists in the attraction between an ion and a dipole molecule. An ion is a charged atom because it has gained or lost one or more electrons. It can be either positively charged cation or negatively charged anion. The partial charges at the ends of the dipole
  16. 16. Dispersion Forces or London Forces Are the weakest attractive force that are formed due to the temporary dipoles induced in non-polar molecules. This force is also called induced- dipole- induced-dipole attraction.
  17. 17. Take for example, if there is an ion or a polar molecule near an atom or non polar molecule, there will be a distortion of the nonpolar molecule due to the force exerted by the ion or the polar molecule.
  18. 18. This distortion will result in temporary dipoles in the nonpolar molecule which is called induced dipole. Induced dipole is the separation of the positive and negative charges in a nonpolar molecule due to its nearness of an ion or polar molecule.
  19. 19. On the other hand, when the induced dipole is due to the the interaction between an ion and non-polar molecule, the interaction is called ion- induced dipole interaction.
  20. 20. When the induced dipole is due to the interaction between a polar and nonpolar molecule, the interaction is called dipole- induced dipole interaction.
  21. 21. Sum Up! The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force because it has only a temporary attractive force. Dispersion force exist when the electrons in two adjacent atoms attract and induce temporary dipoles. This forces is sometimes called induced-
  22. 22. Hydrogen Bond A special type of dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar molecule and the highly electronegative atoms, N, O,and F in another molecule.
  23. 23. The water molecule is a very good example of a substance that exhibits hydrogen bonding.
  24. 24. The electronegative atoms, like OXYGEN, cause the bond to be polar. These atoms become slightly negatively charged and the hydrogen atom becomes slightly positively charged. Thus, a dipole
  25. 25. Sum Up! The hydrogen bond is an attraction between a partial positive hydrogen in a polar molecule and a slightly negative atom in another molecule.

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